The National Art Museum of China is located at 1 Wusi Ave, Dongcheng District, People's Republic of China. It is one of the largest art museums in China, is funded by the Ministry of Culture; the construction of the museum started in 1958, concluded in 1962. It has a total land area of 30,000 square metres; the museum was renovated between May 2004 and January 2005, has been given an additional area of 5,375 square metres. Its permanent collection includes both ancient and contemporary Chinese artworks as well as notable Western artworks. Although the museum contains collection of imperial Chinese art, its main mission is to serve as a national level art museum dedicated to displaying and researching the modern and contemporary artistic works of China, it has a main building of the first three being display areas. There are 21 exhibition halls at the museum, its collections are divided into specific categories of: traditional Chinese painting, oil painting, sculpture, Chinese New Year picture, traditional picture story, watercolor painting, lacquer and costumes In 2012, four high-profile architects — Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Jean Nouvel and Moshe Safdie — were invited to submit designs for the new National Art Museum venue, which will be seven times larger than the current venue.
The museum will be built in collaboration with the Beijing Institute of Architectural Design. Nouvel's plans were revealed on September 18, 2014 at a press conference in Paris attended by the architect and Chinese and French politicians including Laurent Fabius, the French minister of foreign affairs and international development. List of museums in China Official website of NAMOC
The Convair XB-46 was a single example of an experimental medium jet bomber, developed in the mid-1940s but which never saw production or active duty. It competed with similar designs, the North American XB-45 and Martin XB-48, all of which saw little use after the successful development of the Boeing XB-47. In 1944, the War Department was aware of aviation advances in Germany and issued a requirement for a range of designs for medium bombers weighing from 80,000 pounds to more than 200,000 pounds. Other designs resulting from this competition, sometimes named the class of'45, included the North American XB-45 and the Martin XB-48. Procurement began with a letter contract on 17 January 1945 with mockup inspection and approval in early February. Orders for three prototypes followed on 27 February 1945 with certain changes recommended by the board. Serials 45-59582 to 59584 were assigned. Budgetary concerns led to the contract being changed to a fixed-price type. In the fall of 1945, Convair found it was competing with itself when the USAAF became interested in an unorthodox forward-swept wing jet attack design, the XA-44-CO that the company had been working on.
With the end of World War II curtailing budgets, the company considered canceling the XB-46 in favor of the other project as there was insufficient funding for both. Company officials argued that it made more sense to allow them to complete the XB-46 prototype as a stripped-down testbed omitting armament and other equipment and for the AAF to allow them to proceed with two XA-44 airframes in lieu of the other two XB-46s on contract. In June 1946, the AAF agreed to the substitution but that project was cancelled in December 1946 before the prototypes were completed; the B-46 would be completed with only the equipment necessary to prove its airworthiness and handling characteristics. The XB-46 had a long streamlined oval torpedo-shaped fuselage, long narrow straight shoulder-mounted wings with four Chevrolet-built J35-C3 axial-flow eleven stage turbojets of 3,820 pounds-force static thrust paired in an integral nacelle under each wing; the fuselage turned out to be a problem. The pilots sat in tandem in a pressurized fighter-style cockpit under a single Plexiglas teardrop canopy with the bombardier-navigator-radio operator in a transparent Plexiglas nose section.
The straight wing had an aspect ratio of 11.6, was equipped with Fowler flaps which extended over 90 percent of the span, in four sections. The flaps extended via electrical actuators, had small ailerons; each wing had five spoilers made of perforated magnesium alloy. The engine air intakes were flat oval inlets, with a duct curving downward in a flat “S” to the engines, which were mounted behind the leading edge of the wing; the unusual flight control system utilized a system of pneumatic piping to transmit the pilots control inputs and actuate various systems, rather than the more typical hydraulic, manual or electrical control lines and systems of most aircraft of the era. Production versions were to be equipped with a pair of.50 caliber Browning M2 machine guns in a tail turret designed by Emerson Electric Company and provision was made for an APG-27 remote control optics and sighting system, but no weaponry was fitted into the prototype. Production aircraft were intended to be built with the General Electric J47 engines with 5,200 lbf static thrust rather than the J35s used on the prototype.
The XB-46's first flight occurred 2 April 1947 after a month of taxi testing, lasted ninety minutes as the bomber departed the Convair plant in San Diego, California for Muroc Army Airfield in the high desert. The pilot praised its handling qualities. Basic flight testing took place for five months, by September 1947 it was concluded after 127 hours aloft on 64 flights by both the Convair company and AAF test pilots. Stability and control were excellent but there were engineering problems with engine de-icing, the cabin air system, vertical oscillations caused by harmonic resonance between the wing and spoilers. There was concern regarding the ability of the three man crew to exit the aircraft in case of an emergency, since the exit plan relied on the pneumatic system to hold the main door open against the airstream; the aircraft was accepted on 7 November and delivered on 12 November 1947. The B-46 program was cancelled in August 1947 before flight testing had been completed, because it was obsolete.
The North American B-45 Tornado had production orders, it would be eclipsed by the Boeing B-47 Stratojet's superior performance. Furthermore, the bulky radar fire-control system, not installed in the XB-46 prototype would have undoubtedly forced an expensive redesign of the slender fuselage. Subsequent testing investigated excessive noise, tail vibration, stability and control issues, was conducted at Palm Beach Air Force Base, Florida between August 1948 and August 1949. After 44 additional flight hours, the XB-46 was taken out of service, since the cost of support and maintenance, coupled with a lack of spare parts, had become prohibitive. After sitting idle for a year, it was flown to Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in July 1950, where its pneumatic system was tested under the coldest conditions in the large climatic facility there. Most jet aircraft of this period used hydraulic or electrical systems, so the pneumatic control system of this aircraft offered a unique opportunity for investigation.
When this testing program was concluded in November 1950, the Air Force no longer had need for the XB-46, a fact acknowledged in the press as early as August, on 13 January 1951 the nose section was sent to the U. S. Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force
The 13th Indian Cavalry Brigade was a cavalry brigade of the British Indian Army that formed part of the Indian Army during the First World War. It remained in India throughout the war; the 13th Indian Cavalry Brigade was formed under 4th Division in September 1918. It took command of three cavalry regiments, newly formed with squadrons from Egypt: 43rd Cavalry formed in August 1918 froma squadron of 6th King Edward's Own Cavalry a squadron of 9th Hodson's Horse a squadron of 18th King George's Own Lancers another squadron 44th Cavalry formed in August 1918 froma squadron of 2nd Lancers a squadron of 19th Lancers a squadron of 29th Lancers another squadron 45th Cavalry formed in August 1918 froma squadron of 20th Deccan Horse a squadron of 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse a squadron of 36th Jacob's Horse a squadron of 38th King George's Own Central India HorseThe brigade remained with the division throughout the First World War, it was commanded from 1 September 1918 by Brigadier-General G.
A. H. Beatty. All three constituent regiments were disbanded in 1919. 13th Cavalry Brigade existed at the same time but was unrelated other than having the same number Gaylor, John. Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903–1991. Tunbridge Wells: Parapress. ISBN 1-898594-41-4. Perry, F. W.. Order of Battle of Divisions Part 5B. Indian Army Divisions. Newport: Ray Westlake Military Books. ISBN 1-871167-23-X. "4th Division on The Regimental Warpath 1914 - 1918 by PB Chappell". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2015