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National Autonomous University of Mexico

The National Autonomous University of Mexico is a public research university in Mexico. It ranks in world rankings based on the university's extensive research and innovation, it has one of the biggest campus in the world. UNAM's main campus in Mexico City, known as Ciudad Universitaria, is a UNESCO World Heritage site, designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. In 2016, it had an acceptance rate of only 8%. UNAM generates a number of strong research publications and patents in diverse areas, such as robotics, computer science, physics, human-computer interaction, philosophy, among others. All Mexican Nobel laureates are either alumni or faculty of UNAM. UNAM was founded, in its modern form, on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to its predecessor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, the first to be founded in North America.

UNAM obtained its autonomy from the government in 1929. This has given the university the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without government interference; this has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence. UNAM was the birthplace of the student movement of 1968, which turned into a nationwide rebellion against autocratic rule and began Mexico's three-decade journey toward democracy, its founding goes back to 1551, when Carlos I, King of Spain decreed the foundation of the University of Mexico. The university was renamed on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra Minister of Education in the Porfirio Díaz regime, who sought to create a different institution from its 19th-century precursor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, founded on 21 September 1551 by a royal decree signed by Crown Prince Phillip on behalf of Charles I of Spain and brought to a definitive closure in 1865 by Maximilian I of Mexico.

Instead of reviving what he saw as an anachronistic institution with strong ties to the Roman Catholic Church, he aimed to merge and expand Mexico City's decentralized colleges of higher education and create a new university, secular in nature and national in scope, that could reorganize higher education within the country, serve as a model of positivism and encompass the ideas of the dominant Mexican liberalism. The project unified the Fine Arts, Political Science, Engineering, Medicine and the National Preparatory schools; the new university's challenges were political, due to the ongoing Mexican Revolution and the fact that the federal government had direct control over the university's policies and curriculum. This opposition led to disruptions in the function of the university when political instability forced resignations in the government, including that of President Díaz. Internally, the first student strike occurred in 1912 to protest examination methods introduced by the director of the School of Jurisprudence, Luis Cabrera.

By July of that year, a majority of the law students decided to abandon the university and join the newly created Free School of Law. In 1914 initial efforts to gain autonomy for the university failed. In 1920, José Vasconcelos became rector. In 1921, he created the school's coat-of-arms: the image of an eagle and a condor surrounding a map of Latin America, from Mexico's northern border to Tierra del Fuego, the motto, "The Spirit shall speak for my race". Efforts to gain autonomy for the university continued in the early 1920s. In the mid-1920s, the second wave of student strikes opposed a new grading system; the strikes included major classroom walkouts in the law school and confrontation with police at the medical school. The striking students were supported by many professors and subsequent negotiations led to autonomy for the university; the institution was no longer a dependency of the Secretariat of Public Education. During the early 1930s, the rector of UNAM was Manuel Gómez Morín; the government attempted to implement socialist education at Mexican universities, which Gómez Morín, many professors, Catholics opposed as an infringement on academic freedom.

Gómez Morín with the support of the Jesuit-founded student group, the Unión Nacional de Estudiantes Católicos fought against socialist education. UNAM supported the recognition of the academic certificates by Catholic preparatory schools, which validated their educational function. In an interesting turn of events, UNAM played an important role in the founding of the Jesuit institution in 1943, the Universidad Iberoamericana in 1943. However, UNAM opposed initiatives at the Universidad Iberoamericana in years, opposing the establishment of majors in industrial relations and communications. In 1943 initial decisions were made to move the university from the various buildings it occupied in the city center to a new and consolidated university campus; the first stone laid was that of the faculty of Sciences, the first building of Ciudad Universitaria. President Miguel Alemán Valdés participated in the ceremony on 20 November 1952; the University Ol

Predicative expression

A predicative expression is part of a clause predicate, is an expression that follows a copula, e.g. be, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, name, etc. The most acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives and predicative nominals; the main trait of all predicative expressions is that they serve to express a property, assigned to a "subject", whereby this subject is the clause subject, but at times it can be the clause object. A primary distinction is drawn between attributive expressions. Further, predicative expressions are not clause arguments, they are typically not clause adjuncts. There is hence a three-way distinction between predicative expressions and adjuncts; the terms predicative expression on the one hand and subject complement and object complement on the other hand overlap in meaning to a large extent. The most acknowledged predicative expressions are adjectives and nominals: The idea was ridiculous. – Predicative adjective over the subject He seems nice.

– Predicative adjective over the subjectBob is a postman. – Predicative nominal over the subject They were all happy campers. – Predicative nominal over the subjectThat shrimp dish made him sick. – Predicative adjective over the object We painted the door white. – Predicative adjective over the objectThey elected him president. – Predicative nominal over the object They called Jill a thief. – Predicative nominal over the objectThe formulations "over the subject" and "over the object" indicate that the predicative expression is expressing a property, assigned to the subject or to the object. For example, the predicative expression a thief in the last sentence serves to assign to Jill the property of being a thief. Predicative nominals over subjects are called predicate nominatives, a term borrowed from Latin grammars and indicating the morphological case that such expressions bear. While the most acknowledged predicative expressions are adjectives and nominals, most syntactic categories can be construed as predicative expressions, e.g.

The snake is in the bag. – Predicative prepositional phrase That is when it happens. – Predicative clause It is soon. – Predicative adverbThere are, certain categories that cannot appear as predicative expressions. Adverbs ending in -ly, for instance, cannot appear as predicative expressions, e.g. *The event was splendidly. – Failed attempt to use an adverb ending in -ly as a predicative expression *Our ideas are insightfully. – Failed attempt to use an adverb ending in -ly as a predicative expressionThese examples raise the following fundamental question: What characteristic of words and phrases allows or prohibits them from appearing as predicative expressions? The answer to this question is not apparent. Predicative expressions are not attributive expressions; the distinction is illustrated best using predicative and attributive adjectives: a. The man is friendly. – Predicative adjective b. the friendly man – Attributive adjectivea. One snake was large. – Predicative adjective b. one large snake – Attributive adjectivea.

His bag is damp. – Predicative adjective b. his damp bag – Attributive adjectiveA given clause contains a single predicative expression, but it can contain multiple words attributive expressions, e.g. The friendly man found a large snake in his damp bag. or Every real number is rational OR irrational. Predicative expressions are not arguments, e.g. a. She was our friend. – Predicative nominal b. She visited our friend. – Argument nominala. That is an excuse. – Predicative nominal b. He produced an excuse. – Argument nominalThe predicative expressions here are properties that are assigned to the subject, whereas the arguments cannot be construed as such properties. Predicative expressions are typically not adjuncts, e.g. a. The bag is under the bed. – Predicative prepositional phrase b. Something is moving under the bed. – Adjunct prepositional phrasea. The dispute was after the talk was over. – Predicative clause b. Everybody relaxed after the talk was over. – Adjunct clauseThe predicative expressions again serve to assign a property to the subject, e.g. the property of being under the bed.

In contrast, the adjuncts serve to establish the situational context. One can hence acknowledge a three-way distinction between predicative expressions and adjuncts. However, upon deeper examination, the lines between these categories become blurred and overlap can occur. For instance, in the sentence Bill arrived drunk, one can judge drunk to be both a predicative expression and an adjunct. Predicative expressions exist in most if not all languages. In languages that have morphological case, predicative nominals appear in the nominative case or instrumental case, although predicative expressions over objects bear the same case as the object; some languages lack an equivalent of the copula be, many languages omit the copula in some contexts or optionally, which means that the case marker plays a greater role since it helps distinguish predicative nominals from argument nominals. Some languages have a separate predicative case. Burton-Roberts 1997. Analysing sentences: An introduction to English grammar.

London: Longman. Crystal, D. 1997. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics, 4th edition, Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Hudson, R. 1984. Word grammar. New York: Basil Blackwell Pub

Cable railway

A cable railway is a railway that uses a cable, rope or chain to haul trains. It is a specific type of cable transportation; the most common use for a cable railway is to move vehicles on a steeply graded line, too steep for conventional locomotives to operate on - this form of cable railway is called an incline or inclined plane. One common form of incline is the funicular - an isolated passenger railway where the cars are permanently attached to the cable. In other forms, the cars detach to the cable at the ends of the cable railway; some cable railways are not steeply graded - these are used in quarries to move large numbers of wagons between the quarry to the processing plant. The oldest extant cable railway is the Reisszug, a private line providing goods access to Hohensalzburg Fortress at Salzburg in Austria, it was first documented in 1515 by Cardinal Matthäus Lang. The line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power. Today, steel rails, steel cables and an electric motor have taken over, but the line still follows the same route through the castle's fortifications.

This line is described as the oldest funicular. In the early days of the industrial revolution, several railways used cable haulage in preference to locomotives over steep inclines; the Bowes Railway on the outskirts of Gateshead opened in 1826. Today it is the world's only preserved operational 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge cable railway system; the Cromford and High Peak Railway opened in 1831 with grades up to 1 in 8. There were nine inclined planes: eight were engine-powered, one was operated by a horse gin; the Middleton Top winding engine house at the summit of Middleton Incline has been preserved and the ancient steam engine inside, once used to haul wagons up, is demonstrated. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened in 1830 with cable haulage down a 1 in 48 grade to the dockside at Liverpool, it was designed for cable haulage up and down 1 in 100 grades at Rainhill in the belief that locomotive haulage was impracticable. The Rainhill Trials showed. In 1832, the 1 in 17 Bagworth incline opened on Leicester to Burton upon Trent Line.

The Brampton Railway was reconfigured in 1836, included a gravity balanced inclined plane between Kirkhouse and Hallbankgate. It had a maximum gradient of 1 in 17; the mineral lines above the plane were operated after 1840 by Stephenson's Rocket. On July 20, 1837, the Camden Incline, between Euston and Primrose Hill on the London and Birmingham Railway opened. A Pit fishbelly gravitational railway operated between 1831 and 1846 to service the Australian Agricultural Company coal mine. B Pit opened 1837 and C Pit opened mid-1842. All were private-operations by the same company; the majority of inclines were used in industrial settings, predominantly in quarries and mines, or to ship bulk goods over a barrier ridgeline as the Allegheny Portage Railroad and the Ashley Planes feeder railway shipped coal from the Pennsylvania Canal/Susquehanna basin via Mountain Top to the Lehigh Canal in the Delaware River Basin. The Welsh slate industry made extensive use of gravity balance and water balance inclines to connect quarry galleries and underground chambers with the mills where slate was processed.

Examples of substantial inclines were found in the quarries feeding the Ffestiniog Railway, the Talyllyn Railway and the Corris Railway amongst others. The Ashley Planes were used to transship heavy cargo over the Lehigh-Susquehanna drainage divide for over a hundred years and became uneconomic only when average locomotive traction engines became heavy and powerful enough that could haul long consists at speed past such obstructions yard to yard faster if the more roundabout route added mileage. Level tracks are arranged above and below the gradient to allow wagons to be moved onto the incline either singly or in short rakes of two or more. On the incline itself the tracks may be interlaced to reduce the width of land needed; this requires use of gauntlet track: either a single track of two rails, or a three-rail track where trains share a common rail. Railway workers attach the cable to the upper wagon, detach it when it arrives at the other end of the incline. Special-purpose safety couplings are used rather than the ordinary wagon couplings.

The cables may be guided between the rails on the incline by a series of rollers so that they do not fall across the rail where they would be damaged by the wheels on the wagons. Inclines were used to move locomotives between levels, but these were comparatively rare as it was cheaper to provide a separate fleet of locomotives on either side of the incline, or else to work the level sections with horses. On early railways, cable-worked inclines were used on some passenger lines; the speed of the wagons was controlled by means of a brake that acted on the winding drum at the head of the incline. The incline cable passed round the drum several times to ensure there was sufficient friction for the brake to slow the rotation of the drum – and therefore the wagons – without the cable slipping. At the head of the incline various devices were employed to ensure that wagons did not start to descend before they were attached to the cable; these ranged from simple lumps of rock wedged behind the wagon's wheels to permanently installed chocks that were mechanically synchronized with the drum braking system.

At Maenofferen Quarry a system was installed that raised a short section of the rail at the head of the incline to prevent run