Harold Robbins was an American author of popular novels. One of the best-selling writers of all time, he penned over 25 best-sellers, selling over 750 million copies in 32 languages. Born Harold Rubin in New York City, Robbins claimed to be a Jewish orphan, raised in a Catholic boys' home, whereas in reality he was the son of well-educated Russian- and Polish-Jewish immigrants, he was raised by his father, a pharmacist, his stepmother, in Brooklyn. Robbins dropped out of high school in the late 1920s to work in a variety of jobs including errand boy, bookies' runner and inventory clerk in a grocer's, he was employed by Universal Pictures from 1940 to 1957, starting off as a clerk but attaining promotion to executive level. His first book was Never Love a Stranger; the Dream Merchants was a novel about the American film industry, from its beginning to the sound era. As usual, Robbins blended his own life experiences with history, melodrama and glossy high society into a fast-moving story, his 1952 novel, A Stone for Danny Fisher, was adapted into a 1958 motion picture King Creole, which starred Elvis Presley.
Among his best-known books is The Carpetbaggers – featuring a loose composite of Howard Hughes, Bill Lear, Harry Cohn, Louis B. Mayer; the Carpetbaggers takes the reader from New York to California, from the prosperity of the aeronautical industry to the glamor of Hollywood. Its sequel, The Raiders, was released in 1995. After The Carpetbaggers and Where Love Has Gone came The Adventurers, based on Robbins's experiences living in South America, including three months spent in the mountains of Colombia with a group of bandits; the book was adapted into a film in 1970 titled The Adventurers. He created starring Ralph Bellamy and Lana Turner. Robbins' editors included Michael Korda and his literary agent was Paul Gitlin. In July 1989, Robbins was involved in a literary controversy when the trade periodical Publishers Weekly revealed that around four pages from Robbins' novel The Pirate had been lifted without permission and integrated into Kathy Acker's novel The Adult Life of Toulouse Lautrec, re-published in the UK in a selection of early works by Acker titled Young Lust.
After Paul Gitlin saw the exposé in Publisher's Weekly, he informed Robbins' UK publisher Hodder & Stoughton, who requested that Acker's publisher Unwin Hyman withdraw and pulp Young Lust. Representatives for the novelist explained that Acker was well-known for her deliberate use of literary appropriation—or bricolage, a postmodern technique akin to plagiarism in which fragments of pre-existing works are combined along with original writings to create new literary works. After an intervention by William S. Burroughs—a novelist who used appropriation in his own works of the 1960s—Robbins issued a statement to give Acker retrospective permission to appropriate from his work, avoiding legal action on his publisher's part. Robbins is mentioned by name in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home by Admiral James T. Kirk, his first officer Spock mentions that Robbins was one of the 20th Century "giants" of literature. Robbins is mentioned by name by Basil Fawlty in the Fawlty Towers episode "Waldorf Salad".
Since his death, several new books have been published, written by ghostwriters and based on Robbins's own notes and unfinished stories. In several of these books, Junius Podrug has been credited as co-writer. From the Hodder & Stoughton 2008 edition of The Carpetbaggers'about the author' section: Robbins was the playboy of his day and a master of publicity, he was a renowned novelist but tales of his own life contain more fiction than his books. What is known is that with reported worldwide sales of 750 million, Harold Robbins sold more books than J. K. Rowling and spent $50m during his lifetime, was as much a part of the sexual and social revolution as the pill and pot. In March 1965, he had three novels on the British paperback bestseller list – Where Love Has Gone at No.1, The Carpetbaggers at No.3 and The Dream Merchants in the sixth spot. His widow, Jann Robbins republished 12 of his most famous titles with AuthorHouse Publishing. In 2016, she contracted to republish thirty-three of his titles with Oghma Creative Media, including bestsellers 79 Park Avenue and The Adventurers.
Oghma will publish a non-fiction book she wrote about her life with Harold, entitled Harold and Me. Robbins' novels will all include new forewords by Michael Frizell, the leading authority on Harold Robbins. Frizell has spent two years interviewing Jann Robbins and others who knew Harold Robbins, as well as curating the collection of Robbins' books. Robbins was married three times, his first wife, Lillian Machnivitz, was his high school sweetheart. His second wife, Grace Palermo Robbins, whom he married in 1965 and divorced in the early 1990s, published an account of her life with Robbins in 2013. During his marriage to Grace, Robbins's hedonistic lifestyle became a source of notoriety, he subsequently married Jann Stapp in 1992, they remained together until his death. He spent a great deal of time on the French Riviera and at Monte Carlo until his death from respiratory heart failure, at the age of 81 in Palm Springs, California, his cremated remains are interred at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Cathedral City.
Robbins has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6743 Hollywood Boulevard. Harold Robbins Novels Harold Robbins at the Internet Book List Harold Robbins on IMDb
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Marcus Loew was an American business magnate and a pioneer of the motion picture industry who formed Loew's Theatres and the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio. Loew was born in New York City, into a poor Jewish family, who had emigrated to New York City a few years from Austria and Germany, he was forced by circumstances to work at a young age and had little formal education. Beginning with a small investment from money saved from menial jobs, he bought into the penny arcade business. Shortly after, in partnership with Adolph Zukor and others, Loew acquired a nickelodeon and over time he turned Loew's Theatres into a leading chain of vaudeville and movie theaters in the United States. By 1905, Marcus Loew was on his own and his success necessitated that he secure a steady flow of product for his theaters. In 1904, he founded the People's Vaudeville Company, a theater chain which showcased one-reel films as well as live variety shows. In 1910, the company had expanded and was renamed Loew's Consolidated Enterprises.
His associates included Adolph Zukor, Joseph Schenck, Nicholas Schenck. By 1913, Loew operated a large number of theaters in New York City including the American Music Hall, Avenue A Theatre, Avenue B Theatre, Broadway Theatre, Circle Theatre, the Columbia Theatre in Brooklyn. Other Loew-operated theaters were Greeley Sq.. Theatre, Herald Square Theatre, Liberty Theatre, Lincoln Sq. Theatre, National Theatre, Plaza Theatre, 7th Ave. Theatre, Shubert Theatre and the Yorkville Theatre. Outside of New York, he managed the Columbia Theatre Columbia Theatre and the Metropolitan Opera House. Loew found himself faced with a serious dilemma: his merged companies lacked a central managerial command structure. Loew preferred to remain in New York overseeing the growing chain of Loew's Theatres. Film production had been gravitating toward southern California since 1913. By 1917 he oversaw a number of enterprises: Borough Theatre Co. Empress Amusement Corp. Fort George Amusement Co. Glendive Amusement Corp. Greeley Square Amusement Co.
Loew's Loew's Theatrical Enterprises, Mascot Amusement Co.. Natonia Amusement Co. People's Vaudeville Co. In 1919, Loew reorganized the company under Inc.. In 1920, Loew purchased Metro Pictures Corporation. A few years he acquired a controlling interest in the financially troubled Goldwyn Picture Corporation which at that point was controlled by theater impresario Lee Shubert. Goldwyn Pictures owned studio property in Culver City, California, but without its founder Samuel Goldwyn, the Goldwyn studio lacked strong management. With Loew's vice president Nicholas Schenck needed in New York City to help manage the large East Coast movie theater operations, Loew had to find a qualified executive to take charge of this new Los Angeles entity. Loew recalled meeting a film producer named Louis B. Mayer, operating a successful, if modest, studio in east Los Angeles. Mayer had been making low budget melodramas for a number of years, marketing them to women. Since he rented most of his equipment and hired most of his stars on a per-picture basis, Loew wasn't after Mayer's brick and mortar business.
Nicholas Schenck was dispatched to finalize the deal that resulted in the formation of Metro-Goldwyn Pictures in April 1924 with Mayer as the studio head and Thalberg chief of production. Mayer's company folded into Metro Goldwyn with two notable additions: Mayer Pictures' contracts with key directors such as Fred Niblo and John M. Stahl, up-and-coming actress Norma Shearer married to Thalberg. Mayer would be rewarded by having his name added to the company. Loews Inc. would retain controlling interest for decades. While successful, Loew didn't live to see the powerhouse that MGM was to become, he died three years in 1927 of a heart attack at the age of 57 at his country home in Glen Cove, New York. Reporting his death, Variety called him "the most beloved man of all show business of all time", he was interred in the Maimonides Cemetery in Brooklyn. For his significant contribution to the development of the motion picture industry, Marcus Loew has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1617 Vine Street.
To this day, the Loew name is synonymous with movie theaters. He and his wife Carrie had twin sons and Arthur. Arthur married daughter of Adolph Zukor. Robert Sobel, The Entrepreneurs: Explorations Within the American Business Tradition, chapter 7, "Marcus Loew: An Artist in Spite of Himself" ISBN 0-679-40064-8 Marcus Loew on IMDb Marcus Loew at Find a Grave
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus. Christmas Day is observed around the world, Christmas Eve is observed as a full or partial holiday in anticipation of Christmas Day. Together, both days are considered one of the most culturally significant celebrations in Christendom and Western society. Christmas celebrations in the denominations of Western Christianity have long begun on the night of the 24th, due in part to the Christian liturgical day starting at sunset, a practice inherited from Jewish tradition and based on the story of Creation in the Book of Genesis: "And there was evening, there was morning – the first day." Many churches still ring their church bells and hold prayers in the evening. Since tradition holds that Jesus was born at night, Midnight Mass is celebrated on Christmas Eve, traditionally at midnight, in commemoration of his birth; the idea of Jesus being born at night is reflected in the fact that Christmas Eve is referred to as Heilige Nacht in German, Nochebuena in Spanish and in other expressions of Christmas spirituality, such as the song "Silent Night, Holy Night".
Many other varying cultural traditions and experiences are associated with Christmas Eve around the world, including the gathering of family and friends, the singing of Christmas carols, the illumination and enjoyment of Christmas lights and other decorations, the wrapping and opening of gifts, general preparation for Christmas Day. Legendary Christmas gift-bearing figures including Santa Claus, Father Christmas and Saint Nicholas are often said to depart for their annual journey to deliver presents to children around the world on Christmas Eve, although until the Protestant introduction of Christkind in 16th-century Europe, such figures were said to instead deliver presents on the eve of Saint Nicholas' feast day. Roman Catholics and high church Anglicans traditionally celebrate Midnight Mass, which begins either at or sometime before midnight on Christmas Eve; this ceremony, held in churches throughout the world, celebrates the birth of Christ, believed to have occurred at night. Midnight Mass is popular in Poland.
In recent years some churches have scheduled their "Midnight" Mass as early as 7 pm. In Spanish-speaking areas, the Midnight Mass is sometimes referred to as Misa de Gallo, or Missa do Galo in Portuguese. In the Philippines, the custom has expanded into the nine-day Simbang Gabi, when Filipinos attend dawn Masses from 16 December, continuing daily until Christmas Eve. In 2009 Vatican officials scheduled the Midnight Mass to start at 10 pm so that the 82-year-old Pope Benedict XVI would not have too late a night. Whilst it does not include any kind of Mass, the Church of Scotland has a service beginning just before midnight, in which carols are sung; the Church of Scotland no longer holds Hogmanay services on New Year's Eve, however. The Christmas Eve Services are still popular. On Christmas Eve, the Christ Candle in the center of the Advent wreath is traditionally lit in many church services. In candlelight services, while singing Silent Night, each member of the congregation receives a candle and passes along their flame, first received from the Christ Candle.
Lutherans traditionally practice Christmas Eve Eucharistic traditions typical of Germany and Scandinavia. "Krippenspiele", special festive music for organ and brass choirs and candlelight services make Christmas Eve one of the highlights in the Lutheran Church calendar. A nativity scene may be erected indoors or outdoors, is composed of figurines depicting the infant Jesus resting in a manger and Joseph. Other figures in the scene may include angels and various animals; the figures may be made of any material, arranged in a stable or grotto. The Magi may appear, are sometimes not placed in the scene until the week following Christmas to account for their travel time to Bethlehem. While most home nativity scenes are packed away at Christmas or shortly thereafter, nativity scenes in churches remain on display until the feast of the Baptism of the Lord. Christmas Vespers are popular in the early evening, midnight services are widespread in regions which are predominantly Lutheran; the old Lutheran tradition of a Christmas Vigil in the early morning hours of Christmas Day can still be found in some regions.
In eastern and middle Germany, congregations still continue the tradition of "Quempas singing": separate groups dispersed in various parts of the church sing verses of the song "He whom shepherds once came Praising" responsively. Methodists celebrate the evening in different ways. Some, in the early evening, come to their church to celebrate Holy Communion with their families; the mood is solemn, the only visible light is the Advent Wreath, the candles upon the Lord's Table. Others celebrate the evening with services of light, which include singing the song Silent Night as a variety of candles are lit. Other churches have late evening services at 11 pm, so that the church can celebrate Christmas Day together with the ringing of bells at midnight. Others offer Christmas Day services as well; the annual "Nine Lessons and Carols", broadcast from King's College, Cambridge on Christmas Eve, has established itself a Christmas custom in the United Kingdom. It is broadcast outside the UK via the BBC World Service, is bought by broadcasters around the world.
In the Byzantine Rite, Christmas Eve is referred to a
Biograph Studios was an early film studio and laboratory complex, built in 1912 by the Biograph Company at 807 East 175th Street, in The Bronx, New York City, New York. The first studio of the Biograph Company American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was located just south of Union Square on the roof of 841 Broadway at 13th Street in Manhattan, known as the Hackett Carhart Building and today as the Roosevelt Building; the set-up was similar to Thomas Edison's "Black Maria" in West Orange, New Jersey, being mounted on circular tracks to be able to get the best possible sunlight. As of 1988, the foundations of this machinery were still extant; the company moved in 1906 to a brownstone a few blocks away at 11 East 14th Street, where it remained until 1913. It was at this location that D. W. Griffith began as a director, became the studio's focus. Griffith developed for the company stars such as Florence Lawrence. Walthall. Due to their overwhelming popularity and the fact that their names were not credited, stars like Florence Lawrence and Mary Pickford became known as the'Biograph Girls,' before screen credits began to become the norm.
Griffith left the company in 1913, it moved its facilities to 807 East 175th Street in The Bronx. Without Griffith, the studio did not prosper, the company was dissolved in 1915, the studio property was leased out to other production companies after Biograph's production stopped; the studio facilities and laboratory were acquired by one of Biograph Company's creditors, the Empire Trust Company, although some of the Biograph old management continued to manage it. Herbert Yates acquired the Biograph Studio properties and Film laboratory facilities in 1928. Biograph Studio facilities in The Bronx were made a subsidiary of his Consolidated Film Industries; some advertising films and a few feature films were made at the studio in the 1930s, including Midnight, Woman in the Dark, The Crime of Dr. Crespi, Manhattan Merry-Go-Round, the Yiddish-language folk drama Tevya, the Oscar Micheaux production The Notorious Elinor Lee. However, the studio facilities principal activity in that decade was the production of shorts for Universal, RKO involving New York-based actors and entertainers.
The studio suspended operations in 1939, due to curtailment of the activities of independent producers because of World War II and to a decline in the commercial film market, according to its general manager. At this time, the remaining Biograph films collection was donated to the film department of the Museum of Modern Art; the Soundies Distributing Corporation filmed at the Biograph Studios in 1944. Empire Trust assigned management of the property to one of its own subsidiaries, The Actinograph Corp. which held it until 1948. Martin Poll restored the Biograph Studio facilities and reopened it in 1956 as the Gold Medal Studios. Gold Medal Studios became the largest film studio in the United States outside of Los Angeles at the time of its 1956 reopening. Poll sold the property in 1961, when it was incorporated into a newer company unrelated to the original Biograph Company, using the name Biograph Studios, Inc. it opened in 1961. The television series Naked City, Car 54, Where Are You?, East Side/West Side, movies such as A Face in the Crowd, Odds Against Tomorrow, The Fugitive Kind, The Goddess, Pretty Boy Floyd, BUtterfield 8, The Incident, John and Mary were filmed there.
The Biograph Studio facilities went dormant again in the 1970s before the studio facilities and laboratory burned down in 1980. The site is now occupied by a New York City Department of Sanitation garage. Notes Further reading Koszarski, Richard. Hollywood on the Hudson: Film and Television in New York from Griffith to Sarnoff, Rutgers University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8135-4293-5
National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress
The National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress is one of the annual film awards given by the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actress National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress