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National Center for Biotechnology Information

The National Center for Biotechnology Information is part of the United States National Library of Medicine, a branch of the National Institutes of Health. The NCBI is located in Bethesda and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper; the NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank for DNA sequences and PubMed, a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez search engine. NCBI was directed by David Lipman, one of the original authors of the BLAST sequence alignment program and a respected figure in bioinformatics, he led an intramural research program, including groups led by Stephen Altschul, David Landsman, Eugene Koonin, John Wilbur, Teresa Przytycka, Zhiyong Lu. David Lipman stood down from his post in May 2017.

NCBI has had responsibility for making available the GenBank DNA sequence database since 1992. GenBank coordinates with individual laboratories and other sequence databases such as those of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and the DNA Data Bank of Japan. Since 1992, NCBI has grown to provide other databases in addition to GenBank. NCBI provides Gene, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, the Molecular Modeling Database, dbSNP, the Reference Sequence Collection, a map of the human genome, a taxonomy browser, coordinates with the National Cancer Institute to provide the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project; the NCBI assigns a unique identifier to each species of organism. The NCBI has software tools that are available by WWW browsing or by FTP. For example, BLAST is a sequence similarity searching program. BLAST can do sequence comparisons against the GenBank DNA database in less than 15 seconds; the "NCBI Bookshelf is a collection of accessible, downloadable, on-line versions of selected biomedical books.

The Bookshelf covers a wide range of topics including molecular biology, cell biology, microbiology, disease states from a molecular and cellular point of view, research methods, virology. Some of the books are online versions of published books, while others, such as Coffee Break, are written and edited by NCBI staff; the Bookshelf is a complement to the Entrez PubMed repository of peer-reviewed publication abstracts in that Bookshelf contents provide established perspectives on evolving areas of study and a context in which many disparate individual pieces of reported research can be organized. BLAST is an algorithm used for calculating sequence similarity between biological sequences such as nucleotide sequences of DNA and amino acid sequences of proteins. BLAST is a powerful tool for finding sequences similar to the query sequence within the same organism or in different organisms, it searches the query sequence on NCBI databases and servers and post the results back to the person's browser in chosen format.

Input sequences to the BLAST are in FASTA or Genbank format while output could be delivered in variety of formats such as HTML, XML formatting and plain text. HTML is the default output format for NCBI's web-page. Results for NCBI-BLAST are presented in graphical format with all the hits found, a table with sequence identifiers for the hits having scoring related data, along with the alignments for the sequence of interest and the hits received with analogous BLAST scores for these The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is used at NCBI for all the major databases such as Nucleotide and Protein Sequences, Protein Structures, PubMed, Complete Genomes, OMIM, several others. Entrez is both indexing and retrieval system having data from various sources for biomedical research. NCBI distributed the first version of Entrez in 1991, composed of nucleotide sequences from PDB and GenBank, protein sequences from SWISS-PROT, translated GenBank, PIR, PRF, PDB and associated abstracts and citations from PubMed.

Entrez is specially designed to integrate the data from several different sources and formats into a uniform information model and retrieval system which can efficiently retrieve that relevant references and structures. Gene has been implemented at NCBI to organize the information about genes, it serves as a major node in the nexus of genomic map, sequence, protein function and homology data. A unique GeneID is assigned to each gene record. Gene records for known or predicted genes are established here and are demarcated by map positions or nucleotide sequence. Gene has several advantages over its predecessor, LocusLink, better integration with other databases in NCBI, broader taxonomic scope, enhanced options for query and retrieval provided by Entrez system. Protein database maintains the text record for individual protein sequences, derived from many different resources such as NCBI Reference Sequence project, GenBank, PDB and UniProtKB/SWISS-Prot. Protein records are present in different formats including FASTA and XML and are linked to other NCBI resources.

Protein provides the relevant data to the users such as genes, DNA/RNA sequences, biological pathways and variation data and literature. It provides the pre-determined sets of similar and identical proteins for each sequence as computed by the BLAST; the Structure database of NCBI contains 3D coordinate sets for experimentally-determined structures in PDB that are imported by NCBI. The Conserved Domain database of protei

A Formula of Agreement

A Formula of Agreement is an ecclesiastical agreement between the Presbyterian Church, Reformed Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the United Church of Christ, establishing full communion with each other. Beginning in 1962, under the sponsorship of the Lutheran World Federation and the Reformed World Alliance, representatives from the Lutheran Church in America, the American Lutheran Church, the United Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. the Reformed Church in America and the United Church of Christ met to discuss their differences and agreements regarding the doctrine of the Lord’s Supper. In 1966, the book Marburg Revisited, the title referring to the Marburg Colloquy of 1529, was published, claiming that “As a result of our studies and discussions we see no insuperable obstacles to pulpit and altar fellowship and, therefore, we recommend to our parent bodies that they encourage their constituent churches to enter into discussions looking forward to intercommunion and the fuller recognition of one another's ministries."

While a second round of dialogues between 1972 and 1974, made little progress, a third round produced joint statements on the Lord’s Supper and ministry, published in A Call To Action in 1984. Two years representatives reached the conclusion that the Reformed and Lutheran denominations recognize each other as churches that preach the Gospel and administer the sacraments in accordance to Christ’s command, recommendations which were adopted by the Presbyterian Church and the Reformed Church in America in 1986, would be adopted by the United Church of Christ in 1989. For their parts, while the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches and the American Lutheran Church adopted the resolutions in 1986, although the Lutheran Church in America was more reluctant to adopt the resolutions, recommending further dialogues. In 1988, the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, the American Lutheran Church and the Lutheran Church in America merged to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and at their constituting meeting, it was voted to continue discussions with the PCUSA, RCA and United Church of Christ, forming the Lutheran-Reformed Committee for Theological Conversations in order to discuss doctrinal condemnations in the Lutheran “Formula of Concord” and issues relating to Christology, the Lord’s Supper and predestination.

The committee released their report “A Common Calling: The Witness of our Reformation Churches in North America Today” in 1992, which stated that there were no “church dividing differences” and unaminmously recommended “That the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Presbyterian Church, the Reformed Church in America, the United Church of Christ declare that they are in full communion with one another. In the specific terms of full communion as they are developed in our study, this recommendation requires that they recognize each other as churches in which the Gospel is rightly preached and the sacraments rightly administered according to the Word of God; these recommendations led to the production of several documents intended for study in the churches: A Common Discovery: Learning about the Churches of the Reformation in North America Today. After some reluctance from those in the RCA about entering into full communion with the UCC due to issues regarding homosexuality, in 1997, A Formula of Agreement was adopted by the denominations.

The formulas affirm. Full communion is defined as that the denominations " recognize each other as churches in which the gospel is rightly preached and the sacraments rightly administered according to the Word of God.

Railway workshop

Railway workshops are railway facilities in which rolling stock is repaired. While colocated with engine sheds to perform routine tasks as well as major repairs, in some countries separated concepts exist with railway workshops being specialized in major repairs and general inspections. In German-speaking countries, the generic names Werkstatt, or in Austria Hauptwerkstatt, are used, except for Germany, where railway workshops maintained by Deutsche Bahn are called Ausbesserungswerk or Werk. Australia Eveleigh Railway Workshops Midland Railway Workshops Newport Workshops India Jamalpur Locomotive Workshop New Zealand Addington Workshops East Town Workshops Hillside Engineering Hutt Workshops Newmarket Workshops Otahuhu Workshops Petone Workshops Germany see Ausbesserungswerk