Zitkála-Šá, known by the missionary-given name Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, was a Sioux writer, musician and political activist. She wrote several works chronicling her youthful struggles with identity and pulls between the majority culture and her Native American heritage and her books in English were among the first works to bring traditional Native American stories to a widespread white readership. Working with American William F. Hanson, Zitkala-Ša wrote the libretto and songs for The Sun Dance Opera and she was a co-founder of the National Council of American Indians in 1926 to lobby for rights to United States citizenship and civil rights. Zitkala-Ša served as its president until her death in 1938 and her life has been recorded in the biography Red Bird, Red Power, The Life and Legacy of Zitkála-Šá. Zitkála-Šá was born on February 22,1876 on the Yankton Indian Reservation in South Dakota and she was raised by her mother, Ellen Simmons, whose Dakota name was Thaté Iyóhiwiŋ. Her father was a European-American man named Felker, who abandoned the family while Zitkala-Ša was very young, for her first eight years, Zitkála-Šá lived on the reservation.
She described those days as ones of freedom and happiness, safe in the care of her mothers people, in 1884, when Zitkala-Ša was eight, missionaries came to the Yankton Reservation. They recruited several of the Yankton children, including Zitkala-Šá, taking them for education to the Whites Manual Labor Institute, a boarding school in Wabash, Indiana. This training school was founded by Quaker Josiah White for the education of children, colored. Zitkála-Šá attended the school for three years until 1887 and she wrote about this period in her work, The School Days of an Indian Girl. In 1887 Zitkála-Šá returned to the Yankton Reservation to live with her mother and she was dismayed to realize that, while she still longed for the native Sioux traditions, she no longer fully belonged to them. In addition, she thought that many on the reservation were conforming to the dominant white culture, in 1891, wanting more education, Zitkála-Šá decided at age fifteen to return to Whites Manual Labor Institute.
She planned to gain more education than becoming a house-keeper. She studied piano and violin, and started to teach music at Whites when the teacher resigned, in 1895 Zitkala-Sa was awarded her first diploma. She gave a speech on inequality, which received high praise from the local paper. Though her mother wanted her to home after graduation, Zitkála-Šá decided to attend Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana. Higher education for women was limited at the time. Though initially feeling isolated and uncertain among her predominantly white peers, during this time, she began gathering Native American legends, translating them first to Latin and to English for children to read
Ernest L. Wilkinson
Ernest Leroy Wilkinson was an American academic administrator and prominent figure in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He was president of Brigham Young University from 1951 to 1971, prior to this, Wilkinson was a lawyer in Washington, D. C. and New York City. Wilkinson was born in Ogden, Utah and he graduated from Weber Academy in Ogden in 1917. He was a student at Weber College, which was the school now having expanded to offer collegiate level courses. After a year at Weber College Wilkinson became a member of the Student Army Training Corps unit located at BYU, after the war, he became a regular student at BYU and among other things served as the editor of the weekly newspaper. He earned his bachelor of degree at BYU in 1921. At graduation, Wilkinson began teaching at Weber College and he married Alice Valera Ludlow, a native of Spanish Fork who he had met while they were both students at BYU. They were married in the Salt Lake Temple on 16 August 1923, the ceremony was performed by James E.
Talmage. Ernest and Alice would have five children, among other subjects, Alice had studied drama at BYU, which led to T. Earl Pardoe stating she was his most talented student up to that time. Also in 1923 Wilkinson was involved with the campaign of William H. King for United States Senate and he earned a law degree from George Washington University and a doctorate from Harvard Law School in 1927. While in law school Wilkinson taught high school in Washington, D. C and he was for a time on the faculty of the New Jersey Law School. In 1950 this suit was upheld by the United States Court of Claims and as a result, Wilkinsons share of the settlement as the plaintiffs attorney made him independently wealthy, and allowed him to give up his law practice to pursue his interests in education. Wilkinson lobbied LDS Church leaders to be appointed as president of BYU and was offered the position in July 1950, when Wilkinson came to BYU he replaced the interim administration of Christen Jensen. Under Wilkinsons administration, BYU expanded in all ways, the number of students increased from 5,000 to 25,000.
He instituted aggressive recruiting methods where faculty would accompany general authorities on visits to stake conferences and this changed BYU from having a student body mainly from Utah to having a student body from virtually every state in the nation. Under his administration the number of buildings on campus grew tremendously, BYU for the first time granted Ph. D. s. Wilkinson considered the most important accomplishment of his term as president to have been the organization of student wards, Wilkinson was the ninth Commissioner of Church Education of the LDS Church. During his tenure, he bore the title Administrator–Chancellor of the Unified Church Schools System
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U. S. Department of the Interior. The BIA’s responsibilities include providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives, located at 1849 C Street, NW, in Washington, D. C. the BIA is headed by a bureau director who reports to the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs. The current director is Michael S. Black, the current assistant secretary is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin. On January 1,2016, Roberts succeeded Kevin K. Washburn, a member of the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma. The Office of Justice Services, directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, and 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS. The OJS provides oversight and technical assistance to law enforcement programs when. It operates four divisions, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, the Office of Trust Services, works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands and resources.
Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U. S. government since 1775, benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, the U. S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or Office of Indian Trade within the War Department, the post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822. The government licensed traders to have control in Indian territories. The abolition of the system left a vacuum within the U. S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11,1824, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office, which went by several names, McKenney preferred to call it the Indian Office, whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun.
In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs and it emphasized being educated to European-American culture. Some were beaten for praying to their own creator god, the bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947. The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement worried the U. S. government and they intended to bring attention to American Indian issues, including their demands for renewed negotiation of treaties, enforcement of treaty rights and improvement in living standards
Harold B. Lee Library
The Harold B. Lee Library, located in Provo, Utah, is the main academic library of Brigham Young University, the largest religious and private university in the United States. The library has approximately 98 miles of shelving for the more than 6 million items in its various collections, as well as a seating capacity for 4,600 people. With over 10,000 patrons entering the building each day, The Princeton Review consistently ranks the HBLL in the nations Top Ten University Libraries–#1 in 2004 and #3 in 2012. Lee, former president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the HBLL began with the books Karl G. Maeser kept in his office during his time as principal of then-Brigham Young Academy. The small library was formed from donations and free materials from the U. S. government, when Maesers office was destroyed by a fire in 1884, his library collection went with it. In 1892 the new Education Building included a library on the second floor, the academy became a university, which spurred the librarys growth until it filled the third floor and much of the second floor of the Education building.
In July 1924, the association reported that $125,000 were set aside to construct a new library building on University Hill. The new Heber J. Grant Library was subsequently dedicated on October 15,1925 with 40,000 books and 35,000 pamphlets, alice Louise Reynolds, a popular English professor, helped raise funds to purchase over 1,000 books for the library. She was faculty chairperson of a committee to establish the library from 1906 to 1925 and her fan club donated over 10,000 volumes in the 1930s. By 1950, the large collection no longer fit in the Grant Library, the Physical Science Library was housed in the Eyring Science Center from the opening of that building in 1950. In 1957 when the Joseph F. Smith Family Living Center was opened, it contained the life science library on the first floor, the pre-1940 bound periodicals were being stored in the basement of BYUs Joseph Smith Memorial Building. The reserve library was located in the David O. McKay Building, while the attics of the Maeser Building and the womens gymnasium used for storage as well as a warehouse in downtown Provo.
As a result of a study by a faculty committee in January 1953, in 1961, the Clark Libary housed 300,000 volumes, although the building was not dedicated until October 10,1962. The new library was designed by Lorenzo Snow Young with Keyes D. Metcalf and it was built by the Garff and Garff Construction Company. Another key figure in the planning and building of the library was S. Lyman Tyler, with the expansion of the library building came the expansion of the library collection. In 1971 the library celebrated the acquisition of their millionth volume with a conference on library acquisition for donors. In 1973, the name of the J. Reuben Clark Library was changed to the Harold B. Lee Library, in honor of the former president of the LDS Church. In order to keep up with the needs of the academic community and this addition was occupied in the summer of 1976 and dedicated March 15,1977
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private research university in Provo, United States. Approximately 99 percent of the students are members of the LDS Church, many students either delay enrollment or take a hiatus from their studies to serve as Mormon missionaries. An education at BYU is less expensive than at similar private universities, BYU offers a variety of academic programs, including liberal arts, agriculture, management and mathematical sciences and law. The university is organized into 11 colleges or schools at its main Provo campus, with certain colleges. The universitys primary focus is on education, but it has 68 masters and 25 doctoral degree programs. BYUs athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the BYU Cougars. Their college football team is an NCAA Division I Independent, while their other teams compete in either the West Coast Conference or Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. BYUs sports teams have won a total of fourteen national championships, on October 16,1875, Brigham Young, president of the LDS Church, personally purchased the Lewis Building after previously hinting that a school would be built in Draper, Utah, in 1867.
Hence, October 16,1875, is held as BYUs founding date. The school broke off from the University of Deseret and became Brigham Young Academy, warren Dusenberry served as interim principal of the school for several months until April 1876 when Brigham Youngs choice for principal arrived—a German immigrant named Karl Maeser. Under Maesers direction the school educated many luminaries including future U. S. Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland, the school, did not become a university until the end of Benjamin Cluffs term at the helm of the institution. At that time, the school was still privately supported by members of the community and was not absorbed and sponsored officially by the LDS Church until July 18,1896. A series of odd managerial decisions by Cluff led to his demotion, however, in his last official act, he proposed to the Board that the Academy be named Brigham Young University. The suggestion received an amount of opposition, with many members of the Board saying that the school wasnt large enough to be a university.
One opponent to the decision, Anthon H. Lund, said, in 1903 Brigham Young Academy was dissolved, and was replaced by two institutions, Brigham Young High School, and Brigham Young University. The Board elected George H. Brimhall as the new President of BYU and he had not received a high school education until he was forty. Nevertheless, he was an excellent orator and organizer, under his tenure in 1904 the new Brigham Young University bought 17 acres of land from Provo called Temple Hill. After some controversy among locals over BYUs purchase of property, construction began in 1909 on the first building on the current campus