Harold Stanley Marcus was president and chairman of the board of the luxury retailer Neiman Marcus in Dallas, which his father and aunt had founded in 1907. During his tenure at the company, he became a published author, writing his memoir Minding the Store and a regular column in The Dallas Morning News. After Neiman Marcus was sold to Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Marcus remained in an advisory capacity to that company, but began his own consulting business, which continued until his death, he served his local community as a civic leader. In a chapter titled "Mr. Stanley" — the name by which Marcus was known locally for decades — in his 1953 work Neiman-Marcus, Frank X. Tolbert called him "Dallas' most internationally famous citizen" and worthy of being called "the Southwest's No. 1 businessman-intellectual."Marcus introduced many of the innovations for which Neiman-Marcus became known, creating a national award for service in fashion and hosting art exhibitions in the store itself, as well as weekly fashion shows and an annual Fortnight event highlighting a different foreign country for two weeks each year.
He established the Neiman-Marcus Christmas Catalogue, which became famous for extravagant "His and Hers" gifts such as airplanes and camels. Marcus prided himself on his staff's ability to provide service and value for each client citing his father's dictum, "There is never a good sale for Neiman Marcus unless it's a good buy for the customer." He received the Chevalier Award from the French Legion of Honor, was listed in the Houston Chronicle's list of the 100 most important Texans, was named by Harvard Business School among the greatest American Business Leaders of the 20th century. The Advertising Hall of Fame notes: "Stanley Marcus was among the most important figures in the history of American retail merchandising and marketing. Through his many innovations, he transformed a local Dallas clothing store into an international brand synonymous with high style and gracious service." Marcus was born in The Cedars, Texas, the son of Herbert Marcus, Sr. who became a co-founder of the original Neiman-Marcus store with his sister Carrie and her husband, Al Neiman.
Stanley was the first of four sons born to Herbert, Sr. and his wife, the former Minnie Lichtenstein. The pregnancy indirectly led to the eventual founding of Neiman-Marcus, as Herbert Sr. decided to leave Sanger's, where he was a buyer of boys' clothing, when he deemed his raise insufficient to support a family. Returning from two years spent in Atlanta, establishing a successful sales-promotion business, the Marcuses and Neimans used the $25,000 made in the sale of that business to establish their store at the corner of Elm and Murphy. Given that the family's other option for the money was to invest in the then-unknown Coca-Cola Company, Marcus loved to say that Neiman-Marcus was established "as a result of the bad judgment of its founders." In his memoir, Marcus recalled his father as "affectionate" and his mother as even-handed in her attention to each of their children, making sure into their adulthood to give them equivalent gifts and make sure they were praised equally. One of Stanley Marcus's first jobs was as a 10-year-old salesman of Saturday Evening Post, bringing him into the family's business tradition from a young age.
He attended Forest Avenue High School, where he studied debate as well as English with teacher Myra Brown, whom he credited with much of his early interest in books. He began his university studies at Amherst College, but when traditions preventing Jews from joining clubs or fraternities drastically curtailed his social life, he transferred to Harvard University after the first year. At his new school, he became a member of the Jewish fraternity Zeta Beta Tau rising to become the group's president. While living in Boston and pursuing his chosen major, English literature, Marcus began a lifelong hobby of collecting rare and antique books. To finance his pursuits, he began The Book Collector's Service Bureau, a mail-order book service, beginning with a letter of introduction sent to 100 homes; the venture proved so successful that for a time Marcus considered entering that line of work full time, concerned that entering the retail business might curtail his freedom of expression in politics and other areas of interest.
After receiving a B. A. degree from Harvard in 1925, he began his career at the retailer that same year as a simple stockboy organizing inventory, but upon beginning in sales outstripped other sales staff. He went back to study at Harvard Business School in 1926, leaving after one year to participate in a massive expansion of the retail operation in Dallas, he married the former Mary "Billie" Cantrell in 1932. In 1935 the Marcuses commissioned Frank Lloyd Wright to design a home for them on Nonesuch Road, but rejected the eventual design, which included cantilevered steel beams and terraces swathed in mosquito netting. Instead, the couple chose a design by local firm DeWitt & Washburn, whose creation became a Texas Historic Landmark; as of 1937, Marcus was one of only 22 Texans to ear
Lawrence Halprin was an American landscape architect and teacher. Beginning his career in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, in 1949, Halprin collaborated with a local circle of modernist architects on modest projects; these figures included William Wurster, Joseph Esherick, Vernon DeMars, Mario J. Ciampi, others associated with UC Berkeley. Accumulating a regional reputation in the northwest, Halprin first came to national attention with his work at the 1962 Seattle World's Fair, the Ghirardelli Square adaptive-reuse project in San Francisco, the landmark pedestrian street / transit mall Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis. Halprin's career proved influential to an entire generation in his specific design solutions, his emphasis on user experience to develop those solutions, his collaborative design process. Halprin's point of view and practice are summarized in his definition of modernism: "To be properly understood, Modernism is not just a matter of cubist space but of a whole appreciation of environmental design as a holistic approach to the matter of making spaces for people to live....
Modernism, as I define it and practice it, includes and is based on the vital archetypal needs of human being as individuals as well as social groups."In his best work, he construed landscape architecture as narrative. Halprin grew up in New York. Being Jewish, he spent three of his teenage years in Israel on a kibbutz near what is today the Israeli port city of Haifa, he earned a B. A. at Cornell University. A. at the University of Wisconsin. He earned a second master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where his professors included architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer, his Harvard classmates included Philip Johnson and I. M. Pei. A visit to Taliesin, Frank Lloyd Wright’s studio in Wisconsin, had sparked Halprin’s initial interest in being a designer. In 1944, Halprin was commissioned in the United States Navy as a Lieutenant, he was assigned to the destroyer USS Morris in the Pacific, struck by a kamikaze attack. After surviving the destruction of the Morris, Halprin was sent to San Francisco on leave.
It was there he would stay following his discharge. After discharge from military service, he joined the firm of San Francisco landscape architect Thomas Dolliver Church; the projects he worked on in this period included the Dewey Donnell Garden in Sonoma County. Halprin opened his own office in 1949, becoming one of Church's professional competitors. Halprin's wife, accomplished avant-garde dancer Anna Halprin, is a long-time collaborator, with whom he explored the common areas between choreography and the way users move through a public space, they are the parents of Daria Halprin, an American psychologist, author and actress, of Rana Halprin, a photographer and activist for Romani and human rights. Halprin's work is marked by his attention to human scale, user experience, the social impact of his designs, in the egalitarian tradition of Frederick Law Olmsted. Halprin was the creative force behind the interactive,'playable' civic fountains most common in the 1970s, an amenity which continues to contribute to the pedestrian social experience in Portland Oregon, where "Ira's Fountain" is loved and well-used, the United Nations Plaza in San Francisco.
The Heritage Park Plaza in Fort Worth, designed by Halprin and built in 1980, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as its featured listing of the week, on May 21, 2010. Many of Halprin's works have become the source of some controversy; some have fallen victim to neglect, are in states of disrepair. Critics argue his pieces have become dated and no longer reflect the direction their cities want to take. Budgetary constraints and the urge to "revitalize" threaten some of his projects. In response foundations have been set up to improve care for some of the sites and to try to preserve them in their original state, he was the co-creator with his wife, the dancer Anna Halprin, of the "RSVP Cycles", a creative methodology that can be applied broadly across all disciplines. Halprin's range of projects demonstrate open space as a stage. Halprin recognized that "the garden in your own immediate neighborhood, preferably at your own doorstep, is the most significant garden; the interplay of perspectives informed projects which encompassed urban parks, plazas and cultural centers and other places of congregation: Ferris House landscape, Washington, 1955 Washington Water Power campus, Washington, 1959 Master landscaping plan for the 1962 Seattle World's Fair, Seattle, 1958–1962 Landscape plan for the West Coast Memorial to the Missing of World War II, Presidio of San Francisco, 1960 Sproul Plaza, University of California, Berkeley, 1962 Ghirardelli Square in San Francisco, California, an early model for adaptive reuse of historic buildings, 1962–1965 Saint Francis Square Cooperative housing project, San Francisco, design based on a pedestrian-oriented site plan, with three-story apartment buildings facing onto three landscaped interior courtyards, 1964 Master landscape plan for Sea Ranch, California, a significant planned community collaboration with developer Al Boeke and architects Joseph Esherick, Charles Willard Moore and others, 1964 Master planning for sections of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system, San Francisco, 1964
Elbert Leander "Burt" Rutan is a retired American aerospace engineer noted for his originality in designing light, unusual-looking, energy-efficient aircraft. He designed the record-breaking Voyager, which in 1986 was the first plane to fly around the world without stopping or refueling, the sub-orbital spaceplane SpaceShipOne, which won the Ansari X-Prize in 2004 for becoming the first funded spacecraft to enter the realm of space twice within a two-week period. With his VariEze and Long-EZ designs, Rutan is responsible for helping popularize both the canard configuration and the use of moldless composite construction in the homebuilt aircraft industry, he has designed 46 aircraft throughout his career, been the co-recipient of the Collier Trophy on two separate occasions, received six honorary doctoral degrees, has won over 100 different awards for aerospace design and development. Rutan has five aircraft on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D. C. United States: SpaceShipOne, the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer, Voyager and the VariEze.
Born in 1943 in Estacada, Oregon, 30 miles southeast of Portland, raised in Dinuba, Burt Rutan displayed an early interest in aircraft design. By the time he was eight years old he was building model aircraft, his first solo flight piloting an airplane was in an Aeronca Champ in 1959. In 1965 he graduated third in his class from the California Polytechnic State University with a BS degree in aeronautical engineering. From 1965 to 1972 Rutan was a civilian flight test project engineer for the U. S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base, working on nine separate projects including the LTV XC-142 VSTOL transport and spin tests of the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom fighter, he left to become Director of Development of the BD-5 aircraft for Bede Aircraft in Newton, Kansas, a position he held until 1974. In June 1974, Rutan returned to California to establish the Rutan Aircraft Factory. In this business he designed and developed prototypes for several aircraft intended for amateur builders, his first design, executed while he was still at Bede, was the VariViggen, a two-seat pusher single-engine craft of canard configuration.
The canard would become a feature of many Rutan designs, notably the popular VariEze and Long-EZ. In April 1982, Rutan founded Scaled Composites, LLC, which has become one of the world's pre-eminent aircraft design and prototyping facilities. Scaled Composites is headquartered in California, at the Mojave Air & Space Port; that same year, Beechcraft contracted Rutan's Scaled Composites to refine the design and build the prototype Beechcraft Starship. In 1988, Rutan was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. In 1995 Rutan was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in Dayton, Ohio, in 2004 he was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Most Influential People in the World", in 2005 he received the NAS Award in Aeronautical Engineering from the National Academy of Sciences. In a 2010 interview, Rutan articulated his motivation for developing suborbital technology projects with SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo, he was developing suborbital spaceflight technology because in this "we can achieve some breakthroughs," making such flight "orders of magnitude safer and orders of magnitude more affordable.
I'm taking this step because I think achieving something that has never existed in manned spaceflight – and, high volume and public access – I think it is important to do that and to do it as soon as possible."Rutan is married to Tonya Rutan. He retired from Scaled Composites in April 2011; that same year, he became recognized as a Living Legend of Aviation, receiving the Bob Hoover Freedom of Flight Award. In 2012, Rutan spoke on "Innovation and the Space Race" to the World Affairs Council, as recorded on C-Span. Flying magazine ranked him at number 18 on their 2013 list, "51 Heroes of Aviation". Rutan was a recipient of the prestigious Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy in 2015. In a 45-year career, each of Rutan's designs have been quite dissimilar from their predecessors; the Los Angeles Times said of his designs: "His airplanes and spacecraft take on all types of sleek shapes and sizes, looking more like the work of a sculptor than an engineer. In all, Rutan has come up with 367 individual concepts — of which 45 have flown."
VariViggen and VariViggen SP In 1968, he began building his first design, the VariViggen, which first flew in April 1972. It had the rear wing, forward canard, pusher configuration design elements which became his trademarks. In lieu of wind tunnel testing, Rutan developed aerodynamic parameters for the VariViggen using a model rigged atop his station wagon, measured the forces while driving on empty roads; the VariViggen was the Rutan model 27. A new set of outer wings, with winglets, was developed by Rutan for the VariViggen, producing the VariViggen SP, Rutan model 32; the VariViggen was named in honor of the Saab 37 Viggen, a canard-configured fighter jet developed in Sweden. One VariViggen, built in France and named Micro Star, was powered by two Microturbo TRS-18 jet engines in lieu of the usual piston engine. VariEze and Long-EZ The VariViggen design led to the successful VariEze homebuilt aircraft designs, in which he pioneered the use of moldless glass-reinforced plastic construction in homebuilts.
The prototype, designated Model 31, made its public debut at the 1975 EAA Convention and Fly-In in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. That same year, his brother Dick Rutan set a world distance record in the under-500 kg class in the VariEze, these aircraft went on to set other world records in this class, they were also
Thomas Carlyle Ford is an American fashion designer, film director and film producer, known professionally as “Tom Ford”. He launched his eponymous luxury brand in 2006, having served as the Creative Director at luxury fashion houses Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent. Ford directed the Academy Award-nominated films A Single Man and Nocturnal Animals. Tom Ford was born on August 27, 1961, in Austin, the son of realtors Shirley Burton and Thomas David Ford, he spent his early life in the suburbs of Houston, in San Marcos, outside Austin. In Santa Fe, he entered St. Michael's High School and moved to Santa Fe Preparatory School, from which he graduated in 1979. At age 16, he enrolled at Bard College at Simon's Rock, but dropped out, he moved to New York City to study art history at New York University. Ford dropped out of NYU after a year. Ford began studying interior architecture at The New School's art and design college, Parsons The New School for Design in New York City. While in New York, he visited Studio 54, where he realized he was gay.
The club's disco-era glamor would be a major influence on his designs. Before his last year at New School, Ford spent a year and a half in Paris, where he worked as an intern in Chloé's press office, inspiring his interest in fashion, he spent his final year at The New School studying fashion, but graduated with a degree in architecture. When interviewing for jobs after graduation, Ford said that he had attended The New School's Parsons division, but concealed that he graduated in architecture, that his work at Chloé was a low-level public relations position. Despite his lack of experience in fashion, Ford called American designer Cathy Hardwick every day for a month in hopes of securing a job at her sportswear company. Hardwick agreed to interview him, she recalled the incident: "I had every intention of giving him no hope. I asked him, he said,'Armani and Chanel.' Months I asked him why he said that, he said,'Because you were wearing something Armani'. Is it any wonder he got the job?" Ford worked as a design assistant for Hardwick for two years.
In 1988, Ford moved to Perry Ellis, where he knew both Robert McDonald, the company's president, Marc Jacobs, its designer, socially. He grew tired of working in American fashion. In a interview with The New York Times, he commented, "If I was going to become a good designer, I had to leave America. My own culture was inhibiting me. Too much style in America is tacky. It's looked down upon to be too stylish. Europeans, appreciate style."At the time, Italian fashion house Gucci was struggling financially and was seeking to strengthen its women's ready-to-wear presence as a part of a brand overhaul. The company's creative director, Dawn Mello said, "no one would dream of wearing Gucci". In 1990, Mello hired Ford as the brand's chief women's ready-to-wear designer and Ford moved to Milan. "I was talking to a lot of people, most didn't want the job," Mello said. "For an American designer to move to Italy to join a company, far from being a brand would have been pretty risky." Ford and his longtime partner, fashion journalist Richard Buckley, relocated to Milan that September.
Ford's role at Gucci expanded. When Richard Lambertson left as design director in 1992, Ford took over his position, heading the brand's ready-to-wear, image and store design. In 1993, when he was in charge of designing eleven product lines, Ford worked eighteen-hour days. During these years, there were creative tensions between Ford and Maurizio Gucci, the company's chairman and 50% owner. According to Mello, "Maurizio always wanted everything to be round and brown, Tom wanted to make it square and black." Though Maurizio Gucci wanted to fire Ford, Domenico De Sole insisted. Nonetheless, Ford's work during the early 1990s was behind the scenes. In 1994, Ford was promoted to Creative Director of Gucci. In his first year at the helm, he introduced Halston-style velvet hipsters, skinny satin shirts and car-finish metallic patent boots. In 1995, he brought in French stylist Carine Roitfeld and photographer Mario Testino to create a series of new ad campaigns for the company. Between 1995 and 1996, sales at Gucci increased by 90%.
At one point, Ford was the largest individual shareholder of Gucci stock and options. By 1999, the house, bankrupt when Ford joined, was valued at more than $4 billion; when Gucci acquired the house of Yves Saint Laurent in 1999, Ford was named Creative Director of that label as well. Saint Laurent did not hide his displeasure with Ford's designs, stating "The poor man does what he can". During his time as creative director for YSL, Ford nonetheless won numerous Council of Fashion Designers of America Awards. Like his work at Gucci, Ford was able to pull the classic fashion house back into the mainstream, his advertising campaigns for the YSL fragrances Opium and YSL M7 were controversial and provocative. In April 2004, Ford parted ways with the Gucci group after he and CEO Domenico de Sole, credited as Ford's partner in Gucci's success, failed to agree with Pinault Printem
Frank Owen Gehry, FAIA is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles. A number of his buildings, including his private residence, have become world-renowned attractions, his works are cited as being among the most important works of contemporary architecture in the 2010 World Architecture Survey, which led Vanity Fair to label him as "the most important architect of our age". Gehry's best-known works include the titanium-clad Guggenheim Museum in Spain, it was his private residence in Santa Monica, that jump-started his career. Gehry is the designer of the future National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial. Gehry was born Frank Owen Goldberg on February 28, 1929, in Toronto, Ontario, to parents Sadie Thelma and Irving Goldberg, his father was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Russian Jewish parents, his mother was a Polish Jewish immigrant born in Łódź. A creative child, he was encouraged by his grandmother, Leah Caplan, with whom he would build little cities out of scraps of wood. With these scraps from her husband's hardware store, she entertained him for hours, building imaginary houses and futuristic cities on the living room floor.
His use of corrugated steel, chain-link fencing, unpainted plywood and other utilitarian or "everyday" materials was inspired by spending Saturday mornings at his grandfather's hardware store. He would spend time drawing with his father. "So the creative genes were there", Gehry says. "But my father thought I was a dreamer, I wasn't gonna amount to anything. It was my mother, she would push me."He was given the Hebrew name "Ephraim" by his grandfather, but only used it at his bar mitzvah. In 1947, his family immigrated to the United States settling in California. Gehry got a job driving a delivery truck, studied at Los Angeles City College to graduate from the University of Southern California's School of Architecture. During that time, he became a member of Alpha Epsilon Pi. According to Gehry, "I was a truck driver in L. A. going to City College, I tried radio announcing, which I wasn't good at. I tried chemical engineering, which I wasn't good at and didn't like, I remembered. You know, somehow I just started wracking my brain about,'What do I like?'
Where was I? What made me excited? And I remembered art, that I loved going to museums and I loved looking at paintings, loved listening to music; those things came from my mother, who took me to museums. I remembered Grandma and the blocks, just on a hunch, I tried some architecture classes." Gehry graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture degree from USC in 1954. After graduating from college, he spent time away from the field of architecture in numerous other jobs, including service in the United States Army. In the fall of 1956, he moved his family to Cambridge, where he studied city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, he left before completing the program and underwhelmed. Gehry's left-wing ideas about responsible architecture were under-realized, the final straw occurred when he sat in on a discussion of one professor's "secret project in progress"—a palace that he was designing for right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Gehry returned to Los Angeles to work for Victor Gruen Associates, to whom he had been apprenticed while at the USC School of Architecture.
In 1957 he was given the chance to design his first private residence at the age of 28, with friend and old classmate Greg Walsh. Construction was done by another neighbor across the street from Charlie Sockler. Built in Idyllwild, for his wife Anita's family neighbor Melvin David, "The David Cabin", shows features that were to become synonymous with work; the over 2,000 sq ft mountain retreat has unique design features with strong Asian influences, stemming from his earliest inspirations at the time like Shosoin Treasure House in Nara, among others. Beams protrude from the exterior sides, vertical grain douglas fir detail, exposed, unfinished ceiling beams are prominent features. In 1961, he moved to Paris. In 1962, Gehry established a practice in Los Angeles which became Frank Gehry and Associates in 1967 and Gehry Partners in 2001. Gehry's earliest commissions were all in Southern California, where he designed a number of innovative commercial structures such as Santa Monica Place and residential buildings such as the eccentric Norton House in Venice, California.
Among these works, Gehry's most notable design may be the renovation of his own Santa Monica residence. Built in 1920 and purchased by Gehry in 1977, the house features a metallic exterior wrapped around the original building that leaves many of the original details visible. Gehry still resides there. Other completed buildings designed by Gehry during the 1980s include the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium in San Pedro and the California Aerospace Museum at the California Museum of Science and Industry in Los Angeles. In 1989, Gehry was awarded the
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America, shared by Chile and Argentina. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes mountains and the deserts and grasslands to the east. Patagonia is one of the few regions with coasts on three oceans, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Southern Ocean to the south; the Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes to the Atlantic, are considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia. Most geographers and historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia at Huincul Fault, in Araucanía Region; the name Patagonia comes from the word patagón, used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the native tribes of the region, whom his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, who tended to be taller than Europeans of the time; the Argentine researcher Miguel Doura observed that the name Patagonia derives from the ancient Greek region of modern Turkey called Paphlagonia, possible home of the patagon personage in the chivalric romances Primaleon printed in 1512, ten years before Magellan arrived in these southern lands.
The hypothesis was published in a 2011 New Review of Spanish Philology report. Argentine Patagonia is for the most part a region of steppelike plains, rising in a succession of 13 abrupt terraces about 100 metres at a time, covered with an enormous bed of shingle bare of vegetation. In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water. Towards Chilean territory the shingle gives place to porphyry and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant, consisting principally of southern beech and conifers; the high rainfall against the western Andes and the low sea surface temperatures offshore give rise to cold and humid air masses, contributing to the ice-fields and glaciers, the largest ice-fields in the Southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica. Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the principal ones are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta, the Senguerr, the Deseado River. Besides these transverse depressions, there are others which were occupied by more or less extensive lakes, such as the Yagagtoo and Colhue Huapi, others situated to the south of Puerto Deseado, in the centre of the country.
In the central region volcanic eruptions, which have taken part in the formation of the plateau during the Cenozoic, cover a large part of the land with basaltic lava-caps. There, caused principally by the sudden melting and retreat of ice aided by tectonic changes, has scooped out a deep longitudinal depression, best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic granite, it separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, whose ridges are called the pre-Cordillera. To the west of these, a similar longitudinal depression extends all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera; this latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia. Lake basins along the Cordillera were excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil; the geological limit of Patagonia has been proposed to be Huincul Fault which forms a major discontinuity. The fault truncates various structures including the Pampean orogen found further north.
The ages of base arocks change abruptly across the fault. There have been discrepancies among geologists on the origin of the Patagonian landmass. Víctor Ramos has proposed that the Patagonian landmass originated as an allochthonous terrane that separated from Antarctica and docked in South America 250 to 270 Ma in the Permian era. A 2014 study by R. J. Pankhurst and coworkers rejects any idea of a far-travelled Patagonia claiming it is of parautochtonous origin; the Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. This, together with the discovery of the perfect cranium of a chelonian of the genus Niolamia, identical with Ninjemys oweni of the Pleistocene age in Queensland, forms an evident proof of the connection between the Australian and South American continents; the Patagonian Niolamia belongs to the Sarmienti Formation. Fossils of the mid-Cretaceous Argentinosaurus, which may be the largest of all dinosaurs, have been found in Patagonia, a model of the mid-Jurassic Piatnitzkysaurus graces the concourse of the Trelew airport.
Of more than paleontological interest, the middle Jurassic Los Molles Formation and the still richer late Jurassic and early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta formation above it in the Neuquén basin are reported to contain huge hydrocarbon reserves accessible through hydraulic fracturing. Other specimens of the interesting fauna of Patagonia, belonging to the Middle Cenozoic, are the gigantic wingless birds, exceeding in size any hitherto known, the singular mammal Pyrotherium of large dimensions. In