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National Emblem of the People's Republic of China

The National Emblem of the People's Republic of China contains in a red circle a representation of Tiananmen Gate, the entrance gate to the Forbidden City, where Mao declared the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Above this representation are the five stars found on the national flag; the largest star represents the Communist Party of China, while the four smaller stars represent the four social classes as defined in Maoism. The emblem is described as being "composed of patterns of the national flag":... The red color of the flag symbolizes revolution and the yellow color of the stars the golden brilliant rays radiating from the vast red land; the design of four smaller stars surrounding a bigger one signifies the unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China —China Yearbook 2004 The outer border of the red circle shows sheaves of wheat and the inner sheaves of rice, which together represent agricultural workers. At the center of the bottom portion of the border is a cog-wheel that represents industrial workers.

According to The Description of the National Emblem of the People's Republic of China, these elements taken together symbolise the revolutionary struggles of the Chinese people since the May Fourth Movement and the coalition of the proletariat which succeeded in founding the People's Republic of China. On July 10, 1949 the government held a public competition for the design of the national emblem, however no satisfactory designs were selected. Therefore, on September 27, 1949, the First Plenary Session of CPPCC decided to invite designers for the proposals of the national emblem and two groups from two universities were selected in September 1949. Three proposals were selected for the first round discussion: The designers from China Central Academy of Fine Arts, Zhang Ding, Zhang Guangyu, Zhou Lingzhao and Zhong Ling, handed out their proposals with 5 variations on September 25, 1949; the symbolism of their first design was: The red star symbolizes Communism and the Communist party of China.

The cog and wheat/rice symbolizes unification of industrial peasants. The rising earth with China in red symbolizes the socialist revolution in China and the world revolution ideal on Asian counties. 31 rays behind the earth symbolizes the 31 provincial administrative divisions at that time. The name of the People's Republic of China is written on the red ribbon below; the design was based on their design of the emblem of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, was influenced by Socialist heraldry of the Eastern Bloc. The designers from the Department of Architecture at Tsinghua University, Liang Sicheng, Lin Huiyin, Mo Zongjiang, Zhu Changzhong, Li Zongjin and Gao Zhuang, handed their proposal on October 30, 1949. According to their proposal, the design was a mixture of traditional Chinese culture and Maoist New Democratic Revolution ideals; the design imitated the style of mirrors in Han dynasty. The disc was made of a symbol of peace and unity. Decorative carvings on the disc was in Tang dynasty style.

The stars from national flag and a cog were placed in the center of the disc, surrounded by wheats, symbolizing unity of working class and socialism. The red ribbon tied a smaller jade ring; the other proposal by Zhang Ding, Zhang Guangyu, Zhou Lingzhao, was a perspective depiction of Tian'anmen gate. First round proposals of the national emblem Members of the first CPPCC committee discussed these three proposals on June 10, 1950; the result of the discussion was, the China Central Academy of Fine Arts proposal was too colorful that would be regarded as trademarks, proposal from Tsinghua University was regarded as bourgeoisie that contains many traditional symbols. The committee suggested two groups to include the Tian'anmen Gate, a symbol of Chinese revolution, the location of May Fourth Movement and foundation ceremony of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949. Two groups worked on a second round proposals; the second proposal from Tsinghua University standardized the design of the Tian'anmen Gate on the emblem and selected red and yellow as the main colors.

Their proposal was selected and the design was standardized and simplified by Gao Zhuang. This design was made the national emblem on 20 September 1950 by the Central People's Government. Second round proposals of the national emblem The emblem is displayed, along with the national flag, at the end of a video clip with the national anthem, March of the Volunteers played on Chinese television such as state-run China Central Television on a daily basis. National standard of China: GB 15093-2008 specifies the construction and color of the national emblem. In April 15, 1985, Taiyuan City announced its emblem, becoming the first city in the People's Republic of China to have a city emblem. Hong Kong and Macao each have their own emblem; the National People's Congress have passed the standardized use of the two special administrative regions' emblems. Under Chinese law since November 1997, only Hong Kong and Macau are allowed to have their own emblems and other localities that had them had to stop using theirs.

This rule was ignored in 2011 when the city of Chengdu chose the Golden Sun Bird found under the city's Jinsha site as it's emblem. Media related to National Emblem of the People's Republic of China at Wikimedia Commons Emblem of East Turkestan Emblem of Tibet Flag of China March of the Volunteers Socialist heraldry Tiananmen Twelve Symbols national emblem

Kiss with a Fist

"Kiss with a Fist" is the debut single by indie rock band Florence and the Machine, taken from their debut studio album Lungs. The single was released through Moshi Moshi Records on 9 June 2008 in the UK and was released four months on 6 October 2008 through IAMSOUND Records in the US; the B-side to "Kiss with a Fist" is a cover version of the Cold War Kids song "Hospital Beds". It has been featured on the original motion picture soundtrack to 2009 black comedy film Jennifer's Body, as well as the 2008 film Wild Child, NBC comedy Community, Cougar Town, Saving Grace, United States of Tara and The Good Doctor; the song was used to advertise the launch of the Channel 4 music channel. "Kiss with a Fist" first appeared with the same lyrics under the name "Happy Slap" on Ashok's first album Plans. "Kiss with a Fist" was released as a non-album single and was finalised as track number five on Lungs. It is the shortest track on the album and was co-written by Florence Welch herself along with Isabella Summers and Matt Allchin.

The song is in an indie garage-rock style and features Christopher Lloyd Haiden on drums, Robert Ackroyd on bass guitar and Tim McCall on guitar. The track was both recorded and mixed by Richard Flack with producer, former Pulp bassist Steve Mackey credited as a co-mixer as well. A great deal of confusion surrounded the song's meaning. With lyrics such as "broke your jaw once before", "split your blood upon the floor", "you smashed a plate over my head", "you gave a kick" and "I gave a slap" - the song was thought by many to be based on domestic violence, which Florence denies. Florence explained the song's meaning on her MySpace: "Kiss with a Fist" is NOT a song about domestic violence, it is about two people pushing each other to psychological extremes because they are fighting but they still love each other. The song is not about one person being attacked, or any actual physical violence, there are no victims in this song. Sometimes the love two people have for each other is a destructive force.

But they can't have it any other way, because it's what holds them together, they enjoy the drama and pushing each other's buttons. The only way to express these extreme emotions is with extreme imagery, all of, fantasism and nothing in the song is based on reality. Leona Lewis's "Bleeding Love" isn't about her bleeding and this song isn't about punching someone in the mouth." The single was performed at Academy 1 as part of the release's promotion. The song is a regular feature of the band's performance setlist, being performed at numerous festivals in and around the UK, including Glastonbury, the NME Awards tour, the Ben & Jerry festival and the Electric Picnic among others. Florence further elaborated on her inspiration behind the song: I was 16 or 17 when I wrote this. I'd just fallen in love for the first time, I'd started hanging out with an older group of people, watching how their relationships worked. There was this one couple who were so cool, but so intense; the guy never hit the girl, but I saw her lamp him a couple of times, she'd always give as good as she got.

But it wasn't physical violence, it was more about the fact that their animal passion for each other was the thing, attractive for them. It was how joyful destruction can be, how alluring it is to be in a relationship so fiery. There was never a dull moment. I don't know how they do it! I'm a conflict avoider. I think I write about such intense things because I'm really bad at expressing anger. MusicOMH questioned the song by saying "Those lyrics are to prove pretty contentious - is Welch condoning domestic violence with lines like "a kiss with a fist is better than none"? Or is it a character sketch of a woman cowed into submission by her violent lover?" but finished that paragraph by saying "Whatever the meaning, this is an exhilarating debut single." Leedsmusicscene.net gave the song three stars out of five, saying that "The single sees a punchy garage-blues racket accompaniment to Florence, who sticks to the fore throughout by belting out a soulful yet feisty Joplin-esque growl." They went on to say about the B-side, "Florence belts out another powerful vocal on Cold War Kids cover'Hospital Beds', this time over the top of a more subdued, but no less apt, acoustic guitar line."

Boomkat.com reviewed the song:"You can't help but make links between this and The Crystals' "He Hit Me". That said the song itself sounds a bit more like The White Stripes' "We're Going to Be Friends", all fine and dandy. Florence sounds reasonably rooted in DIY roughness and she puts plenty of character into everything she does; the B-side is a cover of "Hospital Beds" by Cold War Kids, which showcases Florence's voice."411mania.com described "Kiss with a Fist" as a track featuring punky and assertive female vocals built around the controversial notion that "A kiss with a fist is better than none". The B-side and the band's cover of "Hospital Beds" by the Cold War Kids has been described as "exemplifing their acoustic bar/pub goodness". "Kiss with a Fist" debuted at #58 on the UK Singles Chart on 16 August 2008. The following week it rose seven places to #51 and in total spending two weeks within the top 100; the single is Florence + The Machine's fifth most successful single to-date, outpeaking "Drumming Song".

As of July 2018 in United Kingdom combined sales stand at 135,000. On 4 June 2008 the music

Art n' Soul

Art n' Soul is an American contemporary R&B group, active in the mid 1990s. The band consisted of Rodney Lattrel Evans and Dion Riley. Prior to forming Art n' Soul, Bostic attempted a solo career under Atlantic Records with his 1985 debut album Circuitry. After the album stalled, he turned to production for other artists such as E-40, The Conscious Daughters, 2Pac and Master P, he returned to performing as the founder and leader of Art n' Soul with fellow members Rodney Lattrel Evans and Dion Riley. Tony! Toni! Toné! Drummer Timothy Christian Riley helped the trio secure a recording contract with Atlantic Records subsidiary Big Beat Records to release their 1996 debut Touch of Soul, their debut album yielded two singles: "Ever Since You Went Away" and "All My Luv". Sam Bostic released his second solo album Soul Supreme on Soul Jones/Expansion Records in the UK in November 2008; the album was released stateside on Bostic's boutique imprint House Of Soul Recordings in 2011 and featured the single "Zodiac Sign", co-written by Raphael Saadiq.

Bostic is the nephew of jazz saxophonist Earl Bostic. Art n' Soul at AllMusic

Fossil Springs Wilderness

Fossil Springs Wilderness is an 11,550-acre wilderness area within the Coconino National Forest in the U. S. state of Arizona. It is at the bottom of a steep canyon at the edge of the Colorado Plateau, just south of the Mogollon Rim. Here, water emerges at the surface at the rate of about 2,700 cubic feet per minute; the perennial water supply supports one of the most diverse riparian ecosystems in the state, with more than 30 species of trees set among native desert shrub. It creates a haven for abundant wildlife, including elk, javelina, skunk, ring-tailed cat, mountain lion, black bear and more than 100 species of birds. Fossil Creek List of U. S. Wilderness Areas List of Arizona Wilderness Areas Wilderness Act Fossil Springs Wilderness - Coconino National Forest

Hermann Rhodén

Hermann Rhodén is a Norwegian former professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Grorud IL in the 2. Divisjon. Rhodén was born in Drammen, grew up in Krokstadelva, he spent his youth years before signing with Strømsgodset's youth team. Rhodén got his first team Tippeliga debut for Strømsgodset in the away match against Start on 3 April 2011. Without a professional contract at the time, Rhodén was included in the squad due to injuries, when Adam Larsen Kwarasey was sent off in the 9th minute, he had to step up. Although his team lost 1-5, the goalkeeper was praised for his debut, he spent the 2012 season on loan to Third Division side Vestfossen IF. He signed a professional contract with Strømsgodset on 4 April 2013, lasting until the end of the 2014 season. Rhodén was the backup goalkeeper for the first half of the title-winning 2013 season, but did not feature in any matches, he played for the reserve team in the Norwegian 2nd Division, before being sent on loan to local 3rd Division team Stoppen SK for the second half of the season.

In 2014, he signed for 2. Divisjon club Drammen FK on a season-long loan; the loan deal was made permanent after the 2014 season. Rhodén is known in Norway from the NRK reality show "Nummer 1 - Norges største keepertalent", where former Norwegian internationals Frode Grodås and Stig Inge Bjørnebye searched for the best goalkeeper talent in Norway between the ages 15 and 17. In the show, aired in 2011, Rhodén came third; as of match played 30 July 2014 Strømsgodset Tippeligaen: 2013

Yasuo Matsuyama

Yasuo Matsuyama is a Japanese researcher in machine learning and human-aware information processing. Matsuyama is a Professor Emeritus and an Honorary Researcher of the Research Institute of Science and Engineering of Waseda University. Matsuyama received his bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees in electrical engineering from Waseda University in 1969, 1971, 1974 respectively; the dissertation title for the Doctor of Engineering is Studies on Stochastic Modeling of Neurons. There, he contributed to the spiking neurons with stochastic pulse-frequency modulation. Advisors were Jun’ichi Takagi, Kageo and Katsuhiko Shirai. Upon the completion of the doctoral work at Waseda University, he was dispatched to the United States as a Japan-U. S. Exchange fellow by the joint program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Fulbright Program, the Institute of International Education. Through this exchange program, he completed his Ph. D. program at Stanford University in 1978. The dissertation title is Process Distortion Measures and Signal Processing.

There, he contributed to the theory of probabilistic distortion measures and its applications to speech encoding with spectral clustering or vector quantization. His advisor was Robert. M. Gray. From 1977 to 1078, Matsuyama was a research assistant at the Inofrmation Systems Laboratory of Stanford University. From 1979 to 1996, he was a faculty of Japan. Since 1996, he was a Professor of Department of Computer Science and Engineering. From 2011 to 2013, he was the director of the Media Network Center of Waseda University. At the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, he was in charge of the safety inquiry of 65,000 students and faculties. Since 2017, Matsuyama is a Professor Emeritus and an Honorary Researcher of the Research Institute of Science and Engineering of Waseda University. Since 2018, he serves as an acting president of the Waseda Electrical Engineering Society. Matsuyama’s works on machine learning and human-aware information processing have dual foundations. Studies on the competitive learning for his Ph.

D. at Stanford University brought about his succeeding works on machine learning contributions. Studies on stochastic spiking neurons for his Dr. Engineering at Waseda University set off applications of biological signals to the machine learning. Thus, his works can be grouped reflecting these dual foundations. Statistical machine learning algorithms: The use of the alpha-logarithmic likelihood ratio in learning cycles generated the alpha-EM algorithm; because the alpha-logarithm includes the usual logarithm, the alpha-EM algorithm contains the EM-algorithm. The merit of the speedup by the alpha-EM over the log-EM is due to the ability to utilize the past information; such a usage of the messages from the past brought about the alpha-HMM estimation algorithm, a generalized and faster version of the hidden Markov model estimation algorithm. Competitive learning on empirical data: Starting from the speech compression studies at Stanford, Matsuyama developed generalized competitive learning algorithms.

The former realizes the multiple-object optimization. The latter admits deformable centroids. Both algorithms generalize the batch-mode vector quantization and the successive-mode vector quantization. A hierarchy from the alpha-EM to the vector quantization: Matsuyama contributed to generate and identify the hierarchy of the above algorithms. Alpha-EM ⊃ log-EM ⊃ basic competitive learning. On the class of the vector quantization and competitive learning, he contributed to generate and identify the hierarchy of VQs. VQ ⇔ ⊂ ⊂. Applications to Human-aware information processing: The dual foundations of his led to the applications to huma-aware information processing. Retrieval systems for similar images and videos. Bipedal humanoid operations via noninvasive brain signals as well as gestures. Continuous authentication of uses by brain signals. Self-organization and emotional feature injection based on the competitive learning. Decomposition of DNA sequences by the independent component analysis. Data compression of speech signals by the competitive learning.

The above theories and applications work as contributions to IoCT and IoXT. 2016: e-Teaching Award of Waseda University 2015: Best Textbook Award by the Japanese Society of Information Processing 2014: Fellow of the Japanese Society of Information Processing 2013: IEEE Life Fellow 2008: Y. Dote Memorial Best Paper Award of CSTST 2008 from ACM and IEEE 2006: LSI Intellectual Property Design Award from the LSI IP Committee 2004: Best Paper Award for Application Oriented Research from Asia Pacific Neural Network Assembly 2002: Fellow Award from the Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers 2001: Telecommunication System Major Award of the Telecommunications Advancement Foundation 2001: Outstanding Paper Award of IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 1998: Fellow Award from IEEE 1992: Best Paper Award from the Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers 1989: Telecommunication System Promotion Award of the Telecommunications Advancement Foundation Yasuo Matsuyama