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National Film Board of Canada

The National Film Board of Canada is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary films, web documentaries, alternative dramas. In total, the NFB has produced over 3,000 productions since its inception, which have won over 5,000 awards; the NFB reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. It has English-language and French-language production branches. 1939: The government of Canada proposes the creation of a National Film Commission to complement the activities of the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau. The legislation stipulates that the NFB was to “make and distribute films designed to help Canadians in all parts of Canada to understand the ways of living and the problems of Canadians in other parts.” Legislation stated that the NFB would co-ordinate the film activities of federal departments. 1950: Canada's Parliament passes the National Film Act, which states that NFB's mandate is "to produce and distribute and to promote the production and distribution of films designed to interpret Canada to Canadians and to other nations."

This act stipulates that the NFB is to engage in film research. 1965: As a result of a report written by producer Gordon Sheppard on Canadian cultural policies and activities, the NFB began regionalizing its English production activities, with producers appointed in major cities across Canada. 1984: Minister of Communications Francis Fox released a National Film and Video Policy, which added two new elements to the mandate, with the NFB tasked with being "a world centre of excellence in production of films and videos" and "a national training and research centre in the art and technique of film and video." 2008: The NFB announces a Strategic Plan that includes its first digital strategy. The National Film Board maintains its head office in Saint-Laurent, a borough of Montreal, in the Norman McLaren electoral district, named in honour of the NFB animation pioneer; the NFB HQ building is named for McLaren, is home to much of its production activity. In spring 2019, the NFB moved its headquarters from the Norman McLaren Building in the Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent to the new Îlot Balmoral building located at Montreal's Quartier des spectacles, adjacent to the Place des Festivals square.

The NFB will occupy the first six floors of the building, which will allow it to have closer contact with the public, will feature expanded digital media research and production facilities. In addition to the English and French-language studios in its Montreal HQ, there are centres throughout Canada. English-language production occurs at centres in Toronto, Edmonton and Halifax; as of October 2009, the Atlantic Centre operates an office in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. In June 2011, the NFB appointed a producer to work with film and digital media makers across Saskatchewan, to be based in Regina. Outside Quebec, French language productions are made in Moncton and Toronto; the NFB offers support programs for independent filmmakers: in English, via the Filmmaker Assistance Program and in French through its Aide du cinéma indépendant – Canada program. The organization has a hierarchical structure headed by a Board of Trustees, chaired by the Government Film Commissioner and NFB Chairperson.

It is overseen by the Board of Trustees Legal Affairs. Funding is derived from government of Canada transfer payments, from its own revenue streams; these revenues are from print sales, film production services and royalties, total up to $10 million yearly. As a result of cuts imposed by 2012 Canadian federal budget, by 2015 the NFB's public funding will be reduced by $6.7 million, to $60.3 million. As part of the 2016 Canadian federal budget, the NFB will receive an additional $13.5 million in funding, spread out over a five-year period. In 1938, the Government of Canada invited John Grierson, a British documentary film producer who introduced the term "documentary" to English-speaking film criticism, to study the state of the government's film production. Up to that date, the Government Motion Picture Bureau, established in 1918, had been the major Canadian film producer; the results of Grierson's report were included in the National Film Act of 1939. In 1939, the Act led to the establishment of the National Film Commission, subsequently renamed the National Film Board.

The NFB was founded in part to create propaganda in support of the Second World War. In 1940, with Canada at war, the NFB launched its Canada Carries On series of morale boosting theatrical shorts; the success of Canada Carries On led to the creation of The World in Action, more geared to international audiences. In this period, other NFB films were issued as newsreels, such as The War Is Over, intended for theatrical showings; these films were based on current news and tackled wartime events as well as contemporary issues in Canadian culture. Early in its history, the NFB was a English-speaking institution. Based in Ottawa, 90% of its staff were English and the few French Canadians in production worked with English crews. There was a French Unit, responsible for versioning films into French but it was headed by an Anglophone, and in NFB annual reports of the time, French films were listed under "foreign languages". Scr

Ira G. Rawn

Ira Griffith Rawn was General Manager of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from 1904 to 1907, vice president of Illinois Central Railroad from 1907 to 1909 and president of Monon Railroad from November 1909 until his death. Ira G. Rawn was born on August 20, 1855, in Delaware, the son of Peter and Sarah Rawn. By 1870, at age 15, Ira Rawn was listed in the 1870 U. S. census as a telegraph operator. Rawn began his railway career with the Big Four Railroad in 1880 as a telegraph operator and was subsequently promoted to trainmaster. In 1887 he took the position of Master of Transportation for Kentucky Central Railroad. In 1889 he became the Division Superintendent and Superintendent of Transportation for Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad became General Superintendent of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's Southwestern division in 1890. In 1904 Rawn was appointed General Manager of the B&O, he left the B&O to become the Vice President of Operations for Illinois Central Railroad in 1907 was elected president of the Monon Railroad in 1909.

His term as president of the Monon began on November 1, 1909, ended with his death on July 20, 1910. The Illinois Central filed suit in Chicago Circuit Court on June 6, 1910, alleging that when it closed its own car repair shops in 1906, several executives of the railroad conspired to defraud it of large amounts of money through overcharging on repair contracts. Rawn's involvement was alleged to be the executive who approved the contracts while knowing that the contractors were deliberately overcharging. Other reports indicate. Rawn died from a gunshot on July 1910, at his home in Winnetka, a suburb of Chicago. Reports at the time note that the injury may have been self-inflicted as legal proceedings had implicated Rawn as responsible for corrupt railway car repair contracts with the Illinois Central Railroad from which the railroad lost more than $1 million, he had been called to the witness stand several times in the weeks leading up to his death but had only answered a few questions and had been permitted to leave for various reasons several times.

Although his family members claimed that the wound was incurred in self-defense from a burglar, investigating police at the scene disputed this assertion. Pinkertons investigated into Rawn's death and found evidence to support the family's claim of self-defense. Reports surfaced that a second bullet was found in the fireplace ashes near his body, on July 22, coroner Peter Hoffman announced that he had received a letter identifying a black man by name as the burglar but Hoffman would not divulge the name, in the letter except to police investigating the case, but a subsequent inquest into his death ruled after lengthy deliberation on July 29 in favor of the opinion that Rawn was killed by a shot from his own weapon, fired by his own hand. The inquest did not, affirm whether it was a suicide attempt or an accident. A month after his death, there was an attempt to steal papers related to the scandal from the home of his daughter and son-in-law while they were out of town, but the theft was interrupted by a watchman.

Ira Rawn was buried in Rosehill Cemetery on July 22, 1910. Ira Rawn married Florence Willis on October 5, 1880, in Delaware and together they had three daughters: Sarah Elizabeth and Florence, he was survived by Florence. Photo of Ira G. Rawn from the Chicago Daily News collection

George J. Turner

George J. Turner was the treasurer of the South Atlantic Association when he was elected president of the Amateur Athletic Union from 1915 to 1916. During his tenure the AAU joined with the Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America to set the rules that defined amateur sports, he was born in Baltimore, Maryland on August 1873. He attended Mount Saint Mary's College, he was a coach for the Baltimore Athletic Club rowing team and they were unbeaten in 1896. He was the treasurer of the South Atlantic Association when he was elected president of the Amateur Athletic Union in 1915 to replace Alfred John Lill Jr, he served as head of the AAU from 1915 to 1916. His first duty at the Amateur Athletic Union was to suspend Abel Kiviat, who had requested excessive expense money for running in a track meet in Troy, New York, he died January 9, 1936, was buried in New Cathedral Cemetery, Baltimore City, Maryland