Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition and he continued throughout his career to paint nude subjects drawn from mythology and religion. He had a workshop and many works exist in different versions, his son Lucas Cranach the Younger. Lucas Cranach the Elder has been considered the most successful German artist of his time and he was born at Kronach in upper Franconia, probably in 1472. His exact date of birth is unknown and he learned the art of drawing from his father Hans Maler. His mother, with surname Hübner, died in 1491, the name of his birthplace was used for his surname, another custom of the times. How Cranach was trained is not known, but it was probably with local south German masters, as with his contemporary Matthias Grünewald, there are suggestions that Cranach spent some time in Vienna around 1500. According to Gunderam Cranach demonstrated his talents as a painter before the close of the 15th century and his work drew the attention of Duke Friedrich III, Elector of Saxony, known as Frederick the Wise, who attached Cranach to his court in 1504.
Cranach was to remain in the service of the Elector and his successors for the rest of his life, Cranach married Barbara Brengbier, the daughter of a burgher of Gotha and born there, she died at Wittenberg on 26 December 1540. Cranach owned a house at Gotha, but most likely he got to know Barbara near Wittenberg, where her family owned a house. The first evidence of Cranachs skill as an artist comes in a picture dated 1504, in 1509 Cranach went to the Netherlands, and painted the Emperor Maximilian and the boy who afterwards became Emperor Charles V. Until 1508 Cranach signed his works with his initials, in that year the elector gave him the winged snake as an emblem, or Kleinod, which superseded the initials on his pictures after that date. Cranach was the painter to the electors of Saxony in Wittenberg. His patrons were powerful supporters of Martin Luther, and Cranach used his art as a symbol of the new faith, Cranach made numerous portraits of Luther, and provided woodcut illustrations for Luthers German translation of the Bible.
Somewhat the duke conferred on him the monopoly of the sale of medicines at Wittenberg, Cranachs presses were used by Martin Luther. His apothecary shop was open for centuries, and was only lost by fire in 1871, like his patron, was friendly with the Protestant Reformers at a very early stage, yet it is difficult to fix the time of his first meeting with Martin Luther. The oldest reference to Cranach in Luthers correspondence dates from 1520, in a letter written from Worms in 1521, Luther calls him his gossip, warmly alluding to his Gevatterin, the artists wife. He was godfather to their first child, Johannes Hans Luther, in 1530 Luther lived at the citadel of Veste Coburg under the protection of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and his room is preserved there along with a painting of him
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with ideas about the nature of materials. A tendency away from the narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, more recent artistic production is often called contemporary art or postmodern art. Matisses two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting, analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, from about 1908 through 1912. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, collage elements, papier collé, the notion of modern art is closely related to modernism. Although modern sculpture and architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern painting can be located earlier.
The date perhaps most commonly identified as marking the birth of art is 1863. Earlier dates have proposed, among them 1855 and 1784. In the words of art historian H, harvard Arnason, Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a completely new beginning. A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years, the strands of thought that eventually led to modern art can be traced back to the Enlightenment, and even to the 17th century. The important modern art critic Clement Greenberg, for instance, called Immanuel Kant the first real Modernist but drew a distinction, The Enlightenment criticized from the outside. The French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and this gave rise to what art historian Ernst Gombrich called a self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper. The pioneers of art were Romantics and Impressionists.
By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in art had begun to emerge. The advocates of realism stood against the idealism of the academic art that enjoyed public. The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters unions, while governments regularly held exhibitions of new fine
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was a Danish painter. He was born in Blåkrog in the Duchy of Schleswig, to Henrik Vilhelm Eckersberg and carpenter and he went on to lay the foundation for the period of art known as the Golden Age of Danish Painting, and is referred to as the Father of Danish painting. In 1786 his family moved to Blans, a village near the picturesque Alssund, where he enjoyed drawing pictures of the surrounding countryside, after confirmation he began his training as a painter under church- and portrait painter, Jes Jessen of Aabenraa. He continued his training at 17 years of age under Josiah Jacob Jessen in Flensborg and he, had his sights set on being accepted at the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen. Still under apprenticeship he produced proficient drawings and paintings, having amassed some money, including financial support from local well-wishers, he arrived at Copenhagens Tollbooth on 23 May 1803. He was accepted into the Academy without payment in 1803 where he studied with Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard and he made good progress, painting historical paintings and landscapes.
However, friction between him and Abildgaard impeded his advancement, and he did not win the Academys big gold medal until 1809 and he worked to earn living money as a hand laborer, and he made drawings for copperplate etchings. Although he received promise of a stipend in conjunction with the gold medal. On 1 July 1810, he married E. Christine Rebecca Hyssing against his wishes, in order to legitimize a son, Erling Carl Vilhelm Eckersberg and his son, eventually followed in his fathers footsteps with an Academy education, and a career as a copperplate engraver. On 3 July, a few days after the wedding, he began his travels out of the country, along with Tønnes Christian Bruun de Neergaard, enthusiastic art lover and financial supporter, he made his way over Germany to Paris. Here he studied under neoclassicist Jacques-Louis David from 1811-1812 and he improved his skills in painting the human form, and followed his teachers admonition to paint after Nature and the Antique in order to find Truth.
It was here that he developed a friendship with Paris roommate, fellow artist Jens Peter Møller. After two years he traveled further via Florence to Rome where he continued his studies between 1813-1816 and he worked on improving his skills as a history painter, and enjoyed painting smaller studies of the local life and area. He lived there three years among a group of artists, with Bertel Thorvaldsen as the cultural head. Eckersberg and Thorvaldsen developed a lasting relationship, and the master served the younger Eckersberg as both loyal friend and advisor. Eckersberg painted one of his best portraits, a portrait of Thorvaldsen, in Rome 1814, life in Rome agreed with him, and he was greatly affected by the bright southern light he experienced there. He produced a body of work during those years, including a number of exceptional landscape studies. His divorce from Hyssing was finalized during his stay out of the country, shortly after his return to Denmark he arranged for his admission into the Academy, and received as the subject of his admissions painting the Norse legend, the Death of Baldur
German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art. Germany has only been united into a state since the 19th century. From the development of Romanesque art and Italy began to lead developments for the rest of the Middle Ages, the area of modern Germany is rich in finds of prehistoric art, including the Venus of Hohle Fels. The spectacular finds of Bronze Age golden hats are centred on Germany, as was the form of Urnfield culture. After lengthy wars, the Roman Empire settled its frontiers in Germania with the Limes Germanicus to include much of the south, rheinzabern was one of the largest, which has been well-excavated and has a dedicated museum. Non-Romanized areas of the Roman period fall under Migration Period art, notable for metalwork, especially jewellry. German medieval art really begins with the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, the most common type of object to survive is the illuminated manuscript, wall paintings were evidently common but, like the buildings that housed them, have nearly all vanished.
The earlier centres of illumination were located in modern France, but Metz in Lorraine, the Drogo Sacramentary and Folchard Psalter are among the manuscripts they produced. The Reichenau style uses simplified and patterned shapes to create expressive images, far from the classical aspirations of Carolingian art. As in the rest of Europe, metalwork was still the most prestigious form of art, in works like the jewelled Cross of Lothair, made about 1000, Romanesque art was the first artistic movement to encompass the whole of Western Europe, though with regional varieties. Germany was a part of the movement, though German Romanesque architecture made rather less use of sculpture than that of France. With increasing prosperity massive churches were built in all over Germany. The French invented the Gothic style, and Germany was slow to adopt it, but once it had done so Germans made it their own and Early Gothic churches had wall paintings in local versions of international styles, of which few artists names are known.
The court of the Holy Roman Emperor, based in Prague, the style was spread around the wealthy cities of Northern Germany by artists such Conrad von Soest in Westphalia and Meister Bertram in Hamburg, and Stefan Lochner in Cologne. Hanseatic artists painted commissions for Baltic cities in Scandinavia and the modern Baltic states to the east, in the south, the Master of the Bamberg Altar is the first significant painter based in Nuremberg, while the Master of Heiligenkreuz and Michael Pacher worked in Austria. Indeed Late Gothic Baroque is a sometimes used to describe hyper-decorated and emotional 15th-century art. His predecessors were the Master of the Playing Cards and Master E. S. both from the Upper Rhine region, German conservatism is shown in the late use of gold backgrounds, still used by many artists well into the 15th century. Dürer worked on the most extravagantly illustrated book of the period, after completing his apprenticeship in 1490, Dürer travelled in Germany for four years, and Italy for a few months, before establishing his own workshop in Nuremberg
Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman and sculptor, but is primarily as a painter. Although he was labelled a Fauve, by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. His mastery of the language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century. Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in northern France and he grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, France. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law, working as an administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification. He first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered a kind of paradise as he described it. In 1891 he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau, initially he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency.
Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired, as an art student he made copies of four of Chardins paintings in the Louvre, in 1896 and 1897, Matisse visited the Australian painter John Peter Russell on the island Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of van Gogh and he said Russell was my teacher, and Russell explained colour theory to me. In 1896 Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, with the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, born in 1894. In 1898 he married Amélie Noellie Parayre, the two raised Marguerite together and had two sons and Pierre, Marguerite and Amélie often served as models for Matisse. In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and went on a trip to Corsica. Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy, Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired.
The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, in Cézannes sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration. Many of Matisses paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signacs essay and his paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910
Many of his works were in the royal Christiansborg Palace, Fredensborg Palace, and Levetzau Palace at Amalienborg. Abildgaard had studied at the Academy from 1764 to 1767, worked there as apprentice, and moved to Rome in 1772–1777 and he returned to the Academy in Copenhagen, promoted to professor in 1778, and elected as Academy Director during 1789–1791 and 1801–1809. He was assigned as a royal artist/decorator during 1780 to 1805, Abildgaard was married twice, in 1781 and 1803. Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard was born on September 11,1743 in Copenhagen, Denmark, as the son of Søren Abildgaard, a draughtsman of repute. He was trained by a master before he joined the New Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen. He won a series of medallions at the Academy for his brilliance from 1764 to 1767, the large gold medallion from the Academy won in 1767 included a travel stipend, which he waited five years to receive. He assisted Professor Mandelberg of the Academy as an apprentice around 1769 and these paintings are classical, influenced by French classical artists such as Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin.
Mandelberg had studied in Paris under François Boucher, although artists of that time used to travel to Paris for further studies, but he chose to travel to Rome where he stayed from 1772 to 1777. He took a trip to Naples in 1776 with Jens Juel. His ambitions focused in the genre of history painting, while in Rome, he studied Annibale Carraccis frescoes at the Palazzo Farnese and the paintings of Rafael and Michelangelo. In addition he studied various other disciplines and developed his knowledge of mythology, anatomy. In the company of Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and painter Johann Heinrich Füssli and he developed an appreciation for the literature of Shakespeare and Ossian. He worked with themes from Greek as well as Norse mythology and he left Rome in June 1777 with the hope of becoming professor at the Academy in Copenhagen. He stopped for a stay in Paris and arrived in Denmark in December of the same year, very soon after joining the academy he was honored with the designation of Professor in 1778.
He worked as an painter of the neoclassical school. From 1777 to 1794, he was productive as an artist in addition to his role at the school. He taught painting and anatomy at the school and he produced not only monumental works, but smaller pieces such as vignettes and illustrations. He illustrated the works of Socrates and Ossian, additionally he did some sculpting and authoring
French art consists of the visual and plastic arts originating from the geographical area of France. Modern France was the centre for the European art of the Upper Paleolithic, left many megalithic monuments. With Merovingian art the story of French styles as a distinct, in France there are some 5,000 megalithics monuments, mainly in Brittany, where there is the largest concentration of these monuments. In this area there is variety of these monuments that have been well preserved, like menhirs, cromlechs. The Cairn of Gavrinis in southern Brittany is an example of megalithic art. The great broken menhir of Er-Grah, now in four pieces was more than 20 meters high originally, France has numerous painted stones, polished stone axes, and inscribed menhirs from this period. The Grand-Pressigny area was known for its precious silex blades and they were exported during the Neolithic. In France from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age, one finds a variety of archaeological cultures, 4500–4000 BC, Beaker culture of c.
2800–1900 BC, Tumulus culture of c, 1600–1200 BC, Urnfield culture of c. 1300–800 BC, and, in a transition to the Iron Age, for more on Prehistoric sites in Western France, see Prehistory of Brittany. This art drew on native and perhaps, the Mediterranean, the Celts of Gaul are known through numerous tombs and burial mounds found throughout France. The Celtic Vix grave in present-day Burgundy revealed the largest bronze crater of the Antiquity, the region of Gaul came under the rule of the Roman Empire from the first century BC to the fifth century AD. Southern France, and especially Provence and Languedoc, is known for its many intact Gallo-Roman monuments, modern Lyon, was at the time of the Roman Empire the largest city outside Italy and gave birth to two Roman Emperors. The city still boasts some Roman remains including a Theater, Merovingian art is the art and architecture of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks, which lasted from the fifth century to the eighth century in present-day France and Germany.
The advent of the Merovingian dynasty in Gaul during the century led to important changes in the arts. In architecture, there was no longer the desire to build robust, sculpture regressed to being little more than a simple technique for the ornamentation of sarcophagi and ecclesiastical furniture. The unification of the Frankish kingdom under Clovis I and his successors, the plans for them probably were copied from Roman basilicas. Unfortunately, these structures have not survived because of destruction by fire
Since ancient times, Greeks and Celts have inhabited the south and north of the Italian peninsula respectively. Ancient Rome finally emerged as the dominant Italian and European power, Italy retained its artistic dominance into the 17th century with Mannerism and the Baroque, and cultural tourism became a major prop to an otherwise faltering economy. In the 18th century Neoclassicism originated in Rome, but this was the last such Italian-born style that spread to all Western art, Italian art has influenced several major movements throughout the centuries and has produced several great artists, including painters and sculptors. Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the largest number of any country in the world, Etruscan bronze figures and a terracotta funerary reliefs include examples of a vigorous Central Italian tradition which had waned by the time Rome began building her empire on the peninsula. The Etruscan paintings that have survived to modern times are mostly wall frescoes from graves and these are the most important example of pre-Roman figurative art in Italy known to scholars.
The frescoes consist of painting on top of fresh plaster, so that when the plaster is dried the painting part of the plaster and an integral part of the wall. Colours were made from stones and minerals in different colours that ground up and mixed in a medium, from the mid 4th century BC chiaroscuro began to be used to portray depth and volume. Sometimes scenes of life are portrayed, but more often traditional mythological scenes. The concept of proportion does not appear in any surviving frescoes, one of the best-known Etruscan frescoes is that of Tomb of the Lioness at Tarquinia. The Etruscan were responsible for constructing Romes earliest monumental buildings, Roman temples and houses were closely based on Etruscan models. Elements of Etruscan influence in Roman temples included the podium and the emphasis on the front at the expense of the three sides. Large Etruscan houses were grouped around a hall in much the same way as Roman town Large houses were built around an atrium. The influence of Etruscan architecture gradually declined during the republic in the face of influences from elsewhere, Etruscan architecture was itself influenced by the Greeks, so that when the Romans adopted Greek styles, it was not a totally alien culture.
During the 2nd century BC, the flow of these works, by the end of the republic, when Vitruvius wrote his treatise on architecture, Greek architectural theory and example were dominant. With the expansion of the empire, Roman architecture spread over a wide area, in many areas elements of style were influenced by local tastes, particularly decoration, but the architecture remained recognizably Roman. Styles of vernacular architecture were influenced to varying degrees by Roman architecture, by the 1st century AD, Rome had become the biggest and most advanced city in the world. The ancient Romans came up with new technologies to improve the citys sanitation systems and they developed a system of aqueducts that piped freshwater into the city, and they built sewers that removed the citys waste. The wealthiest Romans lived in houses with gardens
Danish Golden Age
The Danish Golden Age covers a period of exceptional creative production in Denmark, especially during the first half of the 19th century. Although Copenhagen had suffered fires and national bankruptcy. It saw the development of Danish architecture in the Neoclassical style, Copenhagen, in particular, acquired a new look, with buildings designed by Christian Frederik Hansen and by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. In relation to music, the Golden Age covers figures inspired by Danish romantic nationalism including J. P. E. Hartmann, Hans Christian Lumbye, Niels W. Gade, literature centred on Romantic thinking, introduced in 1802 by the Norwegian-German philosopher Henrik Steffens. Key contributors were Adam Oehlenschläger, Bernhard Severin Ingemann, N. F. S. Grundtvig and, last but not least, Hans Christian Andersen, Søren Kierkegaard furthered philosophy while Hans Christian Ørsted achieved fundamental progress in science. The Golden Age thus had an effect not only on life in Denmark but, with time.
The origins of the Golden Age can be traced back to around the beginning of the 19th century, this was a very rough period for Denmark. Copenhagen, the centre of the intellectual life, first experienced huge fires in 1794 and 1795 which destroyed both Christiansborg Palace and large areas of the inner city. In 1801, as a result of the involvement in the League of Armed Neutrality. Then in 1813, as a result of the inability to support the costs of war. To make matters worse, Norway ceased to be part of the Danish realm when it was ceded to Sweden the following year, Copenhagens devastation nevertheless provided new opportunities. Architects and planners widened the streets, constructing beautifully designed Neoclassical buildings offering a brighter yet intimate look, at the time, with a population of only 100,000, the city was still quite small, built within the confines of the old ramparts. As a result, the figures of the day met frequently, sharing their ideas, bringing the arts. Henrik Steffens was perhaps the most effective proponent of the Romantic idea, in a series of lectures in Copenhagen, he successfully conveyed the ideas behind German romanticism to the Danes.
Influential thinkers, such as Oehlenschläger and Grundtvig were quick to take up his views and it was not long before Danes from all branches of the arts and sciences were involved in a new era of Romantic nationalism, known as the Danish Golden Age. Especially in the field of painting, change became apparent, grand historical art gave way to more widely appealing but less pretentious genre paintings and landscapes. The Golden Age is generally believed to have lasted until about 1850, around that time, Danish culture suffered from the outbreak of the First Schleswig War. In addition, political reforms involving the end of the monarchy in 1848
Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, known as Pablo Picasso, was a Spanish painter, printmaker, stage designer and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, Picassos work is often categorized into periods. Much of Picassos work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style and his work often combines elements of his earlier styles. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. His mother was of one quarter Italian descent, from the territory of Genoa, though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would on become an atheist. Picassos family was of middle-class background and his father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game.
For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts, Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were piz, piz, a shortening of lápiz, from the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was an academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork, the family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his sketch of a pigeon. In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his sister, Conchita. After her death, the moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home, Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class.
This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, the student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in life. His father rented a room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day. Picassos father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrids Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrolment