Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
Silchar is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. It is 343 kilometres south east of Guwahati. Being politically stable in the otherwise disturbed Northeast earned it the bon mot of “Island of Peace” from India's prime minister Indira Gandhi. During the British rule, ships were docked at the bank of the river Barak. A market developed at the bank and became a major place of economic activity; the bank was covered with stones to help dock ships and vessels, the market was developed at a place, covered with stones. People started to refer to the place as Shiler Chor, meaning "a bank of stones". With the passage of time, Shiler Chor was simplified to Silchar, the British officials started to use the name Silchar in their official documents referring to the surrounding area of the market, thus Silchar became the official name of the place. In the 1850s, British tea planters re-discovered the game polo in Manipur on the Burmese border with India; the first polo club in the world was formed at Silchar.
The first competitive modern form of polo was played in Silchar, the plaque for this feat still stands behind the District Library, Silchar. Silchar saw one of the uprisings in favour of the Bengali language; when the Assam government, under Chief Minister Bimala Prasad Chaliha, passed a circular to make Assamese mandatory, Bengalis of Barak Valley protested. On 19 May 1961, Assam police opened fire on unarmed protesters at Silchar railway station. Eleven martyrs had laid down their lives at Silchar Railway Station for the sake of Bengalis. Kanailal Niyogi Chandicharan Sutradhar Hitesh Biswas Satyendra Deb Kumud Ranjan Das Sunil Sarkar Tarani Debnath Sachindra Chandra Pal Birendra Sutradhar Sukamal Purakayastha Kamala BhattacharyaAfter the popular revolt, the Assam government had to withdraw the circular and Bengali was given official status in the three districts of Barak Valley. Section 5 of Assam Act XVIII, 1961, safeguards the use of Bengali in the Cachar district, it says, “Without prejudice to the provisions contained in Section 3, the Bengali language shall be used for administrative and other official purposes up to and including district level.”
ONGC has its base located at Srikona, near Silchar, known as Cachar Forward Base with ongoing operations in Tripura and Barak Valley. Cachar Paper Mill is the only major industrial undertaking in south Assam and the adjoining states of Mizoram and Tripura. Despite lack of infrastructural facilities in a remote location, CPM has a continuous record of steady improvement. During the year 2006-07, the mill recorded the highest annual production of 1,03,155 MT registering over 103% capacity utilization, 100% during the previous year. Silchar is located in the southern part of Assam; the area of Silchar metro is 25.75 km2. It has an average elevation of 25 meters; as of 2011 India census, Silchar had a population of 2,28,324. The sex ratio of Silchar was 988 females per 1000 males, above the national ratio of 940 females per 1000 males. Silchar metropolitan region has an average literacy rate of 90.26%, higher than the national average of 84%, with male literacy of 92.90% and female literacy at 87.59%.
Hinduism is majority religion in Silchar city with 86.31% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Silchar with 12.17% following it. Jainism is followed by 0.79%, Christianity by 0.59%, Sikhism by 0.04% and Buddhism by 0.04% of the population in the Silchar city. Around 0.00% stated'Other Religion' 0.08% stated'No Particular Religion'. Silchar has a borderline tropical monsoon climate too hot in the “winter” or “cool” season to qualify as a humid subtropical climate. During this “cool” season the weather is warm and dry with cool to mild mornings. Silchar is home to the main campus of Assam University, a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams; the university, which came into existence in 1994, has 17 schools and 35 post-graduate departments under them. The university has 56 affiliated colleges under it; the colleges in Silchar are affiliated with the Assam university. National Institute of Technology, Silchar Triguna Sen School of Technology, Assam University, Silchar ALL INDIA INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION --SILCHAR REGION--NATIONAL LEVEL COMPUTER ORGANIZATION Silchar Polytechnic ARIIT C-DAC NIELIT NIAIMT Ramanuj Gupta Junior College Guru Charan College Cachar College Women's College Radhamadhab College Lalit jain commerce college Silchar Medical College and Hospital, established in 1968, serves the southern region of Assam.
There is an Institute of Pharmacy attached to it. A. K. ChandaLaw College at Tarapur. Silchar Airport is located at about 22 km from Silchar. Silchar has been selected as one of the towns for the construction of 51 low-cost airports across the country recently. In December 1985, Air India operated the first all-woman crew flight in the world from Kolkata to Silchar, commanded by Captain Saudamini Deshmukh on a Fokker F-27 Friendship aircraft. Silchar is part of the Silchar; the current member of Parliament from Silchar is Sushmita Dev who i
FASTag is an electronic toll collection system in India, operated by the National Highway Authority of India. It employs Radio Frequency Identification technology for making toll payments directly from the prepaid or savings account linked to it, it is affixed on the windscreen of the vehicle and enables to drive through toll plazas without stopping for transactions. The tag can be purchased from official Tag issuers or participating Banksand if it is linked to a prepaid account recharging or top-up can be as per requirement; as per NHAI, FASTag has unlimited validity. 7.5% cashback offers were provided to promote the use of FASTag. Dedicated Lanes at some Toll plazas have been built for FASTag. In January 2019, state-run oil marketing companies IOC, BPCL and HPCL have signed MoUs enabling the use of FASTag to make purchases at petrol pumps; the system was set up as a pilot project in 2014 on the stretch of the Golden Quadrilateral between Ahmedabad and Mumbai. The system was implemented on the Delhi - Mumbai arm of the Quadrilateral on 4 November 2014.
In July 2015, toll plazas on the Chennai - Bengaluru stretch of the Golden Quadrilateral started accepting FASTag payments. By April 2016, FASTag was rolled out to 247 toll plazas on national highways across India, representing 70% of all toll plazas in the country at the time. By 23 November 2016, 347 fee plazas out of 366 on national highways across the country accept FASTag payments. On 1 October 2017, the NHAI launched a FASTag lane in all 370 toll plazas under its ambit. On 8 November 2017, it was followed up by making FASTag mandatory on all new vehicles sold in India after December 2017. Webpage for FASTag on NHAI website
Srinagar is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It lies in the Kashmir Valley on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus, Dal and Anchar lakes; the city is known for its natural environment, gardens and houseboats. It is known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts and dried fruits, it is the northernmost city of India with over 1 million people. The earliest records, such as Kalhana's Rajatarangini, the name Siri-nagar is mentioned, which in turn is a local transformation of the Sanskrit name Sūrya-nagar, meaning "City of the Sun"; the name Sri-nagar is used in the records of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. Alternatively, it may have drawn its name from two Sanskrit words: śrī, nagar, which would make it the "City of Wealth"; the Burzahom archaeological site 10 km from Srinagar has revealed the presence of neolithic and megalithic cultures. According to Kalhana's 12th century text Rajatarangini, a king named Pravarasena II established a new capital named Pravarapura.
Based on topographical details, Pravarapura appears to be same as the modern city of Srinagar. Aurel Stein dates the king to 6th century. Kalhana mentions. Kalhana describes this town in hyperbolic terms, stating that it had "9,600,000 houses resplendent with wealth". According to Kalhana, this Ashoka reigned before 1182 BCE and was a member of the dynasty founded by Godhara. Kalhana states that this king adopted the doctrine of Jina, constructed stupas and Shiva temples, appeased Bhutesha to obtain his son Jalauka. Multiple scholars identify Kalhana's Ashoka with the 3rd century Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka despite these discrepancies. Although "Jina" is a term associated with Jainism, some ancient sources use it to refer to the Buddha. Romila Thapar equates Jalauka to Kunala, stating that "Jalauka" is an erroneous spelling caused by a typographical error in Brahmi script. Ashoka's Srinagari is identified with Pandrethan, although there is an alternative identification with a place on the banks of the Lidder River.
According to Kalhana, Pravarasena II resided at Puranadhishthana before the establishment of Pravarapura. Accordining to V. A. Smith, the original name of the "old town" was transferred to the new town; the independent Hindu and the Buddhist rule of Srinagar lasted until the 14th century when the Kashmir valley, including the city, came under the control of the several Muslim rulers, including the Mughals. It was the capital during the reign of Yusuf Shah Chak. Kashmir came under Mughal rule, when it was conquered by the third Mughal badshah Akbar in 1586 CE. Akbar established Mughal rule in Kashmir valley. Kashmir was added to Kabul Subah in 1586, until Shah Jahan made it into a separate Kashmir Subah with seat in Srinagar. With the disintegration of the Mughal empire after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, infiltration in the valley of the Afghan tribes from Afghanistan and Hindu Dogras from the Jammu region increased, the Afghan Durrani Empire and Dogras ruled the city for several decades. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler from the Punjab region annexed a major part of the Kashmir Valley, including Srinagar, to his kingdom in the year 1814 and the city came under the influence of the Sikhs.
In 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the British in Lahore. The treaty inter alia provided British de facto suzerainty over the Kashmir Valley and Maharaja Gulab Singh, a Hindu Dogra from the Jammu region became a semi-independent ruler of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Srinagar became part of his kingdom and remained until 1947 as one of several princely states in British India; the Maharajas choose Sher Garhi Palace as their main Srinagar residence. After India and Pakistan's independence from Britain, villagers around the city of Poonch began an armed protest at the continued rule of Maharaja Hari Singh on 17 August 1947. In view of the Poonch uprising, certain Pashtun tribes such as the Mehsuds and Afridis from the mountainous region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan, with the backing of the Pakistani government, entered the Kashmir valley to capture it on 22 October 1947; the Maharaja, who had refused to accede to either India or Pakistan in hopes of securing his own independent state, signed the instrument of accession to India in exchange for refuge on 26 October 1947, as Pakistani-backed tribesmen approached the outskirts of Srinagar.
The Accession was accepted by India the next day. The government of India airlifted Indian Army troops to Srinagar, who engaged the tribesmen and prevented them from reaching the city. In 1989, Srinagar became the focus of the insurgency against Indian rule; the area continues to be a politicised hotbed of separatist activity with frequent spontaneous protests and strikes. On 19 January 1990, the Gawakadal massacre of at least 50 unarmed protestors by Indian forces, up to 280 by some estimates from eyewitness accounts, set the stage for bomblasts and curfews that characterised Srinagar throughout the early and mid-1990s. Further massacres in the spring of 1990 in which 51 unarmed protesters were killed by Indian security forces in Zakura and Tengpora heightened anti-Indian sentiments in Srinagar; as a result and checkpoints are found throughout the city, although their numbers have come down in the past few years as militancy has declined. However, frequent protests still occur against Indian rule, such as the 22 Augu
Traffic accidents in India
Traffic accidents in India are a major source of deaths and property damage every year. The National Crime Records Bureau 2016 report states there were 496,762 roads and railway crossing-related traffic accidents in 2015. Of these, road accidents accounted for 464,674 accidents which caused 148,707 traffic-related deaths in India; the three highest total number of fatalities were reported in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, together they accounted for about 33% of total Indian traffic fatalities in 2015. Adjusted for 182.45 million vehicles and its 1.31 billion population, India reported a traffic accident rate of about 0.8 per 1000 vehicles in 2015 compared to 0.9 per 1000 vehicles in 2012, an 11.35 fatality rate per 100,000 people in 2015. According to Gururaj, the top three highest traffic fatality rates per 100,000 people in 2005 were reported by Tamil Nadu and Haryana, with a male:female fatality ratio of about 5:1; the reported total fatality, rates per 100,000 people and the regional variation of traffic accidents per 100,000 people varies by source.
For example, Rahul Goel in 2018 reports an India-wide average fatality rate of 11.6 per 100,000 people and Goa to be the state with the highest fatality rate. According to the 2013 global survey of traffic accidents by the UN World Health Organization, India suffered a road fatality rate of 16.6 per 100,000 people in 2013. India's average traffic accident fatality rate was similar to the world average rate of 17.4 deaths per 100,000 people, less than the low-income countries which averaged 24.1 deaths per 100,000, higher than the high-income countries which reported the lowest average rate of 9.2 deaths per 100,000 in 2013. Tamil Nadu records the highest road accidents for a decade and its capital Chennai has more accidents than any other city in India. In New Delhi, the capital of India, the frequency of traffic collisions is 40 times higher than the rate in London, the capital of the United Kingdom. Traffic collision-related deaths increased from 13 per hour in 2008 to 14 per hour in 2009.
More than 40 per cent of these casualties are associated with trucks. The most accident-prone time on Indian roads is during the peak hour at evening. According to road traffic safety experts, the actual number of casualties may be higher than what is documented, as many traffic accidents go unreported. Moreover, victims who die some time after the accident, a span of time which may vary from a few hours to several days, are not counted as car accident victims. In 2015, one person dies every 4 minutes in roads accidents in India, according to NGO'Indians for Road Safety'; the "GlobStatus Report on Road Safety" published by the World Health Organization identified the major causes of traffic collisions as driving over the speed limit, driving under the influence, not using helmets and seat belts. Failure to maintain lane or yield to oncoming traffic when turning are prime causes of accidents on four lane, non-access controlled National Highways; the report noted users of motorcycles and motor-powered three-wheelers constitute the second largest group of traffic collision deaths.
Footnote: Sources The Planning Commission in its 2001–2003 research estimated that traffic collision resulted in an annual monetary loss of $10 billion during the years 1999–2000. In 2012, the International Road Federation estimated that traffic collision results in an annual monetary loss of $20 billion in India; this figure includes expenses associated with the accident victim, property damage and administration expenses. The Campaign Against Drunken Driving is an organization founded by Prince Singhal, campaigning against driving under the influence, but this campaign has been ineffective. The IRF asserts that people in India's political sphere do not have the will to curb traffic accidents. Harman Singh Siddhu of ArriveSafe, an organization working for improvement in road traffic safety, asserted that a general lack of respect for traffic rules in India is a contributing factor for road accidents, he has pointed out that although the 2010s was declared by the United Nations as "Decade of Action for Road Safety", no celebration was held in India.
CSIR - Central Road Research Institute has developed an online accident recording portal. The main purpose of this portal is to encourage people to report the accidents. A group of Indian Researchers have developed a low-cost device which prevents automobile drivers from receiving or making cellphone calls when at wheel, but allows calls to other passengers in the vehicle. Road safety is emerging as a major social concern in the country and the Indian government has been attempting to tackle this crucial issue for several years; the Road Transport and Safety Bill 2014 was to provide a framework for safer, cost-effective and inclusive movement of passengers and freight in India. In July 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said his government will soon introduce laws to enhance road safety as traffic fatalities and injuries mount. A new Road Transport and Safety Bill is under preparation and a group of experts underlined the "urgent" need of a comprehensive national road safety legislation.
Embarq India, an initiative from the World Resources Institute, has developed significant expertise in conducting road safety audits on a number of bus rapid transit systems in India. Arrive SAFE is a NGO who works as a pressure group to give a wake-up call to authorities concerned and shake the bad driving habits of Indian people. Indian driving schools focus on youth to enhance the skill of efficient driving. Many multinational companies fund NGOs as part of their own road safety initiatives: Maruti Suzuki works with Ministry of Trib
North–South and East–West Corridor
The North–South–East–West Corridor is the largest ongoing highway project in India. It is the second phase of the National Highways Development Project, consists of building 7300 kilometers of four/six lane expressways connecting Srinagar, Kochi and Silchar, at a cost of US$12.317 billion. As of 31 March 2018, 6875 of 7142 kilometers project has been completed. In combination with the Golden Quadrilateral network, port connectivity highways, the NS-EW Corridor forms a key part of the Indian highway network, connecting many of its important manufacturing and cultural centers; as of May 2012, India has completed and placed in use some 15,800 kilometers of such 4-lane highways. The NS–EW project is managed by the National Highways Authority of India under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Only National Highways are used in the two corridors; this is a 4,000 kilometres corridor via NH 44, branch road NH 544 This is a 3,300 kilometres corridor via NH 27. The following is an interchange section Jhansi is the junction of North–South and East–West Corridors.
The following stretches are common between the NS-EW Corridors. Delhi–Agra: Golden Quadrilateral & North–South Corridor Bengaluru–Krishnagiri: Golden Quadrilateral & North–South Corridor Akbarpur–Kanpur: Golden Quadrilateral & East–West Corridor Udaipur–Chittorgarh: Golden Quadrilateral & East West Corridor The following is a Spur Highway of the North–South Corridor Kochi–Coimbatore–Salem: North–South Corridor & North–South Corridor Extension There is popular demand for the extension of the East West Corridor from Silchar to Moreh via Jiribam and Imphal, from Nagaon to Stilwell Road via Jorhat, Dibrugarh and Ledo; these two extensions may increase the cross border trade with South East Asia. Chainage Chart of Corridor North – South Chainage Chart of Corridor East – West List of National Highways in India by highway number List of National Highways in India Transport in India NHDP Map with completion status
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle