National Historical Museum (Bulgaria)
The National Historical Museum in Sofia is Bulgaria's largest museum. It was founded on 5 May 1973. A new representative exhibition was opened in the building of the Court of Justice on 2 March 1984, to commemorate the 13th centenary of the Bulgarian state; the museum was moved in 2000 to the former primary residence of the dictator and last communist leader Todor Zhivkov at Boyana, contains over 650,000 objects connected to archaeology, fine arts and ethnography, although only 10% of them are permanently exhibited. The museum includes a cloakroom, cafe and souvenir shop, it undertakes professional conservation and restoration of historical monuments, authenticity investigations and expert valuation. Its collections comprise materials dating from prehistoric ages till the present. Major excavated exhibits include: Valchitran Treasure Dabene Treasure Rogozen Treasure Panagyurishte Treasure Decree of Dionysopolis List of museums in Bulgaria Official website
National Museum of Military History (Bulgaria)
The National Military History Museum is a museum dedicated to military history in Sofia, Bulgaria. A structure of the Ministry of Defence, it has existed under various names and subordinate to various institutions since 1 August 1914, it consists of 5,000 m² of indoor and 40,000 m² outdoor exhibition area, changing exhibits, a library and a computer centre. The NMMH was established in 1916, two years after a military-historical commission, consisting of an archive and library, was founded. By that time it was one of only three Bulgarian museums in existence, its first complete exhibition was only unveiled in 1937. Its current structure and name date from 1968. An incomplete list of equipment on display. 9K52 Luna-M R-17 Elbrus OTR-23 Oka S-75 Dvina 2K11 Krug Spasov M1944 Trigun Official website
The Rogozen Treasure, called the find of the century, is a Thracian treasure. It was discovered by chance in July 1985 by a tractor driver digging a well in his garden in the Bulgarian village of Rogozen, it consists of 165 receptacles, including 55 jugs and 3 goblets. The objects are silver with golden gilt on some of them with total weight of more than 20 kg; the treasure is an invaluable source of information for the life of the Thracians, due to the variety of motifs in the richly decorated objects. It is dated back to the 5th–4th centuries B. C. Rogozen Island off Robert Island, South Shetland Islands is named after the settlement of Rogozen in connection with the Rogozen Treasure. Panagyurishte Treasure Valchitran Treasure Lukovit Treasure Borovo Treasure The Rogozen silver treasure
Earth and Man National Museum
The Earth and Man National Museum is a mineralogical museum in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. It's one of the biggest mineralogical museums in the world, it was founded on 30 December 1985 and opened for visitors on 19 June 1987. The museum is situated in a reconstructed and adapted historic building with an area of 4,000 m² constructed in the end of the 19th century, it has a number of exhibition halls, stock premises, laboratories, a video room and a conference room. Its collection covers 40% of all known occurring minerals as well as man-made ceramics prepared by Bulgarian scientists. Apart from its permanent expositions related to mineral diversity, the museum often hosts exhibitions connected with various other topics as well as concerts of chamber music. Official website
The Valchitran Treasure is a Thracian treasure. It was discovered on 28 December 1924 by two brothers who were working in their vineyard near the village of Valchitran, 22 km southeast of Pleven, Bulgaria; the hoard consists of 13 receptacles, different in form and size, weighs in total 12.5 kg: two round platters five round domed pieces, two with central handles three cups with handles a jug with handle three leaf shaped vessels with handles a bowl with two handles The gold metal has a natural mixture of 9.7% silver. The scientists dated at the time of the Thracians, it is now one of the most valuable possessions of the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia. Panagyurishte Treasure Rogozen Treasure Lukovit Treasure Borovo Treasure Mikov, V.. Zlatnoto sukrovishte ot Vulchitrun. Sofia: Izdanie na Bulgarskata akademiia na naukite. Markotic, Vladimir. "Reviewed Work: Zlatnoto Sukrovishte ot Vulchitrun by V. Mikov Pp. 68, figs. 40, pls. XXI, Izdanie na Bulgarskata akademiia na naukite. Sofiia, 1958, Lv. 18.30".
American Journal of Archaeology. 63: 285. JSTOR 501853. Popovitch, Vladislav. "Encore le Trésor d'orfèvrerie de Vâlčitrân". Revue Archéologique: 106–110. JSTOR 41753852. Moorey, P. R. S. "Thracian Treasures". The Burlington Magazine. 118: 174, 179. JSTOR 878327. Casson, Lionel. "The Thracians". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 35: 2. JSTOR 3258667. Venedikov, Ivan. "The Archaeological Wealth of Ancient Thrace". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 35: 13. JSTOR 3258668. Via- Met Publications "The Vulchitrun Treasure. C.. Thracian Treasures from Bulgaria: Checklist of The Special Exhibition, June 11 - September 4, 1977, coordinated by Dietrich von Bothmer, items 107-119. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1977. Retrieved 21 June 2018 – via Digital Collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Marazov, Ivan. Thrace and the Thracians. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Pp. 10, 60–64, 145, 148, 149. Retrieved 21 June 2018 – via Internet Archive. Venedikov, Ivan; the Vulchitrun Treasure. Sofia: Svyat. Eisenberg, Jerome M..
"The Wealth of the Thracians: A Spectacular Exhibitions of Thracian Treasures Travelling America". The International Review of Ancient Art & Archaeology - MINERVA. 9: 9. Retrieved 22 June 2018. Sotirov, Ivan. Vulchitrun Gold Treasure. Sofia: Borina. Valeva, Julia. "Chapter 14: Gold and Bronze Vessels". In Valeva, Julia. A Companion to Ancient Thrace. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 197–198. The Valchitran Gold treasure Bulgaria Travel - image
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
The Sofia Synagogue is the largest synagogue in Southeastern Europe, one of two functioning in Bulgaria and the third-largest in Europe. Constructed for the needs of the Bulgarian capital Sofia's Sephardic Jewish community after a project by the Austrian architect Friedrich Grünanger, it resembles the old Moorish Leopoldstädter Tempel in Vienna and was opened on 9 September 1909 in the presence of Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria; the first preparations for the synagogue's construction date to 1903, while the construction itself had begun on 13 November 1905. The construction of a grand new synagogue was part of the reorganization efforts of the Bulgarian Jewish community under Lemberg-born Chief Rabbi Marcus Ehrenpreis and local leaders Ezra Tadjer and Avram Davidjon Levy. Prior to the construction of the new synagogue, the lot in central Sofia had been occupied by an older synagogue. One of the architectural monuments of Sofia, the synagogue, located in the centre of the city near the Central Market Hall, can accommodate 1,300 worshippers.
The Sofia Synagogue's main chandelier is the largest in the country. Despite the building's size, the services are only attended by some 50 to 60 worshippers due to the aliyah of most of Bulgaria's Jews to Israel and the secularity of the local Jewish population; the architectural style is Moorish Revival, with elements of the Vienna Secession and, in the facade, Venetian architecture. The main premise is 31 m high, it is topped by an octagonal dome. The interior is richly decorated, featuring columns of Carrara marble and multicoloured Venetian mosaics, as well as decorative woodcarving; the entire building takes up 659 m². The biggest chandeliere in the Balkans is there and the rumor said it is made from gold from Ancient Palestine. Since 8 May 1992 the Sofia Synagogue houses the Jewish Museum of History, which includes the Jewish Communities in Bulgaria and the Holocaust and the Salvation of the Jews in Bulgaria expositions. A souvenir shop is in operation. History of the Jews in Bulgaria Sofia Synagogue website Historical photographs of the Sofia Synagogue