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National Hockey Association

The National Hockey Association the National Hockey Association of Canada Limited, was a professional ice hockey organization with teams in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. It is the direct predecessor to today's National Hockey League. Founded in 1909 by Ambrose O'Brien, the NHA introduced'six-man hockey' by removing the'rover' position in 1911. During its lifetime, the league coped with competition for players with the rival Pacific Coast Hockey Association, the enlistment of players for World War I and disagreements between owners; the disagreements between owners came to a head in 1917, when the NHA suspended operations in order to get rid of an unwanted owner. The remaining NHA team owners started the NHL in parallel as a temporary measure, to continue play while negotiations went on with Livingstone and other lawsuits were pending. A year after no progress was reached with Livingstone, the other NHA owners decided to permanently suspend the NHA; the NHA's rules and trophies were continued in the NHL.

In November 1909, the Eastern Canada Hockey Association, holder of the Stanley Cup and ostensibly the pre-eminent ice hockey league, was in the midst of a dispute. The Montreal Wanderers team of the ECHA had been bought by P. J. Doran, owner of the Jubilee Rink in Montreal and he intended to move the team's games there; the Jubilee was smaller than the Wanderers' current rink, the Montreal Arena which meant visiting teams would earn less on their trips to play the Wanderers. On November 25, 1909, the other teams in the league disbanded the ECHA and formed the new Canadian Hockey Association, which excluded the Wanderers. At the same time, Ambrose O'Brien of Renfrew, Ontario– scion of a prosperous silver mine owner and founder of the Renfrew Creamery Kings ice hockey team –was seeking admission to the ECHA so as to be able to contest the Stanley Cup; the team had applied to the Stanley Cup trustees as champions of the Federal League, but had been rejected. At the November 25 CHA founding meeting, held at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal, O'Brien applied to join the CHA but the application was rejected.

Sitting in the lobby of the hotel after the CHA meeting, O'Brien met Jimmy Gardner of the Wanderers, whose team had been rejected by the CHA. Together, they decided to form the National Hockey Association. With Cobalt and Haileybury, two other teams controlled by O' Brien, the NHA was founded on December 2, 1909 at a private meeting at 300 Saint Jacques Street in Montreal, adopted the constitution of the ECHA. At the same time, to build a rivalry and capture francophone interest in Montreal, O'Brien and Gardner conceived of creating a team consisting of francophone players, to be managed by francophones.'Les Canadiens', known today as the Montreal Canadiens, was admitted on December 4, 1909 to be managed by Jack Laviolette, but owned by O'Brien, on the understanding ownership was to be transferred to francophone sportsmen as soon as practicable. In all, O'Brien and his father, Michael John O'Brien, were financing four teams in the league: the Renfrew Creamery Kings, Cobalt and Les Canadiens.

The Cobalt and Haileybury clubs were from the Timiskaming Professional Hockey League and Renfrew from the Federal Hockey League. Along with the Wanderers, the league had five teams; the O'Briens were determined to win the Stanley Cup and a bidding war for players started. Frank and Lester Patrick were each signed by the Renfrew Millionaires for $3,000 apiece, the highest salaries recorded to that time. Renfrew signed star player Cyclone Taylor of the champion Ottawa Senators team, reputedly at $5,000 per season. Attendance at the CHA games was poor and a meeting of the NHA was held on January 15, 1910 to discuss a possible merger of the two leagues. Instead, the NHA admitted Ottawa and the Montreal Shamrocks to the NHA and the CHA folded; the owners of the Montreal Le National were offered the ownership of the Canadiens but turned it down. The Quebec Bulldogs and the other teams of the CHA were not considered for membership. Games played prior to January 15 were thrown out, the season began again, now with seven teams.

Despite the efforts of O'Brien, who added Newsy Lalonde from the Canadiens to Renfrew, the first championship went to the Wanderers, taking over the Stanley Cup and defending it against Edmonton. It would be the Wanderers' only championship in the league; the off-season would lead to changes in membership in the league, as Cobalt and Shamrocks dropped out. Les Canadiens would be taken over by new management and Quebec would join the league for the 1910-11 season. Lalonde was returned to the Canadiens; the two dormant O'Brien franchises were to be held for two Toronto teams to join the league in the future, to play in the new Arena Gardens planned for Toronto. The 1910–1911 season saw the start of labour unrest in the league, as the league imposed a salary cap; the season foundered because of widespread dissatisfaction amongst the players at the salaries on offer, players' unions were rumored to be on the verge of creation at several points. The players at first intended to form their own league, but the arenas were under the NHA control and surrendered for that season.

Ottawa held the Stanley Cup against Galt and Port Arthur. In the off-season, O'Brien exited Renfrew exited the league; this season, the league dropped the'rover' position, changing the game to six-man hockey, although other leagues would hold on to seven-man play into the 1920s. Attempts were unsuccessful. While the league delayed its schedule to try to accomm

Appointment of Catholic bishops

The appointment of bishops in the Catholic Church is a complicated process. Outgoing bishops, neighbouring bishops, the faithful, the apostolic nuncio, various members of the Roman Curia, the pope all have a role in the selection; the exact process varies based upon a number of factors, including whether the bishop is from the Latin Church or one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, the geographic location of the diocese, what office the candidate is being chosen to fill, whether the candidate has been ordained to the episcopate. It's unclear when the notion of a monarchial bishop emerged, but it is clear that by 200 AD a single bishop in charge of a metropolitan area became a universal norm without much controversy. Bishops were chosen by the local clergy with approval from nearby bishops. "A newly elected bishop was installed in office and given his authority by the bishops who supervised the election and performed the ordination."Examples of episcopal election in the early church include such notable figures as Ambrose of Milan.

Episcopal election was so taken for granted that by the time of the Council of Nicaea, it is mentioned as the normative method for selecting bishops, with approval of local metropolitans. The bishops of the most important sees sought acceptance from Rome; some early church fathers attest to the fact that the Church of Rome - in effect its diocese - was the central point of authority. They attest to the Church's reliance on Rome for advice, for mediation of disputes, for guidance on doctrinal issues, they note, as Ignatius of Antioch does, that Rome "holds the presidency" among the other churches, that, as Irenaeus explains, "because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree" with Rome. They are clear on the fact that it is full communion with Rome and the bishop of Rome that causes one to be in communion with the Catholic Church; this displays a recognition that, as Cyprian of Carthage puts it, Rome is "the principal church, in which sacerdotal unity has its source." Most of these references were to the entire Church of Rome as such, not to the Bishop of Rome in his person, but after the role of the pope emerged, the church and its bishop became interpreted in a synonymous way.

By the time of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the metropolitan bishops of Alexandria and Rome had a role of the greatest importance in the selection. Canon 6 of the Council acknowledged and codified an ancient custom giving jurisdiction over large regions to the bishops of Alexandria and Antioch. Nicaea decreed that the consent of the metropolitan bishop was required: Let the ancient customs in Egypt and Pentapolis prevail, that the Bishop of Alexandria have jurisdiction in all these, since the like is customary for the Bishop of Rome also. In Antioch and the other provinces, let the Churches retain their privileges, and this is to be universally understood, that if any one be made bishop without the consent of the Metropolitan, the great Synod has declared that such a man ought not to be a bishop. If, two or three bishops shall from natural love of contradiction, oppose the common suffrage of the rest, it being reasonable and in accordance with the ecclesiastical law let the choice of the majority prevail.

As part of the flourishing of culture and renewal under his reign, the Emperor Charlemagne commissioned one of the first major church-wide studies of the patristic era. This "golden age" or Carolingian Renaissance influenced the identity of the Church. New texts were being discovered and disseminated at rapid pace in the late 700s and early 800s and patristic authorship became important for establishing a text's authority in Catholic theology. At this time, a series of power struggles emerged between diocesan bishops and their metropolitans; as part of this struggle, a series of elaborate forgeries were produced, capitalizing on the cultural renaissance of the time and eagerness to discover new texts. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals asserted Roman papal power to depose and appoint bishops for the first time by deriving this power from forgeries of texts of the fathers of early church, interlaced with texts known to be legitimate; these decretals had an enormous influence concentrating power of the pope in the Middle Ages, were not uncovered as forgeries until the 1500s or universally acknowledged to be forgeries until the 1800s.

State authorities demanded their consent for the election of bishops. In medieval times, rulers demanded not only their consent to an election made by others but the right to choose the bishops directly; the Investiture Controversy changed that to some extent, but concessions meant that many kings and other secular authorities exercised a right of appointment or at least of veto until the second half of the 20th century. In the early 19th century, state involvement in episcopal appointment was still so normal that, in spite of the opposition of the Church in Ireland to the proposed royal veto of the appointment of bishops, the Holy See was prepared to grant it to the British king; as late as the 20th century, Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary exercised a power of Jus exclusivae to veto the election of Mariano Rampolla as pope during the 1903 papal conclave. After Rampolla was vetoed, the conclave elected Pope Pius X, it was in 1871 that a radical shift in practice began to take place. In that year the Law of guarantees gave the pope the right to choose the bishops of the Kingdom of Italy, all 237 of them, appointments that through the unification of Italy had fallen into the hands of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy.

Although the pope denounced the law, he profited by it to appoint, within the first s

Fort Necessity National Battlefield

Fort Necessity National Battlefield is a National Battlefield Site in Fayette County, United States, which preserves the site of the Battle of Fort Necessity. The battle, which took place on July 3, 1754, was an early battle of the French and Indian War, resulted in the surrender of British colonial forces under Colonel George Washington, to the French and Indians, under Louis Coulon de Villiers; the site includes the Mount Washington Tavern, once one of the inns along the National Road, in two separate units the grave of British General Edward Braddock, killed in 1755, the site of the Battle of Jumonville Glen. After returning to the great meadows in northwestern Virginia, what is now Fayette County, George Washington decided it prudent to reinforce his position. Named by Washington as Fort Necessity or Fort of Necessity, the structure protected a storehouse for supplies such as gunpowder and flour; the crude palisade they erected was built more to defend supplies in the fort's storehouse from Washington's own men, whom he described as "loose and idle", than as a planned defense against a hostile enemy.

The sutler of Washington's force was John Fraser, who earlier had been second-in-command at Fort Prince George. He served as Chief Scout to General Edward Braddock and Chief Teamster to the Forbes Expedition. By June 13, 1754, Washington had under his command 295 colonials and the nominal command of 100 additional regular British army troops from South Carolina. Washington spent the remainder of June 1754 extending the wilderness road further west and down the western slopes of the Allegheny range into the valley of the Monongahela River, he wanted to create a river crossing point 41 mi away, near Redstone Creek and Redstone Old Fort. This was a prehistoric Native American earthwork mound on a bluff overlooking the river crossing; the aboriginal mound structure may have once been part of a fortification. Five years in the war, Fort Burd was constructed at Redstone Old Fort; the area became the site of Nemacolin Castle and Brownsville, Pennsylvania—an important western jumping-off point for travelers crossing the Alleghenies in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

To reach the Ohio River basins' navigable waters as soon as possible on the Monongahela River, Washington chose to follow Nemacolin's Trail, a Native American trail, somewhat improved by colonists, with Nemacolin's help. He preferred this to following the ridge-hopping, high-altitude path traversed by the western part of the route, chosen for Braddock's Road, it jogged to the north near the fort and passed over another notch near Confluence, Pennsylvania into the valley and drainage basin of the Youghiogheny River. The Redstone destination at the terminus of Nemacolin's Trail was a natural choice for an advanced base; the location was one of the few known good crossing points where both sides of the wide deep river had low accessible banks. Late in the day on July 3, Washington did not know the French situation. Believing his situation was impossible, he accepted surrender terms which allowed the peaceful withdrawal of his forces, which he completed on July 4, 1754; the French subsequently occupied the fort and burned it.

Washington did not speak French, stated that if he had known that he was confessing to the "assassination" of Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, he would not have signed the surrender document. During the Great Depression of the 20th century, attempts to preserve the location of Fort Necessity were undertaken. On March 4, 1931, Congress declared the location a National Battlefield Site under management of the War Department. Transferred to the National Park Service in 1933, the park was redesignated a National Battlefield on August 10, 1961; as with all historic sites administered by the National Park Service, the battlefield was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Subsequent archaeological research helped to uncover the majority of the original fort position and design. A replica of the fort was constructed on site in the 1970s. A new visitor center, home to a National Road interpretive center, opened on October 8, 2005; the battlefield and fort are being improved.

On a hillside adjacent to the battlefield and within the boundaries of the park is Mount Washington Tavern, a classic example of the many inns once lining the National Road, the United States' first federally funded highway. The land on which the tavern was built was owned by George Washington. In 1770 he purchased the site. Around the 1830s, Judge Nathanial Ewing of Uniontown constructed the tavern. James Sampey acquired the tavern in 1840, it was operated by his family until the railroad construction boom caused the National Road to decline in popularity, rendering the inn unprofitable. In 1855, it was sold to the Fazenbaker family, they used it as a private home for the next 75 years, until the Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania purchased the property in 1932. In 1961 the National Park Service purchased the property from the state, making the building a part of Fort Necessity; the Mount Washington Tavern demonstrates the standard features of an early American tavern, including a simple barroom that served as a gathering place, a more refined parlor, used for relaxation, bedrooms in which numerous people would crowd to catch up on sleep.

In a separate unit of the park, lying about one mile northwest of the battlefield, is the grave of General Edward Braddock. The British commander led a major expedition to the area in 1755 which included the construction of Braddock's Road, a useful but i

Key Party Records

Key Party Records was a Japanese independent record label established in 1997 by Henry Lee Euro, known as the vocalist for the band Speed-ID. The company had both a recording studio and a design studio focusing on visual kei bands of a similar style of music and dress; the Key Party label went on to sign bands like Missalina Rei. Key Party was incorporated into Enamell Records, which has since become defunct. May 3–5, 2005, there was a three-day Key Party 2005 revival, consisting of a Q&A and two concerts in the style of the labels Hold Your Key concerts; the first concert featured a line-up of original Key Party bands. Aliene Ma'riage Crow Eliphas Levi Lar~Mia Missalina Rei consisted of four members: Arisu Arisugawa, Hiro and Kazui. In 1999, the comedic song "Tokimeki" was released via Enamell Records and it reached number 85 on the Oricon Single Weekly Chart. Neil Noir Fleurir Noi'x Rapture Speed-id Hold Your Key - Dual Shock Version Directors Cut Hold Your Key Kagi o Nigere! 1999 Hold Your Key - Dual Shock Version 1999.5.30 Shibuya Public Hall Hold Your Key 2000 Hold Your Key 1999 The End of Century ~Key Party Omnibus Live Video Hold You Key 2000 Key Party All Stars-Hold Your Key 05

Evangelical Catholic

The term "Evangelical Catholic" is used by Christians who consider themselves both "catholic" and "evangelical". Evangelical catholic can refer variously to: Evangelical Protestants who consider themselves to be catholic in the sense that they identify with the historic Christian Church, they believe that the early general councils and the Protestant Reformation were both part of the progressive illumination of the Holy Spirit. As used by the Roman Catholic Church, the term evangelical Catholic refers to Roman Catholics in full communion with the Holy See in Rome who exhibit, according to Alister McGrath, the four characteristics of evangelicalism; the first is a strong devotional emphasis on the Christian scriptures. Secondly, evangelical Catholics stress the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ as the cause of salvation for all mankind. A personal need for interior conversion is the third defining mark, the fourth is a deep commitment to evangelization. Evangelical Catholics see these evangelical emphases as the core of the 2,000-year tradition of Catholic Christianity.

Evangelical preaching movements such as St. Dominic's, called the Vir Evangelicus, are a common point of reference. To Catholics, the term'evangelical' refers to its etymological root—the Greek word euangelion—which means'good news' or'Gospel', not to Protestant Evangelicalism. To Catholics, being evangelical is understood in the context of the adherence to the dogma and Sacred Tradition of the Catholic Church and in a Catholic interpretation of Scripture, not in the doctrinal and ecclesiological upheavals of the Protestant Reformation; the Roman Catholic Church is appropriating the evangelical witness of the recent popes and their encyclicals Pope Paul VI's Evangelii nuntiandi, John Paul II's Redemptoris missio, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Declaration Dominus Iesus, for which Pope Benedict XVI was responsible, when he was Prefect of the Congregation. New bibles, catechetical materials, youth ministry programs, young adult ministries witness to greater evangelical zeal within the Church.

College campus ministry and parish ministry are focusing more of their resources on outreach. A Catholic organization called the Evangelical Catholic exists for the purpose of equipping Catholic ministries to be evangelical. In Greenville, South Carolina, a Catholic organization called the Center for Evangelical Catholicism exists for the purpose of spreading the "New Evangelization" program of the Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization in Roman Catholic parishes and schools across the United States. Since the call to evangelization is so integral to the Catholic faith and solidly attested to in the ecumenical councils, the writings of the Church Fathers, papal teaching, the late well-known Father Richard John Neuhaus, looked to the day when the term'evangelical Catholic' would be redundant - when identifying as'Catholic' would imply active evangelization so that the addition of'evangelical' would be unnecessary; as a group, they are not disaggregated in social science research, though there have been recent calls to change this.

The Augsburg Confession found within the Book of Concord, a compendium of belief of the Lutheran Churches, teaches that "the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church". When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1530, they believed it "showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils"; the Augsburg Confession further states holy Church is to continue forever. The Church is the congregation of saints, in which the Gospel is rightly taught and the Sacraments are rightly administered. In Lutheranism, the term evangelical catholic has a specific meaning. Lutheran Protestantism differs from most other kinds of Protestantism in that Lutheranism is the only historical Protestant denomination that confesses belief in the efficacy of the sacraments: regeneration in Holy Baptism, Confession as the sacrament of Absolution, the Real Presence of Christ in Holy Eucharist.

In Anglicanism there has been a sacramentalism similar to that in orthodox Lutheranism in the high church movement. The Book of Concord states, contrary to "Enthusiast" belief, that salvation can be received only through the means of grace: God's Word and sacraments; the Augsburg Confession stresses that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Catholic Church." Article XXIV of the Augsburg Confession "Of the Mass" states: "Falsely are our churches accused of abolishing the Mass. Some Lutheran church bodies claim to have retained the historical episcopate and apostolic succession. In early Lutheranism, the Gnesio-Lutherans compiled the first modern critical history of the world, the Magdeburg Centuries, to show that the Lutheran Church was a continuation of t

Alexandra Shulman

Alexandra Shulman is a British journalist. She is a former Editor-in-Chief of British Vogue, is the longest serving Editor in the history of the publication, she took the helm of Vogue in 1992, presiding over a circulation increase to 200,000 and a higher profile for the magazine. Shulman is one of the country's most oft-quoted voices on fashion trends. In addition to her work with Vogue, Shulman has written columns for The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, as well as published a novel. Shulman is eldest of three children by film and author critic Milton Shulman and writer Drusilla Beyfus, who herself was a contributor to Vogue, among other publications. Shulman began working at Condé Nast – Vogue's publisher – upon joining Tatler in 1982, under the editorship first of Tina Brown and Mark Boxer. Alexandra Shulman was born in 1957, the daughter of the critic Milton Shulman and the writer Drusilla Beyfus, she has two siblings and Jason. Her sister Nicola married Constantine Phipps in 1990 and has written a biography of Tudor poet Sir Thomas Wyatt.

Her younger brother Jason was an art director for glossy magazines but is now a sculptor and photographer. Whilst Alexandra was growing up, the Shulman family lived in Belgravia and she attended St Paul's Girls' School; the thought of following her parents' career paths did not appeal to Shulman. Instead, she expressed an interest in becoming a hairdresser, or working in the music industry, saying: "Nobody believes me when I say it's not what I thought I was going to do, but my heroines were singers like Patti Smith or Carly Simon. I didn't think about whether they wore Chanel or not". Shulman studied social anthropology at the University of Sussex. In 1980, she graduated, receiving a 2:2 recalling herself being "in tears". In the following months, she became an assistant at an independent record label, enabling her to move out of her parents' flat. However, she was sacked after a short time, she took on a role in the artists and repertoire department of Arista Records which did not last long. After this foray into the music business, she became a secretary at the now-closed Over 21 magazine.

Shulman began her fashion journalism career in 1982 at The Tatler, working subsequently for The Sunday Telegraph and the British edition of GQ, where she became editor in 1990. As Shulman took on the role as editor-in-chief of Vogue in 1992, some speculated that she was not experienced enough for the role. Furthermore, others commented that her personal appearance did not conform to previous Vogue editors, it has been noted. Her tenure at Vogue was marked with various iconic issues of the magazine, her December 1999 "Millennium Issue", possessing a simplistic page layout and a reflective, mirror-like cover – giving the illusion that its reader was on the front cover – became the highest selling issue of Vogue, with circulation of 241,001, including a newsstand sale of 142,399. A 1997 cover in memoriam of Diana, Princess of Wales was included in a poll deciding the UK's best magazine cover; as The Guardian noted, "Vogue stood out with a simple bare cover using a Patrick Demarchelier photograph of Diana in a red dress".

The "Gold Issue," a December 2000 edition with Kate Moss on the cover in silhouette became a well-known cover. As the editor of Vogue, Shulman made various decisions on the magazine's stance, she stated. We've never published things on cosmetic surgery", adding that she does not want to prescribe as specific way a woman should look to the reader, she refuses to put celebrities on the cover if they demand copy approval and picture approval, saying "I just find that so offensive". The magazine drew criticism in the early 1990s for photos of a waifish Kate Moss that were dubbed "heroin chic", part of a larger ongoing debate over whether fashion magazines present an unhealthy image for girls and contribute to the anorexia problem. In 1997, the watchmaker Omega pulled an ad campaign from Vogue over this issue. Shulman dismissed these concerns in a 1998 interview with the PBS public affairs television programme Frontline, stating: "Not many people have said to me that they have looked at my magazine and decided to become anorexic."She has become more sensitive to the issue in recent years, acknowledging that anorexia is a "huge problem" in a January 2005 interview with The Scotsman: "I wish that models were a bit bigger because I wouldn't have to deal with this the whole time.

There is pressure on them to stay thin, I'm always talking to the designers about it, asking why they can't just be a bit closer to a real woman's physique in terms of their ideal, but they're not going to do it. Clothes look better to all of our eyes on people who are thinner". In 2009, Shulman spoke out over the sample sizes leading designers were producing – some were so small they restricted Vogue using the models they wished in the magazine, resulting in some models being airbrushed to look bigger. Shulman wrote to designers to draw their attention to the situation calling for larger sized samples to be produced. Contrary to expectations, Shulman describes her own life as work-dominated and not glamorous. In an October 2004 newspaper column on her Telegraph portrait, she said: "Leaving aside the obvious but unlikely criteria of beautiful and thin, I realised that there was no look, achievable, going