The National Institutes of Health is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s, is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services; the majority of NIH facilities are located in Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program; as of 2013, the Intramural Research Program had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U. S. or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, human papillomavirus.
In 2019, the NIH was ranked #2 in the world for biomedical sciences by the Nature Index, which measured the largest contributors to papers published in a subset of leading journals from 2015–2018. NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U. S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School.
This marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings. Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health. In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital; when three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation.
Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards. In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease and strokes; that same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, 15 new research and demonstration centers. Funding for the NIH has been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time.
In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained stagnant since then. By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, launched the Human Genome Project; the NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, for planning and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components. The NIH Director plays an active role in shaping outlook; the Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities in efforts involving multiple Institutes. Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including: Office of AIDS Research Office of Research on Women's Health Office of Disease Prevention Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office Tribal Heath Research Office Office of Program Evaluation and PerformancePrevious directors: Joseph J. Kinyoun, served August 1887 – April 30, 1899 Milton J. Rosenau
Hugh Lewin was a South African anti-apartheid activist and writer. He was imprisoned from 1964 to 1971 for his activities in support of the African Resistance Movement, spent 20 years in exile, returning to South Africa in 1992. An account of his experience, Bandiet won the Olive Schreiner Prize in 2003. Lewin was born in Lydenburg in the Transvaal, his parents were Anglican missionaries and Muriel. In London in the 1970s, he discovered he was not a practising Jew, he was educated at Rhodes University and became a journalist at the Natal Witness in Pietermaritzburg writing for Drum and Golden City Post in Johannesburg. He joined the Liberal Party in 1959. Lewin was an anti-apartheid activist, was imprisoned for seven years from July 1964 for his activities in support of the African Resistance Movement. Evidence was given against him by fellow activists Adrian Leftwich and John Lloyd. After serving the full a seven-year prison sentence in Pretoria Central Prison, he was given a "permanent departure permit" and left South Africa in 1971.
He lived for ten years each in Zimbabwe. In London, he was an information officer for the International Defence and Aid Fund, worked as journalist for The Observer and The Guardian. Moving to newly-independent Zimbabwe in 1981, he was a founding member of the Dambudzo Marechera Trust, he returned to South Africa amid the negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa. He became of director of the Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, he founded Baobab Press. He worked for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission as a member of its Human Rights Violations Committee, he had kept a secret record of his experiences in prison on the pages of a Bible, published Bandiet: Seven Years in a South African Prison in London in 1974. He wrote the Jafta series of books for children and young adults. After being banned for many years, his 1974 prison memoire was republished in South Africa with new material in 2002, as Bandiet: Out of Jail, illustrated by Harold Strachan, it won the 2003 Olive Schreiner Prize, Stones against the Mirror won the 2011 Sunday Times Alan Paton Award.
Lunar: Sanposuru Gakuen is a role-playing video game in the Lunar series released for the Sega Game Gear in Japan in 1996. Since no international versions or translations have been released, though an unofficial English translation was released in 2009, it was developed and produced by the Japanese software company Game Arts and Studio Alex, their in-house development team responsible for other Lunar titles. Though the game was released after Lunar: The Silver Star, it is set hundreds of years before it. Several creatures and places from the game make an appearance; the game was remade two years for the Sega Saturn as Mahō Gakuen Lunar!. The game has several elements common to role-playing video games, with 2D character sprites and environments. During the game, the player will encounter monsters that are fought randomly within dungeons, gain experience from winning battles. Magic and additional skills are unlocked through leveling up, as well as allowing the characters to grow stronger; the battles take place from a first-person perspective, with menus appearing along the left edge of the screen.
The character menu can be accessed at any time and allow the use of items, magic, or other gameplay settings. A player's progress is saved on one of three possible slots using the Game Gear's battery back-up. Walking School tells the tale of a young girl named Ellie and her best friend, Lena, as they leave their quiet lives as field workers in the town of Burg to enroll in a newly established magic school located on an island called Ien. There, along with several other youths, the girls find the school and the area around it deserted, try to establish order by getting all the students together within the surrounding town. During their stay, they encounter several magical creatures and monsters who call the island home, all while they continue to search for their instructors; the game itself is divided into 12 chapters, each one presented with a curtain opening. Playable characters: Ellie: The main character of the story who grew up in a small town working on her father's farm, she is selected along with her best friend Lena to attend the floating magic school.
Somewhat quiet and reserved, she is loyal to her friends and has a curious personality. Lena: Ellie's best friend since childhood. Unlike Ellie, she is talkative and sticks up for herself when bullied about her height, she is quite self-confident. Senia: A young Beastwoman who attends the magic school with Ellie and Lena. Though she is strong and athletic, she can command some powerful magic as well; as vocal as Lena, the two of them became fast friends. Wing: A mysterious and quiet boy, a addition to the school's roster. Gifted at using magic, Wing makes a name for himself early, is enrolled on a scholarship. Other characters: Ant and Rick: Three boys accepted into the magic school who make it their business to tease and otherwise make life difficult for Ellie and Lena, they warm up to each other, but only after a lengthy exchange of insults. Barua: Second-in-command of the Vile Tribe who has an interest in Wing. Commands a wide assortment of dark magic. Memphis: Power-hungry leader of the Vile Tribe who worships an entity known as "D".
Mahō Gakuen Lunar! is an enhanced remake of Sanposuru Gakuen with updated graphics, newly added anime cutscenes, a more complex story. It was developed by Studio Alex in association with Game Arts and published by ESP Software and Kadokawa Shoten for the Sega Saturn in 1997. Magic School Lunar! was released about the same time as other Lunar remakes, Lunar: Silver Star Story Complete and Lunar 2: Eternal Blue Complete, though it was mildly successful it was never made available outside Japan. Several enhancements were made to the game to take advantage of the capabilities of the more powerful hardware. While the first game was limited to the hardware restrictions of the Game Gear, the new Saturn version boasts a larger color palette, more sophisticated music and sound effects, the ability to handle full-motion animated sequences placed sporadically throughout the story; the use of a Saturn Memory Card could ensure more save slots. The first-person perspective battle interface of the Game Gear version is replaced by a simplified version of the signature Lunar battle system.
Character sprites are visible on the battlefield and animations for spells and attacks have been upgraded. A number of multi-character combination attacks have been added as well. LunarNet Walking School Section Kizyr's Walking School Guide LunarNET Magic School Lunar! Section