click links in text for more info

National Inventors Hall of Fame

The National Inventors Hall of Fame is an American not-for-profit organization which recognizes individual engineers and inventors who hold a U. S. patent of significant technology. Founded in 1973, its primary mission is to "honor the people responsible for the great technological advances that make human and economic progress possible." Besides the Hall of Fame, it operates a museum in Alexandria, a former middle school in Akron and sponsors educational programs, a collegiate competition, special projects all over the United States to encourage creativity among students. As of 2020, 603 inventors have been inducted constituting historic persons from the past three centuries, but including about 100 living inductees. An NIHF committee chooses an annual inductee class in February from nominations accepted from all sources. Nominees must hold a U. S. patent of significant contribution to the U. S. welfare, which advances science and useful arts. The 2020 class included 22 inventors; the National Inventors Hall of Fame was founded in 1973 on the initiative of H. Hume Mathews the chairman of the National Council of Patent Law Associations.

In the following year, it gained a major sponsor in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office from Washington, D. C. At first, the Hall was housed in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office in Washington, D. C. near the Washington National Airport but it soon needed more room at a more prominent location. A committee was formed in 1986 to find a new home for it. For a time, the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, was the frontrunner, but in 1987, a patent attorney from Akron, Edwin "Ned" Oldham, the representative from the National Council of Patent Law Associations, led the drive to move the Hall to Akron. According to Maurice H. Klitzman, one of the founding members of the Board of Directors, because of the guaranteed financial support by the city of Akron that exceeded any other community's proposal, the Board selected Akron as the new home; the construction of the new building was finished in 1995 and the Hall opened to the public with the name of the Inventure Place. From the beginning, the Inventure Place was intended to be more than a science and technology museum and library.

It was designed to double as a national resource center for creativity. Designed by an architect from New York City, James Stewart Polshek, it was a stainless-steel building, shaped like a curving row of white sails, with five tiers of exhibits. One of the exhibits allowed the visitors to use computer programs for making animations and mechanisms for running laser-light shows, but attendance did not meet the expectations and the museum never made a profit, although its related ventures and programs, such as Invent Now and Camp Invention, proved to be more successful. In 2002, its name was changed to the National Inventors Hall of Fame Museum. Six years the Hall moved to Alexandria, its former facility was converted to a specialty school for students in grades between 8th. It is now the National Inventors Hall of Fame STEM Middle School, a middle school for the Akron Public Schools. In Alexandria, the National Inventors Hall of Fame operates a museum in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office building at 600 Dulany Street, with a gallery of digital portraits of the honorees, interactive kiosks and a theater.

Admission is free. In addition to the exhibits of the artifacts and documents from the collections of the Patent and Trademark Office, it promotes future generations of inventors by sponsoring the Invent Now Kids program, Camp Invention, Club Invention and the Collegiate Inventors Competition as well as, with national partners, many ventures and special projects. Camp Invention, founded in 1990, is a daytime summer camp for children, with program sites in 49 states. Camp Invention is the only nationally recognized summer program focused on creativity, real-world problem solving and the spirit of the invention; the Collegiate Inventors Competition was created in 1990 to encourage college and university students to be creative and innovative with science and technology for dealing with the problems of the world. Since with the help from the sponsors, it has awarded more than $1 million to the winning students in two categories and graduate. In 2012, the first places were won with a delivery therapy for treating cancer and a way to facilitate suturing in abdominal surgery.

Other finalists included the use of CT scanning and 3-D printing technology to replicate an amputee's lost hand, a low-profile shoulder brace that can be applied by the athletes themselves, an electric motorcycle that runs on spheres instead of wheels. List of African-American inventors and scientists NASA spinoff Science and technology in the United States Technological and industrial history of the United States Timeline of United States inventions Timeline of United States discoveries United States Patent and Trademark Office Yankee ingenuity GeneralAkron Life and Leisure magazine, Baker Publishing, J. McGarrity, June 2003Specific Official website

Ohio Graduation Test

The Ohio Graduation Test is the high school graduation examination given to sophomores in the U. S. state of Ohio. Students must pass all five sections in order to graduate. Students have multiple chances to pass these sections and can still graduate without passing each using the alternative pathway. In 2009, the Ohio legislature passed an education reform bill eliminating the OGT in favor of a new assessment system; the development and transition of replacement began in 2014 and will end in 2022. Prior to the OGT, passing the ninth grade proficiency test was required for graduation beginning with the class of 1994, it had the same five subjects, apart from the social studies test was referred to as the citizenship test. In 2001, the Ohio legislature directed the Ohio Department of Education to develop the OGT based on the soon-to-be-adopted academic content standards; the first official OGT was given in March 2005. It replaced the ninth grade proficiency test as a graduation requirement for the class of 2007.

The last administration of the ninth grade proficiency test was in 2005. Questions are developed by ODE staff, sent through committees, placed on exams before official inclusion on the OGT. First, the Content Advisory Committee runs the ODE developed question past parents and educators to see if it addresses the content. Second, the Fairness Sensitivity Review Committee helps ensure that questions are fair and do not put any student at a disadvantage because of a student’s moral values, social status, or religious beliefs. Third, the question is field tested, it does not count towards the score of the student. The committees evaluate the performance data and decide if the question is to be used; the OGT is made up of five tests: reading, mathematics and social studies. These sections match the core school subjects and fulfill the high school testing requirement in reading and science under the federal No Child Left Behind Act; each of the five sections is formatted differently, but they each contain multiple choice, short answer, extended response questions: total 38 questions Each exam has six extra questions that are being field tested for future OGT tests.

Students are not penalized for incorrect answers on field tested questions. Students have up to two and a half hours to complete each section of the test; the tests are split up so that there is only one per day. The OGT is first given to students in the spring of their sophomore year. If they do not pass all five sections, they can continue to retake the exam; the OGT is administered in the fall and summer each year. Not all schools offer the summer OGT. Summer testing requires a student to take at least 10 hours of preparatory programs beforehand. A typical student will have seven opportunities to pass the OGT before he or she is scheduled to graduate. There are special accommodations of the OGT for students with special needs; these accommodations include tests with readers, in large print, different languages like Spanish and Somali. Students with an Individualized Education Program may be exempted from the requirement to pass all sections of the OGT or may take another assessment if the plan allows.

For students with significant disabilities, there is an alternate assessment that requires a collection of evidence that demonstrates knowledge appropriate for the student’s disabilities. Passing all five of the OGT tests is required to earn an Ohio diploma for both public and private school students. However, there is an exception for students who come close; the alternative pathway lets student who meet seven specific requirements to graduate without passing all five tests. High school guidance counselors determine. A student qualifies for the alternative pathway if they: Pass all the tests but one, earn at least a 390 on the failed test. In 2009, the Ohio legislature passed an education reform bill that, among other things, called for the OGT to be replaced. To receive a diploma, students will have to earn a certain composite score drawn from a new three part assessment system: A national standardized assessment that assesses science and English language arts A series of end-of-course exams in English language arts, mathematics and social studies A senior project by a student or a group of studentsThe academic content standards and the model curriculum must be finished before the new assessment system can be developed to assure alignment.

Work will begin on developing this new system in 2011. There is no set date for the beginning of the new assessment system, but the 2013-2014 school year has been targeted; the OGT will be phased out until 2022. In 2009, the federal Race to the Top $4.35 billion incentive program was announced. It included up to $350 million for common assessment development. Various consortia of states formed to compete for this grant. Ohio signed memorandums of understanding with two groups: Smarter Balance and Ac

Vardan Sardaryan

Vardan Sardaryan is an Armenian composer, music producer and a pianist. His works range from commercial songs and instrumentals to film soundtracks and large-scale compositions, music for documentaries and TV programs; the composer's music has been used for different openings, radio and TV commercials, etc. He is the artistic director of two variety bands within the scope of Armenian National Show project. Vardan Sardaryan started his career as a pianist at a early age; when Vardan was 6 years old he had written two songs. After studying music in local music school and music college for 11 years, Vardan was accepted to Yerevan Komitas State Conservatory, where he studied in the class of Honorary Artist of Soviet Armenia, Professor Anna Ambakumyan for the next 5 years. During his studies he participated in different international competitions as a pianist. At the same time Vardan Sardaryan would attend composition classes and develop his recognized composing skills. After graduating from the Conservatory Vardan Sardaryan was invited to work as a school director in Kapan music school.

During those years the musician established his own chamber group “Syune”, which would perform his own works. The year of 1996 was a turning point in Vardan's career when he was invited to work as a Musical Editor at the International Association ‘Dobroye Serdtse’ in Moscow, Russia, he worked with famous Russian singers such as Irina Allegrova, Valery Leontiev, famous Russian composer Alexey Garnizov, “Todes” dance group, famous Russian dancer M. Isambayev, famous Russian actress comedian Clara Novikova, producer Nerses Hovhannisyan and others. Cooperation with these artists helped Vardan gain more experience and take his career as a songwriter/producer/arranger to the next level. Upon his return to his home country in 1999 he established new connections and received different offers as a composer, he wrote music for "Gavrosh" in ` Patani Handisates' State Theatre in Armenia. Soon he got a different offer from “Versus” film studio in Yerevan to write music for the documentary “Mistery of Minas”, a project with Ara Shirinyan as the film producer.

The composer signed a contract with Shoghakat TV Company in Yerevan, Armenia as well as “Hayastan” All-Armenian Fund to work as a composer. In 2004 the design package of Shoghakat TV Company won Grand Prix at PIXEL Festival of Digital Technologies and Computer Art held in Moscow May 24–26, and the credits for original music score for the whole package belong to Vardan Sardaryan. Vardan Sardaryan is a songwriter and music arranger. In the year of 2000 Vardan started working with Armenian singer Mister X as the Music Director for his band. In addition to rehearsals and tours with the band, he was working on the arrangements for the singer’s studio and concert albums. One of Vardan's songs called “Silence” was performed by Mister X and recorded in Chicago Recording Company, USA; the song was included in the singer’s album “Silence” and was commercially released in 2008. In 2006 Vardan Sardaryan established his own recording studio, where he produced his first album with singer Lilya Barak, he is the author of all music arrangements in the album.

In the year of 2009 Vardan was signed to the Songbroker Publishing Company as a songwriter. In the upcoming year he signed a publishing deal with ACM record for his song “Stay With Me”; as of March 2012 Vardan Sardaryan has been working as the artistic director of Armenian National Show project. He is the music arranger of the show program, including Armenian folk songs and fragments from Aram Khachaturian’s “Gayane” ballet. Http://


Glycylcyclines are a class of antibiotics derived from tetracycline. These tetracycline analogues are designed to overcome two common mechanisms of tetracycline resistance, namely resistance mediated by acquired efflux pumps and/or ribosomal protection. Presently, tigecycline is the only glycylcycline approved for antibiotic use; the development of these agents was spurred by the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to tetracyclines. These agents were first synthesized in the early 1990s by making modifications to the tetracyclines. By adding a bulky N,N-dimethylglycylamido side chain to position 9 of minocycline, the compound became less susceptible to tetracycline resistance mediated by acquired efflux pumps and/or ribosomal protection. Further development of this initial work led to the creation of tigecycline, the first glycylcycline available for clinical use. Tigecycline Glycylcycline antibiotics have a similar mechanism of action as tetracycline antibiotics, they block protein synthesis hence preventing bacterial reproduction.

Both classes of antibiotics bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit to prevent the amino-acyl tRNA from binding to the A site of the ribosome. However, the glycylcyclines appear to bind more than the tetracyclines. While glycylcyclines have greater efficacy against organisms with tetracycline resistance mediated by acquired efflux pumps and/or ribosomal protection, the glycylcyclines are not effective against organisms with chromosomal efflux pumps, such as Pseudomonas and Proteae. Since glycylcyclines are similar to tetracyclines, they share many of the same side effects and contraindications as tetracyclines; these side effects may include nausea/vomiting, photosensitivity, discoloration of growing teeth, fetal damage. These antibiotics should not be given to pregnant women due to risk of fetal harm. Additionally, these drugs should not be administered during periods of tooth development because of the risk of tooth discoloration. Due to glycylcyclines' similarities with tetracyclines, hypersensitivity reactions to tetracycline antibiotics may predispose one to hypersensitivity reactions with glycylcycline antibiotics.

Smith KL, McCabe SM, Aeschlimann JR. "Tigecycline: A novel glycylcycline antiobiotic". Formulary. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2005. Tygacil manufacturer website. Zhanel GG, Homenuik K, Nichol K, et al.. "The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines". Drugs. 64: 63–88. Doi:10.2165/00003495-200464010-00005. PMID 14723559. list of adverse reactions to Tigecycline

Afonso Cruz

Afonso Cruz is a Portuguese novelist, animator and musician. Born in Figueira da Foz, Cruz studied at the António Arroio Arts High School in Lisbon, at the College of Fine Arts of Lisbon and at the Madeira Institute of Plastic Arts, he published his first novel in 2008, A Carne de Deus - Aventuras de Conrado Fortes e Lola Benites, followed by The Encyclopedia of the World Story in 2009, winner of the Camilo Castelo Branco Grand Prize. In 2010 he published The Books Which Devoured My Father, winner of the 2009 Maria Rosa Colaço Literary Prize, The Human Contradiction, winner of the 2011 Portuguese Society for Authors/RTP Prize, his book A Boneca de Kokoschka won the EU Prize for Literature. Jesus Christ Drank Beer was considered the Best Portuguese Novel of the Year by Time Out Lisbon magazine and Best Novel of 2012 by the readers of the reference newspaper Público. In 2014, Where Do Umbrellas End Up won the Portuguese Society for Authors Award in the Literature category, he is a member of a blues/roots band called The Soaked Lamb

Yvette Richardson

Yvette Richardson is an American meteorologist with substantial contributions on tornado dynamics, the environments of tornadoes and severe convection, radar observations of these. She was a principal investigator of VORTEX2. Richardson graduated with Special Academic Honors at the University of Wisconsin–River Falls with a B. S. in physics in 1990. She earned a M. S. and Ph. D. in meteorology from the University of Oklahoma in 1993 and 1999, respectively. Richardson was a visiting assistant professor at OU from 1998 to 2000, was a research scientist at OU from 2000 to 2001, has been a professor at Pennsylvania State University since 2002, she is a member of Phi Kappa Phi. Richardson was on the steering committee, was a scientific-PI, was co-coordinator of mobile mesonets for VORTEX2, she collaborated in other field projects, including PAMREX, IHOP, ROTATE, VORTEX1. She coauthored the popular textbook, Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes, with Paul Markowski with whom she wrote a major Weatherwise magazine article, How to Make a Tornado.

Richardson is a co-writer of a rebuttal to a New York Times opinion piece by physicist Richard A. Muller challenging his contention that tornadic activity had decreased in the U. S. and his tying the alleged decline to global warming. Erik N. Rasmussen PSU profile WeatherBrains interview