Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies
The Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies at Leiden was founded in 1851. Its objective is the advancement of the study of the anthropology, social sciences, history of Southeast Asia, the Pacific Area, the Caribbean. Special emphasis is laid on the former Dutch colonies of the Dutch East Indies and the Dutch West Indies, its unique collection of books, manuscripts and photographs attracts visiting scholars from all over the world. On July 1, 2014, the management of the collection was taken over by Leiden University Libraries. In 1969, a KITLV office was started by Hans Ras in Jakarta, as a part of an agreement with the Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Here, publications from Indonesia and Singapore are bought and given a place in the library of the institute, publications of the institute are sold, original scientific works in the Dutch language are translated into Indonesian; the Jakarta office is, since July 1, 2014, part of Leiden University Libraries and Representative Office of Leiden University doubles as the representative office of Leiden University.
The KITLV Press distributed academic books on Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. It published three journals: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities, New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. Brill acquired KITLV Press in 2012. Official website KITLV-Jakarta Media related to KITLV at Wikimedia Commons
Prince Diponegoro known as Dipanegara, was a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. The eldest son of the Yogyakartan Sultan Hamengkubuwono III, he played an important role in the Java War between 1825 and 1830. After his defeat and capture, he was exiled to Makassar, his five-year struggle against the Dutch control of Java has become celebrated by Indonesians throughout the years, acting as a source of inspiration for the fighters in the Indonesian National Revolution and nationalism in modern-day Indonesia among others. He is a national hero in Indonesia. Diponegoro was born on 11 November 1785 in Yogyakarta, was the eldest son of Sultan Hamengkubuwono III of Yogyakarta. During his youth at the Yogyakartan court, major occurrences such as the dissolution of the VOC, the British invasion of Java, subsequent return to Dutch rule. During the invasion, the Sultan Hamengkubuwono II, pushed aside in his power on 1810 in favor of Diponegoro's father, used the general disruption to regain control.
In 1812 however he was once more removed from exiled off-Java by the British forces. In this process, Diponegoro acted as an adviser to his father and had provided aid to the British forces to the point where Raffles offered him the Sultan title which he declined due to the fact that his father was still reigning; when the sultan died in 1814, Diponegoro was passed over for the succession to the throne in favor of his younger half brother, Hamengkubuwono IV, supported by the Dutch despite the late Sultan's urging for Diponegoro to be the next Sultan. Being a devout Muslim, Diponegoro was alarmed by the relaxing of religious observance at his half brother's court in contrast with his own life of seclusion, as well as by the court's pro-Dutch policy. In 1821, famine and plague spread in Java. Hamengkubuwono IV died on 1822 under mysterious circumstances; when the year-old boy was appointed as Sultan Hamengkubuwono V, there was a dispute over his guardianship. Diponegoro was again passed over, though he believed he had been promised the right to succeed his half brother - though such a succession was illegal under Islamic rules.
This series of natural disasters and political upheavals erupted into full-scale rebellion. Dutch colonial rule was becoming unpopular among local farmers because of tax rises, crop failures and among Javanese nobles because the Dutch colonial authorities deprived them of their right to lease land. Diponogoro was believed to be the Ratu Adil, the just ruler predicted in the Pralembang Jayabaya. Mount Merapi's eruption in 1822 and a cholera epidemic in 1824 furthered the view that a cataclysm is inbound, eliciting widespread support for Diponegoro. In the days leading up to the war's outbreak, no action was taken by local Dutch officials although rumors of his upcoming insurrection had been floating about. Prophesies and stories, ranging from visions from the tomb of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa to his contact with Nyai Roro Kidul, spread across the populace; the beginning of the war saw large losses on the side of the Dutch, due to their lack of coherent strategy and commitment in fighting Diponegoro's guerrilla warfare.
Ambushes were set up, food supplies were denied to the Dutch troops. The Dutch committed themselves to controlling the spreading rebellion by increasing the number of troops and sending General De Kock to stop the insurgency. De Kock developed a strategy of mobile forces. Fortified and well-defended soldiers occupied key landmarks to limit the movement of Diponegoro's troops while mobile forces tried to find and fight the rebels. From 1829, Diponegoro definitively lost the initiative and he was put in a defensive position. Many troops and leaders were deserted. In 1830 Diponegoro's military was as good as negotiations were started. Diponegoro demanded to have a free state under a sultan and wanted to become the Muslim leader for the whole of Java. In March 1830 he was invited to negotiate under a flag of truce, he accepted and met at the town of Magelang but was taken prisoner on 28 March despite the flag of truce. De Kock claims that he had warned several Javanese nobles to tell Diponegoro he had to lessen his previous demands or that he would be forced to take other measures.
Circumstances of Diponegoro's arrest were seen differently by the Dutch. The former saw the arrest as a betrayal due to the flag of truce, while the latter declared that he had surrendered. Imagery of the event, by Javanese Raden Saleh and Dutch Nicolaas Pieneman, depicted Diponegoro differently - the former visualizing him as a defiant victim, the latter as a subjugated man. After his arrest, he was taken to Semarang and to Batavia, where he was detained at the basement of what is today the Fatahillah Museum. On 1830, he was taken to Sulawesi by ship. After several years in Manado, he was moved to Makassar in July 1833 where he was kept within Fort Rotterdam due to the Dutch believing that the prison was not strong enough to contain him. Despite his prisoner status, his wife Ratnaningsih and some of his followers accompanied him into exile and he received high-profile visitors including 16 year old Dutch Prince Henry in 1837. Diponegoro composed manuscripts on Javanese history and wrote his autobiography, Babad Diponegoro, during his exile.
His physical health deteriorated due to old age, he died on 8 January 1855. Before he died, Diponegoro mandated that he was to be buried in Kampung Melayu, a neighborhood th
A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public libraries, these allow citizens to borrow books, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. A National Library is that library which has the duty of collecting and preserving the literature of the nation within and outside the country. Thus, National Libraries are those libraries. Examples include the British Library, the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. There are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis to the repository character. National libraries are notable for their size, compared to that of other libraries in the same country; some states which are not independent, but who wish to preserve their particular culture, have established a national library with all the attributes of such institutions, such as legal deposit. Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions to discuss their common tasks and promote common standards and carry out projects helping them to fulfill their duties.
National libraries of Europe participate in The European Library. This is a service of The Conference of European National Librarians; the first national libraries had their origins in the royal collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state. One of the first plans for a national library was devised by the English mathematician John Dee, who in 1556 presented Mary I of England with a visionary plan for the preservation of old books and records and the founding of a national library, but his proposal was not taken up. In England, Sir Richard Bentley's Proposal for Building a Royal Library published in 1694 stimulated renewed interest in the subject. Sir Robert Cotton, 1st Baronet, of Connington, a wealthy antiquarian, amassed the richest private collection of manuscripts in the world at the time and founded the Cotton Library. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, many priceless and ancient manuscripts that had belonged to the monastic libraries began to be disseminated among various owners, many of whom were unaware of the cultural value of the manuscripts.
Sir Robert's genius was in finding and preserving these ancient documents. After his death his grandson donated the library to the nation as its first national library; this transfer established the formation of the British Library. The first true national library was founded in 1753 as part of the British Museum; this new institution was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. The museum's foundations lay in the will of the physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, who gathered an enviable collection of curiosities over his lifetime which he bequeathed to the nation for £20,000. Sloane's collection included some 40,000 printed books and 7,000 manuscripts, as well as prints and drawings; the British Museum Act 1753 incorporated the Cotton library and the Harleian library. These were joined in 1757 by the Royal Library, assembled by various British monarchs; the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759, in 1757, King George II granted it the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the Museum's library would expand indefinitely.
Anthony Panizzi became the Principal Librarian at the British Museum in 1856, where he oversaw its modernization. During his tenure, the Library's holdings increased from 235,000 to 540,000 volumes, making it the largest library in the world at the time, its famous circular Reading Room was opened in 1857. Panizzi undertook the creation of a new catalogue, based on the "Ninety-One Cataloguing Rules" which he devised with his assistants; these rules served as the basis for all subsequent catalogue rules of the 19th and 20th centuries, are at the origins of the ISBD and of digital cataloguing elements such as Dublin Core. In France, the first national library was the Bibliothèque Mazarine, which evolved from its origin as a royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. At the death of Charles VI, this first collection was unilaterally bought by the English regent of France, the Duke of Bedford, who transferred it to England in 1424, it was dispersed at his death in 1435. The invention of printing resulted in the starting of another collection in the Louvre inherited by Louis XI in 1461.
Francis I transferred the collection in 1534 to Fontainebleau and merged it with his private library. The appointment of Jacques Auguste de Thou as librarian in the 17th century, initiated a period of development that made it the largest and richest collection of books in the world; the library opened to the public in 1692, under the administration of Abbé Louvois, Minister Louvois's son. Abbé Louvois was succeeded by the Abbé Bignon, or Bignon II as he was termed, who instituted a complete reform of the library's system. Catalogues were made; the collections increased by purchase and gift to the outbreak of the French Revolution, at which time it was in grave danger of partial or total destruction, but owing to the activities of Antoine-Augustin Renouard and Joseph Van Praet it suffered no injury. The library's collections swelled to over 300,000 volumes during the radical phase of the French Revolution when the private libraries of aristocrats and clergy were seized. After the establishment of the French First Republic in September 1792, "the Assembly declared the Bibliotheque du Roi to be national property and the institution was renamed the Bibliothèque Nationale
Raden Ayu Siti Hartinah was the wife of the second Indonesian president, Suharto. She is known as Ibu Tien to Indonesians, but is known as Siti Hartinah Soeharto. Madame Suharto was widely acknowledged to be a close confidant and political advisor to Suharto. Siti Hartinah was distantly related to the Mangkunegaran Royal household; some commentators state that her honorific title of Raden Ayu was reserved only for faithful commoner courtiers or servants of the Mangkunegaran court. She married Suharto on 26 December 1947 in Surakarta using a traditional Javanese ceremony; the Javanese custom was for the bride's family to pay the bulk of the wedding costs. Suharto drove there in a battered De Soto sedan. Suharto stated that the marriage was not one of romantic love, but they did grow to love each other devotedly, a type of marriage, common for many Javanese of that era. Three days after their marriage, Siti Hartinah was taken by Suharto to live in his Yogyakarta house at Jalan Merbabu 2, her marriage was initiated by Suharto's foster mother at the time, Ibu Prawirowiharjo, who sought an audience with her mother.
Ibu Prawirowiharjo cultivated a close relationship with her mother, a family in Suharto's own words as "well regarded and respected in the city of Solo"Siti Hartinah became to be known in Indonesia as "Madame Tien". Many Javanese saw her as one of the major causes of Suharto's own power. Siti Hartinah is interred beside her husband in the Astana Giribangun mausoleum complex in Karanganyar Regency, Central Java. Suharto and Siti Hartinah had six children, Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana, Sigit Harjojudanto, Bambang Trihatmodjo, Siti Hediati, Hutomo Mandala Putra and Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih, 11 grandchildren and several great-grandchildren. Suharto: A Political Biography. Robert Edward Elson. Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-77326-1 Siti Hartinah Soeharto: First Lady of Indonesia. Abdul Gafur. PT. Citra Lamtoro Gung Persada, 1992. ISBN unknown Who's Who in Indonesia. Mahiddin Mahmud. Gunung Agung, 1990. ISBN unknown Biography on TokohIndonesia.com 1996 news:Madame Ten was buried
Joko Widodo known as Jokowi, is an Indonesian politician, the seventh and current President of Indonesia. Elected in July 2014 as the first Indonesian president to not come from an elite political or military background, he was the Mayor of Surakarta from 2005 to 2012, the Governor of Jakarta from 2012 to 2014, he achieved national prominence in 2009 for his work as the Mayor of Surakarta. A member of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, he was its candidate for the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election, alongside Basuki Tjahaja Purnama as his running mate. Defeating incumbent Fauzi Bowo, he took office in October 2012 and reinvigorated Jakarta politics, with publicized blusukan visits and improving the city's bureaucracy, reducing corruption in the process, he introduced years-late programs to improve quality of life in the city, including universal health-care, dredging the city's main river to reduce flooding, inaugurating construction of the city's subway system. Seen as a rising star in Indonesian politics, PDI-P nominated Jokowi for the 2014 presidential election.
Winning a majority of the popular vote, he was named president-elect on 22 July 2014, to bitter protest from his opponent Prabowo Subianto, who disputed the outcome and withdrew from the race before the count was completed. As president, Jokowi has focused on infrastructure, introducing or restarting long-delayed programs to build highways, high-speed rail and other facilities to improve connectivity in the Indonesian archipelago. On foreign policy, his administration has placed an emphasis on "protecting Indonesia’s sovereignty", with the sinking of illegal foreign fishing vessels and the prescription of capital punishment for drug smugglers, despite intense pressure from foreign powers including Australia and France. After four years in office, Jokowi's approval ratings remain high, in the high-60s to low-70s, he is running for re-election in the April 2019 presidential election. Joko Widodo was born Mulyono on 21 June 1961, is of Javanese descent, he is the only son of Noto Mihardjo and Sudjiatmi Notomihardjo.
He has three younger sisters, named Ida Yati and Titik Relawati. His father came from Karanganyar; as a toddler, Jokowi was sickly, his name was changed to Joko Widodo - Widodo meant "healthy" in Javanese. At the age of 12, he started working in his father's furniture workshop; the evictions he experienced three times in his childhood affected his way of thinking - and his leadership on as the mayor of Surakarta - as he organised housing in the city. His education began in State Elementary School 111 Tirtoyoso, known for being a school for less wealthy citizens, he continued his studies in State Junior High School 1 Surakarta. He had wanted to continue his education in State Senior High School 1 Surakarta but failed the entrance exam and went to State Senior High School 6 Surakarta instead. Jokowi graduated from the Forestry faculty at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, in 1985 where his work included studies and research on the use of plywood, he began work at PT Kertas Kraft Aceh, a state-owned firm in the province of Aceh.
He worked in what is today Bener Meriah Regency between 1986 and 1988, as a supervisor of forestry and raw materials of a Pinus merkusii plantation. Jokowi, soon became uninterested in his activities in the firm and returned home, he began working in his grandfather's furniture factory for a year before establishing his own company, whose namesake is his first child. The company, which focused on teak furniture, nearly went bankrupt at one point, but survived following a Rp 500 million loan from Perusahaan Gas Negara. By 1991, the company began exporting its products and they were successful in international markets, they were sold, for example, in France where they first established a presence in the European market. It was a French customer named Bernard who gave Joko Widodo the nickname he is famous for,'Jokowi'. By 2002, Jokowi had become the chairman of Surakarta's furniture manufacturers association, he decided to become a politician and promote reform in his home town, after seeing the neat layouts of some European cities while promoting his furniture there.
After becoming mayor, he made a joint venture with politician and former lieutenant general Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, when the two founded PT Rakabu Sejahtera. Jokowi reported his net worth in 2018 to be Rp 50.25 billion - in form of property holdings in Central Java and Jakarta. After first joining PDI-P in 2004, Jokowi ran in the mayoral race in Surakarta in 2005 with F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo as his running mate, with the support of PDI-P and the National Awakening Party; the pair won 36.62 % of the vote against two other candidates. During the campaign, his background as a property and furniture businessman was questioned. However, one academic paper claimed his leadership style was successful because it established an interactive relationship with the people, through which he was able to induce people's strong faith in him, he adopted the development framework of European cities as a guide for changes in Surakarta. Jokowi's notable policies as mayor included: Building new traditional markets & renovating existing markets, constructing a 7-km city walk with a 3-meter wide pedestrian walkway along Surakarta's main street, revitalizing the Balekambang and Sriwedari parks, employing stricter regulations on cutting down trees along the city's
Radio-frequency identification uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture. RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Since RFID tags can be attached to cash and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns; these concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability and reader authentication, over-the-air privacy.
ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques. Tags can be used in shops to expedite checkout, to prevent theft by customers and employees. In 2014, the world RFID market was worth US$8.89 billion, up from US$7.77 billion in 2013 and US$6.96 billion in 2012. This figure includes tags and software/services for RFID cards, labels and all other form factors; the market value is expected to rise to US$18.68 billion by 2026. In 1945, Léon Theremin invented a listening device for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with the added audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. Though this device was a covert listening device, rather than an identification tag, it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID because it was passive, being energized and activated by waves from an outside source.
Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder, was used by the allies and Germany in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft. Another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman, who predicted that "... considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, before the field of useful applications is explored." Mario Cardullo's device, patented on January 23, 1973, was the first true ancestor of modern RFID, as it was a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other potential users, it consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, light as transmission media; the original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation, banking and medical.
An early demonstration of reflected power RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, Robert Frayman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags; this technique is used by the majority of today's microwave RFID tags. The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in 1983. A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response. RFID tags can be either active or battery-assisted passive. An active tag periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery-assisted passive has a small battery on board and is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader. A passive tag is smaller because it has no battery. However, to operate a passive tag, it must be illuminated with a power level a thousand times stronger than for signal transmission.
That makes a difference in exposure to radiation. Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial number, used as a key into a database, or may be read/write, where object-specific data can be written into the tag by the system user. Field programmable tags may be write-once, read-multiple. RFID tags contain at least three parts: an integrated circuit that stores and processes information and that modulates and demodulates radio-frequency signals; the tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either fixed or programmable logic for processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively. An RFID reader transmits an e
Bogor Botanical Gardens
The Bogor Botanical Gardens is a botanical garden located in Bogor, Indonesia, 60 km south of Jakarta. It is operated by Indonesian Institute of Sciences; the Gardens are located in the city center and adjoin the presidential palace compound of Istana Bogor. It covers an area of 87 hectares and contains 13,983 different kinds of trees and plants of various origin; the geographic position of Bogor means it rains daily in the dry season. This makes the Garden an advantageous location for the cultivation of tropical plants. Founded in 1817 by the order of the government of the Dutch East Indies, the Garden thrived under the leadership of many renowned botanists including Johannes Elias Teijsmann, Rudolph Herman Christiaan Carel Scheffer, Melchior Treub. Since its foundation, Bogor Botanical garden has served as a major research center for agriculture and horticulture, it is the oldest botanical garden in Southeast Asia. The area, now Bogor Botanical Gardens was part of the samida, established at least around the era when Sri Baduga Maharaja ruled the Sunda Kingdom, as written in the Batutulis inscription.
This forest was created to protect seeds of rare trees. The forest remained neglected. In 1744 the Dutch East India Company established a garden and mansion at the site of the present Botanical Gardens in Buitenzorg. After the successful British invasion of Java in 1811, Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's Lieutenant-Governor and he took Buitenzorg Palace as his residence. During his rule in the palace, he had the garden re-landscaped into English-style garden, his wife, Olivia Mariamne Raffles, died in Buitenzorg on November 26, 1814 and was buried in Batavia. A memorial monument was built as a commemoration for her; when the Anglo-Dutch Treaty came into effect, the Netherlands sent officials to resume control of the colony in 1816. Among those on board are a German-born botanist named Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt, appointed as head of agriculture and science of the colony. A year he proposed the establishment of a Botanical Garden, a move, supported by Governor-General Van der Capellen.
The Garden was founded on May 18, 1817 next to the palace ground through a collaboration with two botanists, William Kent from Holland and James Hooper from Kew. The Garden was established as's Lands Plantentuin, he became its first director for five years, gathered plants and seeds of economic potential from all over the archipelago for cultivation. Much of his taxonomic work was catalogued by his predecessor Carl Ludwig Blume in 1823, who recorded 914 plants in the Garden. In 1830, Johannes Elias Teijsmann, a Dutch botanist, became curator of Bogor Botanic Garden and spent more than 50 years developing the Garden. Seven years Justus Carl Hasskarl was appointed as his assistant curator and convinced the director to re-arrange the plantings in the Garden by taxonomic families. Hasskarl proposed starting a library, which opened in 1842 as the Bibliotheca Bogoriensis, constructed a separate building for the Herbarium Bogoriense, which opened in 1844. J. Teijsmann wrote the second catalogue of plants which listed more than 2800 species by 1844.
He has the Garden expanded in 1852, with a 120 hectares new garden branch laid down near the mountainous town of Cibodas. In 1848 the Garden received four seeds of West African oil palm, these trees were believed to be the mother tree in Southeast Asia from which numerous descendants were produced to support the growth of the palm oil industry in the region; however the last original mother plant died in 1933. The Garden played major role in the introduction of Cinchona trees to Java in 1854, which would make the island the largest producer of quinine bark for malaria treatment. J. Teijsmann had the Botanic Garden detached from the palace garden as an independent institution on May 30, 1868; the growth in economy and the effective directorship of Rudolph Scheffer and Melchior Treub, fueled the maturation of the garden as a leading regional center for biological study. In 1876 R. Scheffer, keen on agriculture development, founded the "economic garden" some distance from Buitenzorg. There he had culture crops such as coffee, tobacco and rice, cultivated and experimented.
In 1880, M. Treub organize it into an elaborate institutions, he founded the Botanical laboratory, Zoologicum Bogoriense and marine research laboratory, in addition he had the Garden expanded by 60 hectares in 1892. Under his leadership fundamental researches were completed on diseases that threatened plants of economic importance, such as the coffee-leaf fungal disease and the sereh-disease on sugarcane plants; the Garden enjoyed wide international attention and was visited by botanists and biologists from various countries to conduct researches. This led to the opening of the new Treub's laboratory in 1914. A shortage of land occurred in 1927 due to the growing plants collection. Therefore, the Garden were extended east of Ciliwung river. Part of the new section was arranged in similar manner to the main Garden, with the rest laid out as large lawns, ponds and glasshouses for orchids. Astrid Avenue was laid out there to honor Princess Astrid of Belgium's visit in 1928, the avenue is decorated with spectacular display of canna lilies of various colors.
A new branch of the Garden was opened near the town of Purwodadi in East Java, under the directi