An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research article
An art exhibition is traditionally the space in which art objects meet an audience. The exhibit is universally understood to be for some temporary period unless, as is true, it is stated to be a "permanent exhibition". In American English, they may be called "exhibit", "exposition" or "show". In UK English, they are always called "exhibitions" or "shows", an individual item in the show is an "exhibit"; such expositions may present pictures, video, installation, interactive art, new media art or sculptures by individual artists, groups of artists or collections of a specific form of art. The art works may be presented in museums, art halls, art clubs or private art galleries, or at some place the principal business of, not the display or sale of art, such as a coffeehouse. An important distinction is noted between those exhibits where some or all of the works are for sale in private art galleries, those where they are not. Sometimes the event is organized on a specific occasion, like a birthday, anniversary or commemoration.
There are different kinds of art exhibitions, in particular there is a distinction between commercial and non-commercial exhibitions. A commercial exhibition or trade fair is referred to as an art fair that shows the work of artists or art dealers where participants have to pay a fee. A vanity gallery is an exhibition space of works in a gallery that charges the artist for use of the space. Temporary museum exhibitions display items from the museum's own collection on a particular period, theme or topic, supplemented by loans from other collections those of other museums, they include no items for sale. Exhibitions in commercial galleries are entirely made up of items that are for sale, but may be supplemented by other items that are not; the visitor has to pay to enter a museum exhibition, but not a commercial one in a gallery. Retrospectives look back over the work of a single artist; the Biennale is a large exhibition held every two years intending to gather together the best of international art.
A travelling exhibition is another category of art exhibition. Exhibitions of new or recent art can be invitational, or open. A juried exhibition, such as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in London, or the Iowa Biennial, has an individual acting as judge of the submitted artworks, selecting which are to be shown. If prizes are to be awarded, the judge or panel of judges will select the prizewinners as well. In an invitational exhibition, such as the Whitney Biennial, the organizer of the show asks certain artists to supply artworks and exhibits them. An open or "non-juried" exhibition, such as the Kyoto Triennial, allows anybody to enter artworks and shows them all. A type of exhibition, non-juried is a mail art exhibition; the art exhibition has played a crucial part in the market for new art since the 18th and 19th centuries. The Paris Salon, open to the public from 1737 became the key factor in determining the reputation, so the price, of the French artists of the day; the Royal Academy in London, beginning in 1769, soon established a similar grip on the market, in both countries artists put great efforts into making pictures that would be a success changing the direction of their style to meet popular or critical taste.
The British Institution was added to the London scene in 1805, holding two annual exhibitions, one of new British art for sale, one of loans from the collections of its aristocratic patrons. These exhibitions received lengthy and detailed reviews in the press, which were the main vehicle for the art criticism of the day. Critics as distinguished as Denis Diderot and John Ruskin held their readers attention by divergent reviews of different works, praising some extravagantly and giving others the most savage put-downs they could think of. Many of the works were sold, but success at these exhibitions was a crucial way for an artist to attract more commissions. Among important early one-off loan exhibitions of older paintings were the Art Treasures Exhibition, Manchester 1857, the Exhibition of National Portraits in London, at what is now the Victoria and Albert Museum, held in three stages in 1866-68; as the academic art promoted by the Paris Salon, always more rigid than London, was felt to be stifling French art, alternative exhibitions, now known as the Salon des Refusés were held, most famously in 1863, when the government allowed them an annex to the main exhibition for a show that included Édouard Manet's Luncheon on the Grass and James McNeill Whistler's Girl in White.
This began a period where exhibitions one-off shows, were crucial in exposing the public to new developments in art, Modern art. Important shows of this type were the Armory Show in New York City in 1913 and the London International Surrealist Exhibition in 1936. Museums started holding large loan exhibitions of historic art in the late 19th century, as did the Royal Academy, but the modern "blockbuster" museum exhibition, with long queues and a large illustrated catalogue, is agreed to have been introduced by the exhibitions of artifacts from the tomb of Tutankhamun held in several cities in the 1970s. Many exhibition
Department of the Taoiseach
The Department of the Taoiseach is the government department of the Taoiseach of Ireland. It is based in Government Buildings, the headquarters of the Government of Ireland, on Merrion Street in Dublin; the Department was created in 1937, simultaneous with the new Constitution replacing the Irish Free State's 1922 Constitution. The Department replaced the Department of the President of the Executive Council, just as the office of Taoiseach replaced the office of President of the Executive Council; the civil servant who heads the Department of the Taoiseach is known as the Secretary General of the Department and serves as the Cabinet Secretary. Taoiseach: Leo Varadkar, TD Minister of State: Seán Kyne, TD, Government Chief Whip Minister of State at the Department of Defence: Paul Kehoe, TD Minister of State for Trade, Business, EU Digital Single Market and Data Protection: Pat Breen, TD Secretary General of the Department: Martin Fraser, the Secretary General to the Government and thus the country's most senior civil servant.
The main role of the Department is to support and advise the Taoiseach in carrying out various duties. The Department supplies administrative support to the Government Chief Whip in respect of his duties and provides the Secretariat to the Government; the Department has a pivotal role in acting as a link between the President, the Taoiseach and other Departments of State. In addition, the Department of the Taoiseach is involved in a number of other areas such as the development and co-ordination of policy in relation to economic and social development, Northern Ireland, the European Union and Oireachtas reform, it arranges State functions such as the annual National Day of Commemoration, Presidential inaugurations, State dinners and provides a protocol service to the Taoiseach of the day. Official website
A manuscript was, any document, written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way. More the term has come to be understood to further include any written, typed, or word-processed copy of an author's work, as distinguished from its rendition as a printed version of the same. Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in codex format. Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately embossed initial letters or full-page illustrations. A document should be at least 75 years old to be considered a manuscript; the traditional abbreviations are MS for manuscript and MSS for manuscripts, while the forms MS. ms or ms. for singular, MSS. mss or mss. for plural are accepted.
The second s is not the plural. Before the invention of woodblock printing in China or by moveable type in a printing press in Europe, all written documents had to be both produced and reproduced by hand. Manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls or books. Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrus, on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived. In India, the palm leaf manuscript, with a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, by the late 15th century had replaced parchment for many purposes; when Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made by scribes in a scriptorium, each making a single copy from an original, declaimed aloud. The oldest written manuscripts have been preserved by the perfect dryness of their Middle Eastern resting places, whether placed within sarcophagi in Egyptian tombs, or reused as mummy-wrappings, discarded in the middens of Oxyrhynchus or secreted for safe-keeping in jars and buried or stored in dry caves.
Manuscripts in Tocharian languages, written on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum; the manuscripts that were being most preserved in the libraries of antiquity are all lost. Papyrus has a life of at most a century or two in moist Italian or Greek conditions. All books were in manuscript form. In China, other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century; the earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of 868. In the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about 1450. Manuscript copying of books continued for a least a century. Private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century; because of the likelihood of errors being introduced each time a manuscript was copied, the filiation of different versions of the same text is a fundamental part of the study and criticism of all texts that have been transmitted in manuscript.
In Southeast Asia, in the first millennium, documents of sufficiently great importance were inscribed on soft metallic sheets such as copperplate, softened by refiner's fire and inscribed with a metal stylus. In the Philippines, for example, as early as 900AD, specimen documents were not inscribed by stylus, but were punched much like the style of today's dot-matrix printers; this type of document was rare compared to the usual leaves and bamboo staves. However, neither the leaves nor paper were as durable as the metal document in the hot, humid climate. In Burma, the kammavaca, Buddhist manuscripts, were inscribed on brass, copper or ivory sheets, on discarded monk robes folded and lacquered. In Italy some important Etruscan texts were inscribed on thin gold plates: similar sheets have been discovered in Bulgaria. Technically, these are all inscriptions rather than manuscripts; the study of the writing, or "hand" in surviving manuscripts is termed palaeography. In the Western world, from the classical period through the early centuries of the Christian era, manuscripts were written without spaces between the words, which makes them hard for the untrained to read.
Extant copies of these early manuscripts written in Greek or Latin and dating from the 4th century to the 8th century, are classified according to their use of either all upper case or all lower case letters. Hebrew manuscripts, such as the Dead Sea scrolls make no such differentiation. Manuscripts using all upper case letters are called majuscule, those using all lower case are called minuscule; the majuscule scripts such as uncial are written with much more care. The scribe lifted his pen between each stroke, producing an unmistakable effect of regularity and formality. On the other hand, while minuscule scripts can be written with pen-lift, they may be cursive, that is, use little or no pen-lift
National Photographic Archive
The National Photographic Archive is located in Temple Bar in Dublin and holds the photographic collections of the National Library of Ireland. The archive was opened in 1998, has a reading room and exhibition gallery; the gallery's exhibition space hosts photographic exhibitions - relating to the NLI's collections. National Library of Ireland National Photographic Archive
Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches, rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece. Like its analogs – printed books or pamphlets in English, Arabic or other languages – the medium of sheet music is paper, although the access to musical notation since the 1980s has included the presentation of musical notation on computer screens and the development of scorewriter computer programs that can notate a song or piece electronically, and, in some cases, "play back" the notated music using a synthesizer or virtual instruments. Use of the term "sheet" is intended to differentiate written or printed forms of music from sound recordings, radio or TV broadcasts or recorded live performances, which may capture film or video footage of the performance as well as the audio component. In everyday use, "sheet music" can refer to the print publication of commercial sheet music in conjunction with the release of a new film, TV show, record album, or other special or popular event which involves music.
The first printed sheet music made with a printing press was made in 1473. Sheet music is the basic form in which Western classical music is notated so that it can be learned and performed by solo singers or instrumentalists or musical ensembles. Many forms of traditional and popular Western music are learned by singers and musicians "by ear", rather than by using sheet music; the term score is a common alternative term for sheet music, there are several types of scores, as discussed below. The term score can refer to theatre music, orchestral music or songs written for a play, opera or ballet, or to music or songs written for a television programme or film. Sheet music from the 20th and 21st century indicates the title of the song or composition on a title page or cover, or on the top of the first page, if there is no title page or cover. If the song or piece is from a movie, Broadway musical, or opera, the title of the main work from which the song/piece is taken may be indicated. If the songwriter or composer is known, her or his name is indicated along with the title.
The sheet music may indicate the name of the lyric-writer, if the lyrics are by a person other than one of the songwriters or composers. It may the name of the arranger, if the song or piece has been arranged for the publication. No songwriter or composer name may be indicated for old folk music, traditional songs in genres such as blues and bluegrass, old traditional hymns and spirituals, because for this music, the authors are unknown; the type of musical notation varies a great deal by style of music. In most classical music, the melody and accompaniment parts are notated on the lines of a staff using round note heads. In classical sheet music, the staff contains: a clef, such as bass clef or treble clef a key signature indicating the key—for instance, a key signature with three sharps is used for the key of either A major or F♯ minor a time signature, which has two numbers aligned vertically with the bottom number indicating the note value that represents one beat and the top number indicating how many beats are in a bar—for instance, a time signature of 24 indicates that there are two quarter notes per bar.
Most songs and pieces from the Classical period onward indicate the piece's tempo using an expression—often in Italian—such as Allegro or Grave as well as its dynamics. The lyrics, if present, are written near the melody notes. However, music from the Baroque era or earlier eras may have neither a tempo marking nor a dynamic indication; the singers and musicians of that era were expected to know what tempo and loudness to play or sing a given song or piece due to their musical experience and knowledge. In the contemporary classical music era, in some cases before, composers used their native language for tempo indications, rather than Italian or added metronome markings; these conventions of classical music notation, in particular the use of English tempo instructions, are used for sheet music versions of 20th and 21st century popular music songs. Popular music songs indicate both the tempo and genre: "slow blues" or "uptempo rock". Pop songs contain chord names above the staff using letter names, so that an acoustic guitarist or pianist can improvise a chordal accompaniment.
In other styles of music, different musical notation methods may be used. In jazz, while most professional performers can read "classical"-style notation, many jazz tunes are notated using chord charts, which indicate the chord progression of a song and its form. Members of a jazz rhythm section use the chord chart to guide their improvised accompaniment parts, while the "lead instruments" in a jazz group, such as a saxophone player or trumpeter, use the chord changes to guide their solo improvisation. Like popular music songs, jazz tunes indicate both the tempo and genre: "slow blues" or "fast bop". Professional country music session musicians use music notated in the Nashville Number System, which indicates th
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the