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National Library of Israel

The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The establishment of a Jewish National Library in Jerusalem was the brainchild of Joseph Chazanovitz, his idea was creating a "home for all works in all languages and literatures which have Jewish authors though they create in foreign cultures." Chazanovitz collected some 15,000 volumes which became the core of the library. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street.

In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library. The books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia. By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law.

The law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations. In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Basel-based architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet.

Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica. The library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects; the collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes many works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi.

About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine. It is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property"; the books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. The National Library of Israel completed its collection of the Max Brod archive in August 2019. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website


Paraphasia is a type of language output error associated with aphasia, characterized by the production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during the effort to speak. Paraphasic errors are most common in patients with fluent forms of aphasia, comes in three forms: phonemic or literal and verbal. Paraphasias can affect number of syllables, or both; some paraphasias preserve the meter without segmentation, some do the opposite. However, most paraphasias affect both partially; the term was introduced in 1877 by the German-English physician Julius Althaus in his book on Diseases of the Nervous System, in a sentence reading, "In some cases there is a perfect chorea or delirium of words, which may be called paraphasia". Paraphasia is associated with fluent aphasias, characterized by “fluent spontaneous speech, long grammatically shaped sentences and preserved prosody abilities.” Examples of these fluent aphasias include receptive or Wernicke’s aphasia, anomic aphasia, conduction aphasia, transcortical sensory aphasia, among others.

All of these lead to a difference in processing efficiency, caused by damage to a cortical region in the brain. This lesion can be caused by a variety of different methods: malfunctioning blood vessels in the brain are the cause of 80% of aphasias in adults, as compared to head injuries and degenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, demyelinating diseases. Lesions involving the posterior superior temporal lobe are associated with fluent aphasias. Two areas of the brain, Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area, are responsible for various disruptions in speech when damaged; each is defined by their distinct characteristics. Broca’s aphasia is characterized by non-fluent or telegraphic-type speech - where articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs and morphological inflections are omitted; the word substitutions are infrequent and distortion of consonants and simplification of consonant clusters is frequent. Content words such as nouns and adjectives may be preserved. Subjects of this aphasia are aware of their errors in speech.

Damage to the Broca’s area does not affect comprehension of speech. Wernicke’s aphasia is characterized by fluent language with made up or unnecessary words with little or no meaning to speech; those who suffer from this type of aphasia have difficulty understanding others speech and are unaware of their own mistakes. When corrected they will have trouble finding the correct word. Wernicke’s area is found in the dominant hemisphere of the posterior gyrus of the first temporal convolution of the brain, whereas Broca’s area is found anterior to the Wernicke’s area. Phonemic paraphasia referred to as phonological paraphasia or literal paraphasia, refers to the substitution of a word with a nonword that preserves at least half of the segments and/or number of syllables of the intended word; this can lead to a variety of errors, including formal ones, in which one word is replaced with another phonologically related to the intended word. These types of errors are associated among others. Phonemic paraphasias are caused by lesions to the external capsule, extending to the posterior part of the temporal lobe or internal capsule.

This type of paraphasia occurs in other languages as well. For example, case studies have been performed with German speakers, which demonstrated that 30.8% of paraphasias occurred at the beginning of the word in patients with Wernicke's aphasia and 22.6% for patients with Broca's aphasia. In English speakers this tendency to create errors at the beginning of the word remained. Types of phonemic paraphasiasAnticipatory errors occur when a syllable from in the word replaces a syllable from earlier in the word - "papple" for apple or "lelephone" for telephone. Perseverative errors occur when a syllable from earlier in the word replaces a syllable from in the word - for example, "gingerjed" for gingerbread. Paradigmatic errors based on similarity in how the sounds are formed can occur - "marmer" for barber, i.e. Addition errors, in which a segment is added that bears no relation to the intended word, are much rarer than anticipatory, perseverative, or paradigmatic errors, though they do occur.

Most what can be mistaken for an addition error is an anticipatory error from the words surrounding the intended one. However, an example of a possible addition error could be "selezant" for elephant. Substitution errors involve a clear phonological substitution, such as "ragon" for wagon. Epenthetic errors are the insertion of a segment into the target, as in the case of "plants" for pants. Metathetical errors are the full exchange of segments like "deks" for desk. Neologistic paraphasias, a substitution with a non-English or gibberish word, follow pauses indicating word-finding difficulty, they can affect any part of speech, the mentioned pause can be used to indicate the relative severity of the neologism. The hypothesized source for these neologisms is “a device which quasiran

Dos tipos de cuidado

Dos tipos de cuidado is a 1953 Mexican film. It stars Jorge Negrete, with music by Manuel Esperon. Jorge Negrete... Jorge Bueno Pedro Infante... Pedro Malo Carmelita González... Rosario Yolanda Varela... María Carlos Orellana... Don Elías José Elías Moreno... El General Queta Lavat... Genoveva Arturo Soto Rangel... Doctor Mimí Derba... Josefa, madre de Jorge Manuel Noriega... Doctor de Rosario It is the story of two best friends: Pedro Malo and Jorge Bueno, they dated María and Rosario together, were happy couples. One year has passed and the couples are no longer together. Jorge took his car to a service station when an old friend told him that Pedro had returned to the village, they are no longer friends—in fact, they are enemies because Pedro, a short time ago, married Jorge's girlfriend and Pedro's own cousin, Rosario. Dos tipos de cuidado on IMDb

Dettlef G√ľnther

Dettlef Günther is an East German former luger who competed from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s. He won the gold medal in the men's singles event at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck. At the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York, Günther was favored to repeat after leading the first two runs, but crashed at the end of the third run causing him to lose three seconds and settling for fourth in the standings. Günther won the gold medal in the men's singles event at the 1979 FIL World Luge Championships in Königssee, West Germany, he won two medals in the men's singles event at the FIL European Luge Championships with a gold in 1975 and a silver in 1979. Fuzilogik Sports – Winter Olympic results – Men's luge at the Wayback Machine results on Olympic champions in luge and skeleton. At the Wayback Machine Hickok sports information on World champions in skeleton. At List of European luge champions at the Wayback Machine Wallenchinsky, David.. "Men's Singles Luge".

In The Complete Book of the Olympics: 1896–1980. New York: Penguin Books. P. 576

Inside Job (1946 film)

Inside Job is a 1946 American crime film noir directed by Jean Yarbrough starring Preston Foster, Ann Rutherford, Alan Curtis and Milburn Stone. An ex-convict, Eddie Norton, now reformed and working in a straight job at a department store, is found by his former partner, Bart Madden, blackmailed into helping him rob the department store payroll. Norton decides to pull off the job and take all of the money for himself and his wife, unaware of his record. One night after the store is closed, Norton cracks the safes and takes nearly a quarter of a million dollars – a stupendous sum in 1946. Madden learns of the double cross but cannot find Norton, in hiding with Claire. Norton arranges to be driven out of the city to start a new life but an informant tells Madden of his whereabouts. Madden arrives at Norton's boarding room, he knocks on Norton’s door but a neighbour, a police officer arrives at the critical moment with Christmas shopping for his family. Madden shoots the police officer who returns fire wounding Madden who subsequently dies.

Norton is persuaded by his wife to try to save the police officer’s life but it is at the cost of being found by the police and prosecuted. Preston Foster as Bart Madden Ann Rutherford as Claire Gray Norton Alan Curtis as Eddie Norton aka Eddie Mitchell Milburn Stone as District Attorney Sutton Samuel S. Hinds as Judge Kincaid Joe Sawyer as Police Capt. Thomas Marc Lawrence as Donovan John Berkes as Freddie Jimmy Moss as Skipper Howard Freeman as Mr. Winkle William Trenk as Cordet Oliver Blake as Herman Joan Shawlee as Ruth When the film was released, film critic Bosley Crowther, panned the film in his review, "All this is played out in tedious fashion before justice is satisfied, Inside Job thankfully gives way to the newsreels and a couple of short subjects, though not too good either, are infinitely better than the main attraction." Inside Job at the American Film Institute Catalog Inside Job on IMDb Inside Job at AllMovie Inside Job at the TCM Movie Database

Cornick (food)

Cornick spelled kornik, is a Filipino deep-fried crunchy puffed corn nut snack. It is most garlic-flavored but can come in a variety of other flavors, it is traditionally made with glutinous corn. Cornick is made by soaking corn kernels in water for three days, changing the water used for soaking daily; the corn used is traditionally glutinous corn, but other types of corn can be used, including popcorn. After soaking, the kernels dried thoroughly, it is deep-fried in oil at about 120 to 130 °C, to ensure that the kernels do not pop. It is cooked for around two to three minutes drained on paper towels. Cornick toasted garlic. Commercial variants come in a larger aray of flavors including adobo, chili and barbecue flavors. Chichacorn, a portmanteau of "chicharron" and "corn", is a variant of cornick originating from the Ilocos region, it differs from cornick in that it is allowed to pop during frying. Mass-produced cornick snacks are widespread in the Philippines; the most popular commercial brands include Boy Bawang, Super Bawang, Bawang na Bawang, Safari.

It is a common ingredient in Filipino mixed nuts snacks which include brands like Ding Dong and Corn Bits. Binatog Ampaw Pinipig List of maize dishes