The National Library of Poland is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland. The library collects books, journals and audiovisual publications published in the territory of Poland, as well as Polonica published abroad, it is the most important humanities research library, the main archive of Polish writing and the state centre of bibliographic information about books. It plays a significant role as a research facility and is an important methodological center for other Polish libraries; the National Library receives a copy of every book published in Poland as legal deposit. The Jagiellonian Library is the only other library in Poland to have a national library status. There are three general sections: The Library The Bibliographic Institute of the National Library The Book and Readership Institute The National Library's history has origins in the 18th century including items from the collections of John III Sobieski which were obtained from his grand daughter Maria Karolina Sobieska, Duchess of Bouillon.
However, the Załuski collection was confiscated by troops of Russian tsarina Catherine II in the aftermath of the second Partition of Poland and sent to Saint Petersburg, where the books formed the mass of the Imperial Public Library on its formation in 1795. Parts of the collection were damaged or destroyed as they were mishandled while being removed from the library and transported to Russia, many were stolen. According to the historian Joachim Lelewel, the Zaluskis' books, "could be bought at Grodno by the basket"; because of that, when Poland regained her independence in 1918, there was no central institution to serve in the capacity of a national library. On 24 February 1928, by the decree of president Ignacy Mościcki, the National Library was created in its modern form, it was opened in 1930 and had 200 thousand volumes. Its first Director General was Stefan Demby, succeeded in 1934 by Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński; the collections of the library were extended. For instance, in 1932 president Mościcki donated all of the books and manuscripts from the Wilanów Palace Museum to the library, some 40 thousand volumes and 20 thousand pictures from the collection of Stanisław Kostka Potocki.
The National Library lacked a seat of its own. Because of that, the collections had to be accommodated in several places; the main reading room was located in the newly built library building of the Warsaw School of Economics. In 1935 the Potocki Palace in Warsaw became home for the special collections. A new, purpose-built building for the library was planned in what is now the Pole Mokotowskie, in a planned monumental "Government District". However, its construction was hampered by the outbreak of World War II. Before World War II, the library collections consisted of: 6.5 million books and journals from 19th and 20th centuries 3,000 early prints 2,200 incunables 52,000 manuscripts maps and musicIn 1940 the Nazi occupants changed the National Library into Municipal Library of Warsaw and divided it as follows: Department of Books for Germans Restricted Department, containing books that were not available to readers All special collections from various Warsaw offices and institutions In 1944 the special collections were set ablaze by the Nazi occupants as a part of repressions after the Warsaw Uprising.
This caused the destruction of 80,000 early printed books, including priceless 16th–18th century Polonica, 26,000 manuscripts, 2,500 incunables, 100,000 drawings and engravings, 50,000 pieces of sheet music and theatre materials. It is estimated that out of over six million volumes in Warsaw's major libraries in 1939, 3.6 million volumes were lost during World War II, a large part of them belonging to the National Library. Today the collections of the National Library are one of the largest in the country. Among 7,900,000 volumes held in the library are 160,000 objects printed before 1801, over 26,000 manuscripts, over 114,000 music prints and 400,000 drawings; the library collections include photographs and other iconographic documents, more than 101,000 atlases and maps, over 2,000,000 ephemera, as well as over 2,000,000 books and about 800,000 copies of journals from the 19th to 21st centuries. Notable items in the collection include 151 leaves of the Codex Suprasliensis, inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 2007 in recognition for its supranational and supraregional significance.
In 2012 the library signed an agreement to add 1.3 million Polish library records to WorldCat. Digital Library of the National Library of Poland List of libraries damaged during the World War II National Library website Polona—National Digital Library A Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures
An airborne wind turbine is a design concept for a wind turbine with a rotor supported in the air without a tower, thus benefiting from more mechanical and aerodynamic options, the higher velocity and persistence of wind at high altitudes, while avoiding the expense of tower construction, or the need for slip rings or yaw mechanism. An electrical generator may be on airborne. Challenges include safely suspending and maintaining turbines hundreds of meters off the ground in high winds and storms, transferring the harvested and/or generated power back to earth, interference with aviation. Airborne wind turbines may operate in high altitudes; when the generator is on the ground the tethered aircraft need not carry the generator mass or have a conductive tether. When the generator is aloft a conductive tether would be used to transmit energy to the ground or used aloft or beamed to receivers using microwave or laser. Kites and helicopters come down. Bad weather such as lightning or thunderstorms, could temporarily suspend use of the machines requiring them to be brought back down to the ground and covered.
Some schemes require a long power cable and, if the turbine is high enough, a prohibited airspace zone. As of July 2015, no commercial airborne wind turbines are in regular operation. An aerodynamic airborne wind power system relies on the wind for support. Miles L. Loyd proposed and analyzed an efficient AWES in his work "Crosswind Kite Power" in 1980. Power output of AWES with crosswind wing motion is proportional to a square of a lift/drag ratio of the wing; such AWES is based on the same aerodynamic principles as a conventional wind turbine, but it is more efficient because the air speed is constant along the wing span and the aerodynamic forces are resisted by tension of a tether, rather than by bending of a tower. Bryan Roberts, a professor of engineering at the University of Technology, in Sydney, has proposed a helicopter-like craft which flies to 15,000 feet altitude and stays there, held aloft by wings that generate lift from the wind, held in place by a cable to a ground anchor. According to its designers, while some of the energy in the wind would be'lost' on lift, the constant and potent winds would allow it to generate constant electricity.
Since the winds blow horizontally, the turbines would be at an angle from the horizontal, catching winds while still generating lift. Deployment could be done by feeding electricity to the turbines, which would turn them into electric motors, lifting the structure into the sky; the Dutch ex-astronaut and physicist Wubbo Ockels, working with the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, has designed and demonstrated an airborne wind turbine he called a "Laddermill". It consists of an endless loop of kites; the kites lift up one end of the endless loop, the released energy is used to drive an electric generator. A September 2009 paper from Carbon Tracking Ltd. Ireland has shown the capacity factor of a kite using ground-based generation to be 52.2%, better than terrestrial wind-farm capacity factors of 30%. A team from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the United States has developed a smaller-scale with an estimated output of about 1 kW, it uses a kiteboarding kite to induce a rocking motion in a pivoting beam.
The KiteGen uses a prototype vertical-axis wind turbine. It is an innovative plan that consists of one wind farm with a vertical spin axis, employs kites to exploit high-altitude winds; the Kite Wind Generator or KiteGen is claimed to eliminate all the static and dynamic problems that prevent the increase of the power obtainable from the traditional horizontal-axis wind turbine generators. Generating equipment would remain on the ground, only the airfoils are supported by the wind; such a wind power plant would be capable of producing the energy equivalent to a nuclear plant, while using an area of few square kilometres, without occupying it exclusively. The Rotokite is developed from Gianni Vergnano's idea, it uses aerodynamic profiles similar to kites that have been rotated on their own axis, emulating the performance of a propeller. The use of the rotation principle simplifies the problem of checking the flight of the kites and eliminates the difficulties due to the lengths of cables, enabling the production of wind energy at low cost.
The Heli Wind Power is a project of Gianni Vergnano. The HAWE System is developed from Tiago Pardal's idea; the system that consists in a pumping cycle similar to kite systems. In Generation Phase the pulling force increase 5-10 times due to Magnus Effect of a spinning cylinder, like a kite the pulling force produced by the aerial platform will unwind the cable and generate electricity in the ground. In the recovery phase it rewinds the cable with no Magnus effect in the aerial platform. In August 2011 the German company SkySails, producer of kites for ship propulsion, announced a kite-based wind power system for on- and offshore applications, supposed to be "30% cheaper than current offshore solutions". In June 2012, the German company NTS GmbH had tested X-Wind technology on linear rail system in Freidland, Germany. "NTS Energie- und Transportsysteme GmbH" was found in 2006 by Uwe Ahrens. X-Wind technology combines two well-known
S. V. Walking Boyz Company SV WBC or WBC, is a Surinamese association football club based in Paramaribo, they have won the Surinamese Hoofdklasse title three times. The club play at the Essed Stadion with a capacity of 3,500 spectators, the National Stadium and is shared with several clubs. Walking Boyz Company were founded on 16 January 1997 in Paramaribo. Seven years the team won its first national championship, winning the first Championship-Super Cup double in Suriname in 2004. WBC went on to win two more national titles in 2006 and 2009, winning the Super Cup as well on both occasions. Due to their results, the club were able to participate in the CFU Club Championship, the International Caribbean club competition which leads to qualification for the CONCACAF Champions League, their best result was a second round finish of the tournament on two occasions. Losing to Joe Public from Trinidad and Tobago in 2010, to the Puerto Rico Islanders in the 2011 edition; as of 30 March 2011 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Andy Atmodimedjo Roy Vanenburg Jimmy Hoepel 2010 CFU Club ChampionshipFirst Round v. Defense Force – 2:1 First Round v. Alpha United – 1:1 First Round v. Centre Bath Estate – 3:0 Second Round v. Joe Public – 0:5 Second Round v. System 3 – 2:02011 CFU Club ChampionshipFirst Stage v. Northern United All Stars – 3:1, 3:0 Second Stage v. Puerto Rico Islanders – 1:1, 0:7 Hoofdklasse: 32004, 2006, 2009Beker van Suriname: 12009Suriname President's Cup: 32004, 2006, 2009 Paramaribo Cup: 32007, 2008, 2009