National Mandate Party

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National Mandate Party
Partai Amanat Nasional
Chairman Zulkifli Hasan
Secretary-General Eddy Soeparno
Founded 23 August 1998
Headquarters Jakarta
Ideology Pancasila
Islamic democracy
International affiliation None
Ballot number 12
DPR Seats
48 / 560
Provincial DPRD Seats
165 / 2,147
[1]
Website
http://pan.or.id

The National Mandate Party (Indonesian: Partai Amanat Nasional), frequently abbreviated to PAN, is an Islam-based[2][3] political party in Indonesia.

It was founded by the modernist strand of Muslim society in Indonesia, including Amien Rais, the chairman of the Muhammadiyah organization, during the Indonesian revolution. The party contested the 2009 elections under the chairmanship of Sutrisno Bachir.[4][5] It espouses what is called as moderate Islamism,[6] and described as nationalist Muslim party,[2] which promotes inclusive and nationalist principles and upholds Pancasila doctrine.

In 2014, the party obtained the popular vote by 7.59 percent, which is an increase from 6.03 percent in 2009 and 6.44 percent in 2004.[2] PAN is currently the ruling party in Southeast Sulawesi.[2]

Background[edit]

On 14 May 1998, around 50 political figures, including Goenawan Mohammad, Faisal Basri and Amien Rais established an organization called the Peoples Mandate Council (Indonesian: Majelis Amanat Rakyat, MARA) open to anybody who wanted to listen and express opinions. At the time, Amien Rais said that MARA would assess the performance of president Suharto's cabinet over the next six months. He also said that the people needed a strong forum that was respected by those in power and that the power structure under Suharto was not good at listening to people's opinions because it had become arrogant. At the time of the downfall of the Suharto regime in 1998, many new parties were being established and some of them wanted Amien Rais and other members of MARA to join them. One of these was the Crescent Star Party whose eventual leader Yusril Ihza Mahendra tried to persuade Amien Rais to establish a party. When he refused the offer, the party went its own way. On July 27, 1998 (the day after the declaration of the creation of the Crescent Star Party), Amien Rais announced the establishment of a new party to be called the People's Mandate Party (Indonesian: Partai Amanat Bangsa, PAB). This was changed to the current name after a lengthy voting process. The new party had its roots in the principles of religious morality, humanity and prosperity.[7][8]

PAN in the legislature[edit]

Indonesian legislative election, 1999[edit]

In the 1999 elections, PAN won 7.4 percent of the vote and 34 seats in the legislature. The party then played a key role in putting together a central axis of Islamic political parties in the People's Consultative Assembly which helped ensure that Abdurrahman Wahid defeated Megawati Sukarnoputri when that chamber elected the president.

However, PAN's support for Abdurrahman Wahid did not last long. Less than a year after officially confirming its support for him at its first congress in Yogyakarta in February 2000, the party withdrew this support, saying it was concerned about the condition of the nation and state of Indonesia. Not long after that, Abdurrahman Wahid was voted out of office and replaced by Megawati Sukarnoputri.

Indonesian legislative election, 2004[edit]

For the 2004 elections, the party set a target of 15 percent of the vote. In order to promote his presidential candidacy, Amien Rais made a series of visits around the country. He also said that he was convinced that a retired military officer should be his vice-president. However, in the legislative election, the party won 6.4% of the popular vote and 52 out of 550 legislative seats. For the presidential election, Amien Rais stood with Siswono Yudo Husodo as his running mate, but only won 15% of the vote.[9]

Indonesian legislative election, 2009[edit]

Supporters of the PAN at a campaign rally ahead of the 2009 legislative election

The party came fifth in the 2009 legislative election with 6.0 percent of the votes. It will have 43 seats in the People's Representative Council.[10]

Party platform[edit]

PAN is open to all elements of society, regardless of gender, ethnicity or religion. According to the party website, PAN strives for the sovereignty of the people, social justice, and a better life for the people to bring about an Indonesian nation that is prosperous,developed, independent and dignified. It also wants to realize good and clean governance that protects all the people and brings prosperity, and to see a united, sovereign nation. The party wants to play a part in implementing world order based on independence, eternal peace and social justice, and wants Indonesian to be respected in the international community.[11]

Election results[edit]

Legislative election results[edit]

Election Ballot number Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Party leader
1999 15
34 / 500
7,528,956 7.12%[12] Increase34 seats, Governing coalition Amien Rais
2004 13
53 / 550
7,303,324 6.44%[13] Increase19 seats, Governing coalition Amien Rais
2009 9
46 / 560
6,273,462 6.01%[13] Decrease7 seats, Governing coalition Sutrisno Bachir
2014 8
49 / 560
9,481,621 7.59%[14] Increase3 seats, Opposition (until 2015)
Governing coalition (since 2015)
Hatta Rajasa
2019 12

Presidential election results[edit]

Election Ballot number Pres. candidate Running mate 1st round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome 2nd round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome
2004 3 Amien Rais Siswono Yudohusodo 17,392,931 14.66% Eliminated Red XN Runoff
2009 2 Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Boediono 73,874,562 60.80% Elected Green tickY
2014 1 Prabowo Subianto[15] Hatta Rajasa 62,576,444 46.85% Lost Red XN
2019 TBD Prabowo Subianto Sandiaga Uno TBD TBD TBD

Note: Bold text suggests the party's member

Bibliography[edit]

  • Daniel Dhakidae (Ed), (2004) Partai-Partai Politik Indonesia: Ideologi dan Program 2004-2009 (Indonesian Political Parties: Ideologies and Programs 2004-2009) Kompas (1999) ISBN 979-709-121-X Indonesian
  • Evans, Kevin Raymond, (2003) The History of Political Parties & General Elections in Indonesia, Arise Consultancies, Jakarta, ISBN 979-97445-0-4
  • Musa Kazhim & Alfian Hamzah (1999) 5 Partai Dalam timbangan (5 Parties in Consideration), Putaka Hidaya, Bandung ISBN 979-9109-17-5 Indonesian

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jakarta: "Jumlah Kursi & Fraksi DPRD DKI Jakarta Periode 2014-2019" (in Indonesian). DPRD DKI Jakarta. 
    North Kalimantan: "Seluruh Parpol Kebagian Kursi di DPRD Kaltara". JPNN (in Indonesian). 29 April 2014. 
    All others: "Data Perolehan Kursi DPRD Kabupaten Kota" (in Indonesian). University of Indonesia. 
  2. ^ a b c d Al-Hamdi, Ridho. (2017). Moving towards a Normalised Path: Political Islam in Contemporary Indonesia. JURNAL STUDI PEMERINTAHAN (JOURNAL OF GOVERNMENT & POLITICS). Vol. 8 No. 1, February 2017. p.52, pp.56, p.62.
  3. ^ Al-Hamdi, Ridho. (2013). Partai politik Islam: Teori dan praktik di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
  4. ^ Profil Partai Politik (Profile of Political Parties), Kompas newspaper 14 July 2008 pp. 38-39
  5. ^ Dhakidae pp. 228
  6. ^ Evans (2003) pp. 30-31
  7. ^ Kazhaim & Hamzah (1999) pp. 34-37
  8. ^ Dhakidae pp. 228-229
  9. ^ Dhakidae pp. 229-2
  10. ^ "KPU Ubah Perolehan Kursi Parpol di DPR (KPU Changes Allocations of Parties' seats in the DPR)". Indonesian General Election Commission (in Indonesian). 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. 
  11. ^ "Prinsip Dasar". PAN official website (in Indonesian). 
  12. ^ "Pemilu 1999 - KPU" (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2018. 
  13. ^ a b "Bab V - Hasil Pemilu - KPU" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. Retrieved 1 August 2018. 
  14. ^ "KPU sahkan hasil pemilu, PDIP nomor satu" (in Indonesian). BBC. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2018. 
  15. ^ Wardah, Fathiyah (19 May 2014). "6 Parpol Dukung Pasangan Prabowo-Hatta dalam Pilpres". Voice of America Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 August 2018.