Hawaii Five-0 (2010 TV series)
Hawaii Five-0 is an American action police procedural television series that premiered in September 2010 on CBS. It is a re-imagining of the original series, which aired on CBS from 1968 to 1980. Like the original series, the show follows an elite state police task force set up to fight major crimes in the state of Hawaii; the show has had three crossovers with other crime shows and has received praise for its modern take on the original series. The ninth season premiered on September 28, 2018; the series covers the actions of a small, specialized DPS task force in Hawaii, headed by Lt. Commander Steve McGarrett, USNR; the task force answers only to the Governor of the state of Hawaii and is given full immunity and means. The task force is always backed by the Governor; the team is able to investigate crimes ranging from terrorism to kidnapping as well as murder and robberies. McGarrett chooses Honolulu PD Detective-Sergeant Danny "Danno" Williams as his partner and unofficial second in command of the team.
He fills out the team by selecting HPD lieutenant Chin Ho Kelly, his father's protégé, Chin's cousin, Kono Kalakaua, a rookie HPD officer. DHS Special Agent Lori Weston is assigned to the team on, although she is forced to return to the DHS by the governor, they are assisted by Dr. Max Bergman, a medical examiner for the County of Honolulu, Jerry Ortega, Chin's high school classmate and a conspiracy theorist. Steve adds Lou Grover, a HPD SWAT commander, for a brief time, Catherine Rollins, Steve's girlfriend and a former USNR lieutenant. Following Max and Kono's departures, McGarrett fills in their spots by hiring high-achieving HPD academy washout Tani Rey and Junior Reigns, a former Navy SEAL-turned-Police Candidate; the team is now assisted by medical examiner Dr. Noelani Cunha, confidential informants Kamekona Tupuola and Kono's husband Adam Noshimuri, HPD liaison Sergeant Duke Lukela. Alex O'Loughlin as Lieutenant Commander Steven J. "Steve" McGarrett, USNR. A decorated former Navy SEAL, McGarrett is head of the Five-0 Task Force and son of retired HPD Sergeant John McGarrett.
John's murder and storyline forms the premise of Steve's return to Hawaii and the formation of the Task Force. Scott Caan as Detective Sergeant Danny "Danno" Williams, HPD, he is a divorced single father who transferred from Newark PD in New Jersey to be with his daughter and is the de facto second-in-command of Five-0. Daniel Dae Kim as Detective Lieutenant Chin Ho Kelly, HPD. A veteran HPD detective, he was John McGarrett's former rookie and provides technical expertise and local know-how. During the season 7 finale, Chin is offered the lead position of the Five-0 Task Force established in San Francisco, which he accepts; this was written into the show after Kim departed the series in late June 2017 prior to the start of production of the eighth season due to a salary dispute with CBS. Kim had been seeking pay equality with co-stars Alex O'Loughlin and Scott Caan, but CBS's final offer to Kim was 10–15% lower than what O'Loughlin and Caan make in salary. Grace Park as Officer Kono Kalakaua, HPD.
A former surfer, she was recruited by McGarrett while still in her final days at the HPD Academy. She is the cousin of Lieutenant Kelly, becomes the wife of Adam Noshimuri. In the conclusion of the season 7 finale, Kono is seen aboard a flight to Carson City, where it is revealed she has since joined a task force aimed at combating sex trafficking; this was written into the show following Park's departure from the series in late June 2017 prior to the start of production of the eighth season due to a salary dispute with CBS. Park had been seeking pay equality with co-stars Alex O'Loughlin and Scott Caan, but CBS's final offer to Park was 10–15% lower than what O'Loughlin and Caan make in salary. Taryn Manning as Mary Ann McGarrett, Steve's younger sister who lives in Los Angeles and visits Hawaii. At the beginning of the series she and Steve are estranged from each other, but as time goes on begin to make amends. Mary works various odd jobs including flight attendant and caregiver before adopting a baby girl whom she names Joan after their father.
Masi Oka as Dr. Max Bergman, the eccentric and well-respected County of Honolulu medical examiner, he departs the series midway through season 7 upon joining Doctors without Borders in Africa. Lauren German as Special Agent Lori Weston. A senior DHS agent assigned to Five-0 to provide oversight. Michelle Borth as Lieutenant Catherine Rollins, USNR. A former Navy Intelligence officer and McGarrett's ex-girlfriend. Chi McBride as Captain Lou Grover, HPD. A transfer from Chicago has two children with his wife Renée. Jorge Garcia as Special Consultant Jerry Ortega, a conspiracy theorist who assisted Five-0 during several investigations and is hired as a "consultant". Meaghan Rath as Officer Tani Rey, whom McGarrett recruits from her job as a hotel pool lifeguard after being kicked out of the police academy, despite being a first-rate candidate, she declines to join but joins as a team member. Taylor Wily as Kamekona Tupuola, a rehabilitated ex-convict, turned entrepreneur and owner of the Waiola Shave Ice, Kamekona's Shrimp Truck, Kamekona's Helicopter Tours.
He is a CI for their friend. Dennis Chun as Sgt. Duke Lukela, HPD officer who acts as a liaison to Five-0, he was one o
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
The Bixby letter is a brief, consoling message sent by President Abraham Lincoln in November 1864 to Lydia Parker Bixby, a widow living in Boston, thought to have lost five sons in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Along with the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address, the letter has been praised as one of Lincoln's finest written works and is reproduced in memorials and print. Controversy surrounds the recipient, the fate of her sons, the authorship of the letter. Bixby's character has been questioned, at least two of her sons survived the war, the letter was written by Lincoln's assistant private secretary, John Hay. President Lincoln's letter of condolence was delivered to Lydia Bixby on November 25, 1864 and was printed in the Boston Evening Transcript and Boston Evening Traveller that afternoon; the following is the text of the letter as first published: Executive Mansion, Nov. 21, 1864. Dear Madam, I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle.
I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of Freedom. Yours sincerely and respectfully, A. Lincoln. Mrs. Bixby. Lydia Parker married shoemaker Cromwell Bixby on September 26, 1826, in Massachusetts; the couple had at least six sons and three daughters before Cromwell's death in 1854. Some time before the Civil War and her family settled in Boston. On September 24, 1864, Massachusetts Adjutant General William Schouler wrote to Massachusetts Governor John Albion Andrew about a discharge request sent to the governor by Otis Newhall, the father of five Union soldiers.
In the letter, Schouler recalled how, two years prior, they had helped a poor widow named Lydia Bixby to visit a son, a patient at an Army hospital. About ten days earlier, Bixby had come to Schouler's office claiming that five of her sons had died fighting for the Union. Governor Andrew forwarded Newhall's request to the U. S. War Department with a note requesting that the president honor Bixby with a letter. In response to a War Department request of October 1, Schouler sent a messenger to Bixby's home six days asking for the names and units of her sons, he sent a report to the War Department on October 12, delivered to President Lincoln by Secretary of War Edwin Stanton sometime after October 28. On November 21, both the Boston Evening Traveller and the Boston Evening Transcript published an appeal by Schouler for contributions to assist soldiers' families at Thanksgiving which mentioned a widow who had lost five sons in the war. Schouler had some of the donations given to Bixby and visited her home on Thanksgiving, November 24.
The letter from the President arrived at Schouler's office the next morning. At least two of Lydia Bixby's sons survived the war: Private Arthur Edward Bixby – Company C, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. Deserted from Ft. Richardson, Virginia on May 28, 1862. Trying to secure a discharge for him, his mother filed an affidavit on October 17, 1862 which claimed Edward had enlisted underage without her permission. Born July 13, 1843 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Returned to Boston after the war. Sergeant Charles N. Bixby – Company D, 20th Massachusetts Infantry. Killed in action near Fredericksburg. Born c.1841 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Corporal Henry Cromwell Bixby – 1st enlistment, Company G, 20th Massachusetts Infantry. 2nd enlistment, Company K, 32nd Massachusetts Infantry. Captured at Gettysburg and sent to Richmond, Virginia. Paroled on March 7, 1864 at City Point, Virginia. Born March 30, 1830 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Died November 8, 1871 in Milford, from tuberculosis he contracted while a soldier.
Private Oliver Cromwell Bixby, Jr. – Company E, 58th Massachusetts Infantry. Wounded at Spotsylvania on May 12, 1864. Killed in action near Petersburg, Virginia. Born February 1, 1828 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Private George Way Bixby – Company B, 56th Massachusetts Infantry. Enlisted under the name "George Way," to conceal his enlistment from his wife. Captured at Petersburg on July 30, 1864. First held prisoner at Richmond but transferred to Salisbury Prison in North Carolina, arriving there on October 9, 1864, his fate after that remains uncertain. Military records report conflicting accounts of him either dying at Salisbury or deserting to the Confederate Army. Born June 22, 1836 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Schouler's report to the War Department erroneously listed Edward as a member of the 22nd Massachusetts Infantry who had died of his wounds at Folly Island, South Carolina. Bixby may have been trying to conceal—possibly from embarrassment or hope of further financial aid—Edward's 1862 desertion.
At the time of her September meeting with Schouler, Bixby's son George had been a prisoner of war for just over a month, Henry was still hospitalized following his exchange. The War Department failed to use its own records to correct er
A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars perpendicular to each other. The lines run vertically and horizontally. A cross of oblique lines, in the shape of the Latin letter X, is termed a saltire in heraldic terminology; the word cross is recorded in 10th-century Old English as cros for the instrument of Christ's crucifixion, replacing the native Old English word rood. The word's history is complicated; the English verb to cross arises from the noun c. 1200, first in the sense "to make the sign of the cross". The Latin word was, influenced by popular etymology by a native Germanic word reconstructed as *krukjo; this word, by conflation with Latin crux, gave rise to Old French crocier, the term for a shepherd's crook, adopted in English as crosier. Latin crux referred to the gibbet where criminals were executed, a stake or pole, with or without transom, on which the condemned were impaled or hanged, but more a cross or the pole of a carriage. From this word was derived the Latin verb crucio "to put to death on the cross" or "to put to the rack, to torture, torment" in reference to mental troubles.
The field of etymology is of no help in any effort to trace a supposed original meaning of crux. A crux can be of various shapes: from a single beam used for impaling or suspending to the various composite kinds of cross made from more beams than one; the latter shapes include not only the traditional †-shaped cross, but the T-shaped cross, which the Early Christian descriptions of the execution cross indicate as the normal form in use at that time, the X-shaped cross. The Greek equivalent of Latin crux "stake, gibbet" is σταυρός stauros, found in texts of four centuries or more before the gospels and always in the plural number to indicate a stake or pole. From the first century BC it is used to indicate an instrument used in executions; the Greek word is used in Early Christian descriptions of the execution cross, which indicate that its normal shape was similar to the Greek letter tau. Due to the simplicity of the design, cross-shaped incisions make their appearance from deep prehistory. Of prehistoric age are numerous variants of the simple cross mark, including the crux gammata with curving or angular lines, the Egyptian crux ansata with a loop.
Speculation has associated the cross symbol – in the prehistoric period – with astronomical or cosmological symbology involving "four elements" or the cardinal points, or the unity of a vertical axis mundi or celestial pole with the horizontal world. Speculation of this kind became popular in the mid- to late-19th century in the context of comparative mythology seeking to tie Christian mythology to ancient cosmological myths. Influential works in this vein included G. de Mortillet, L. Müller, W. W. Blake, etc. In the European Bronze Age the cross symbol appeared to carry a religious meaning as a symbol of consecration pertaining to burial; the cross sign occurs trivially in tally marks, develops into a number symbol independently in the Roman numerals, the Chinese rod numerals and the Brahmi numerals. In the Phoenician alphabet and derived scripts, the cross symbol represented the phoneme /t/, i.e. the letter taw, the historical predecessor of Latin T. The letter name taw means "mark" continuing the Egyptian hieroglyph "two crossed sticks".
According to W. E. Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, worshippers of Tammuz in Chaldea and thereabouts used the cross as symbol of that god; the shape of the cross, as represented by the letter T, came to be used as a "seal" or symbol of Early Christianity by the 2nd century. Clement of Alexandria in the early 3rd century calls it τὸ κυριακὸν σημεῖον he repeats the idea, current as early as the Epistle of Barnabas, that the number 318 in Genesis 14:14 was a foreshadowing of the cross and of Jesus. Clement's contemporary Tertullian rejects the accusation that Christians are crucis religiosi, returns the accusation by likening the worship of pagan idols to the worship of poles or stakes. In his book De Corona, written in 204, Tertullian tells how it was a tradition for Christians to trace on their foreheads the sign of the cross. While early Christians used the T-shape to represent the cross in writing and gesture, the use of the Greek cross and Latin cross, i.e. crosses with intersecting beams, appears in Christian art towards the end of Late Antiquity.
An early example of the cruciform halo, used to identify Christ in paintings, is found in the Miracles of the Loaves and Fishes mosaic of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. The Patriarchal cross, a Latin cross with an additional horizontal bar, first appears in the 10th century. A wide variation of cross symbols is introduced for the purposes of heraldry beginning in the age of the Crusades; the cross mark is used
Star of David
The Star of David, known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David, is a recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism. Its shape is that of the compound of two equilateral triangles. Unlike the menorah, the Lion of Judah, the shofar and the lulav, the Star of David was never a uniquely Jewish symbol; the symbol became representative of the worldwide Zionist community, the broader Jewish community, after it was chosen as the central symbol on a flag at the First Zionist Congress in 1897. The earliest Jewish usage of the symbol was inherited from medieval Arabic literature by Kabbalists for use in talismanic protective amulets where it was known as the Seal of Solomon among Muslims; the symbol was used in Christian churches as a decorative motif many centuries before its first known use in a Jewish synagogue. During the 19th century the symbol began to proliferate among the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe being used among the Jewish communities in the Pale of Settlement. A significant motivating factor, according to scholar Gershom Scholem, was the desire to represent Jewish religion and/or identity in the same manner the Christian cross identified that religion's believers.
Before the 19th century, official use in Jewish communities was known only in the region of today's Czech Republic and parts of Southern Germany, having begun in medieval Prague. The identification of the term "Star of David" or "Shield of David" with the hexagram shape dates to the 17th century; the term "Shield of David" is used in the Siddur as a title of the God of Israel. The hexagram does appear in Jewish contexts since antiquity as a decorative motif. For example, in Israel, there is a stone bearing a hexagram from the arch of a 3rd–4th century synagogue in the Galilee; the hexagram may have been employed as an architectural ornament on synagogues, as it is, for example, on the cathedrals of Brandenburg and Stendal, on the Marktkirche at Hanover. A hexagram in this form is found on the ancient synagogue at Capernaum. In the synagogues it was associated with the mezuzah; the use of the hexagram in a Jewish context as a meaningful symbol may occur as early as the 11th century, in the decoration of the carpet page of the famous Tanakh manuscript, the Leningrad Codex dated 1008.
The symbol illuminates a medieval Tanakh manuscript dated 1307 belonging to Rabbi Yosef bar Yehuda ben Marvas from Toledo, Spain. A Siddur dated 1512 from Prague displays a large hexagram on the cover with the phrase, "He will merit to bestow a bountiful gift on anyone who grasps the Shield of David." A hexagram has been noted on a Jewish tombstone in Taranto, Apulia in Southern Italy, which may date as early as the third century CE. The Jews of Apulia were noted for their scholarship in Kabbalah, connected to the use of the Star of David. Medieval Kabbalistic grimoires show hexagrams among the tables of segulot, but without identifying them as "Shield of David". In the Renaissance Period, in the 16th-century Land of Israel, the book Ets Khayim conveys the Kabbalah of Ha-Ari who arranges the traditional items on the seder plate for Passover into two triangles, where they explicitly correspond to Jewish mystical concepts; the six sfirot of the masculine Zer Anpin correspond to the six items on the seder plate, while the seventh sfira being the feminine Malkhut corresponds to the plate itself.
However, these seder-plate triangles are parallel, one above the other, do not form a hexagram. According to G. S. Oegema Isaac Luria provided the hexagram with a further mystical meaning. In his book Etz Chayim he teaches that the elements of the plate for the Seder evening have to be placed in the order of the hexagram: above the three sefirot "Crown", "Wisdom", "Insight", below the other seven. M. Costa wrote that M. Gudemann and other researchers in the 1920s claimed that Isaac Luria was influential in turning the Star of David into a national Jewish emblem by teaching that the elements of the plate for the Seder evening have to be placed in the order of the hexagram. Gershom Scholem disagrees with this view, arguing that Isaac Luria talked about parallel triangles one beneath the other and not about the hexagram; the Star of David at least since the 20th century remains associated with the number seven and thus with the Menorah, popular accounts associate it with the six directions of space plus the center, or the Six Sefirot of the Male united with the Seventh Sefirot of the Female.
Some say that one triangle represents the ruling tribe of Judah and the other the former ruling tribe of Benjamin. It is seen as a dalet and yud, the two letters assigned to Judah. There are 12 Vav, or "men," representing patriarchs of Israel. In 1354, King of Bohemia Charles IV prescribed for the Jews of Prague a red flag with both David's shield and Solomon's seal, while the red flag with which the Jews met King Matthias of Hungary in the 15th century showed two pentagrams with two golden stars. In 1460, the Jews of Ofen received King Matthias Corvinus with a red flag on which were two Shields of David and two stars. In the first Hebrew prayer book, printed in Prague in 1512, a large hexagram appears on the cover. In the colophon is written: "Each man beneath his flag according to the house of their fathe
A war grave is a burial place for members of the armed forces or civilians who died during military campaigns or operations. The term "war grave" does not only apply to graves: ships sunk during wartime are considered to be war graves, as are military aircraft that crash into water. Classification of a war grave is not limited to the occupier's death in combat but includes military personnel who die while in active service: for example, during the Crimean War, more military personnel died of disease than as a result of enemy action. A common difference between cemeteries of war graves and those of civilian peacetime graves is the uniformity of those interred, they died during a short period, in a small geographic area and consist of service members from the few military units involved. In Australia, the Office of Australian War Graves controls the maintenance of war cemeteries, individual graves, post-war commemorations and battle exploit memorials. In the Commonwealth of Nations, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission is responsible for the commemoration of 1.7 million deceased Commonwealth military service members at over 23,000 separate burial sites in 153 countries.
It operates through the financial support of six member states. In Spain, war graves are protected by the Law 60/1962. In the United Kingdom, 67 ship wrecks and all underwater military aircraft are "protected places" under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 which imposes restrictions on their exploration and marine salvage. In the United States, war graves are managed within the United States National Cemetery System. Rupert Brooke's 1914 poem, The Soldier - "If I should die, think only this of me: / That there's some corner of a foreign field / That is for England", is a patriotic poem about the possibility of dying abroad during a war. Brooke is himself buried in a war grave on Skyros in the Aegean Sea, having died while en route to fight in the Gallipoli Campaign; the War Graves Photographic Project, founded in 2008, aims to create an archive of names and photographs of all military graves and memorials from 1914 to the present day from any nationality, although focus on Commonwealth soldiers.
American Battle Monuments Commission Burial at sea Commonwealth War Graves Commission Missing in action Mortuary Affairs National cemetery The Unknown Warrior Tomb of the Unknown Soldier United Nations Memorial Cemetery War memorial SI 2009/3380 The Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 Order no 2009/3380
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred