Musée de l'Homme
The Musée de l'Homme is an anthropology museum in Paris, France. It was established in 1937 by Paul Rivet for the 1937 Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, it is the descendant of the Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro, founded in 1878. The Musée de l'Homme is a research center under the authority of various ministries, it groups several entities from the CNRS; the Musée de l'Homme is one of the seven departments of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. The Musée de l'Homme occupies most of the Passy wing of the Palais de Chaillot in the 16th arrondissement; the vast majority of its collection was transferred to the Quai Branly museum. The Musée de l'Homme has inherited items from historical collections created as early as the 16th century, from cabinets of curiosities, the Royal Cabinet; these collections were enriched during the 19th century, they still are today. The aim is to gather in one site everything which defines the human being: man in his evolution, man in his unity and diversity, man in his cultural and social expression.
The majority of the "ethnographic exhibition" from the Musée de l'Armée of the Invalides, as it was called, is composed of dummies representing people from the colonies, along with weapons and equipment. This material was transferred to the museum in 1910 and 1917. Photos of the Moroccan population, taken by Clérambault, were displayed there. Several members of the Musée de l'Homme, such as Paul Rivet, during the German occupation in World War II, formed a resistance group; the museum is part of the Musée national d'histoire naturelle. Its original purpose was to gather in a one place all that can define humanity: its evolution, its unity and its variety, its cultural and social expression; the creation of the new Musée du quai Branly and MUCEM will be taking the Musée de l'homme's ethnographical collections, breaking with its original mission. This change has aroused many debates because the curatorial choices of the new structure will be dictated more by aesthetic criteria than scientific; the permanent exhibition of the Museum of the Man counted more than 15,000 artifacts, reflecting the artistic but technical and cultural treasures from five continents.
Quai Branly, holds only 3500 artifacts, presented without cultural contextualization, chosen for their aesthetic qualities and their "exotic" origins and not on educational value. European ethnographical collections are going to be exhibited at MUCEM, critics believe it is creating an unjustified discontinuity between human cultures; this situation led the Musée de l'Homme to a redefinition of its mission. Jean-Pierre Mohen and his team tried to arrange the mission of the Museum, without succeeding in giving it a strong enough muséological program. We shall find in the future Museum, the Human defined through his biological evolution, through its adaptation to its environment, through the elaboration of a culture which defines the highlights of humanity, it will be question of a conscience of human pressure on its environment as to face the consequences of the evolutions, in the present, for the future. There was a renovation of the museum until 17 October 2015; the total amount of money appropriated for the renovation process was 52 million Euros.
René-Yves Creston, director of the Arctic section in the 1930s Maurice Leenhardt André Leroi-Gourhan Paul Rivet Jacques Soustelle Claude Lévi-Strauss Germaine Dieterlen Jean Rouch Henri Victor Vallois Zeev Gourarier The body of Saartjie Baartman was displayed until 1974. A crystal skull is held by the museum; the skull of René Descartes, mathematician and philosopher resides in this museum. The skull of Suleiman al-Halabi, a Syrian Kurdish student who assassinated Jean-Baptiste Kléber is there. Mapa pintado en papel europeo y aforrado en el indiano, a Mesoamerican pictorial document List of museums in Paris Relocation of moai objects Museum's Official web site Bibliothèque du Musée de l'Homme
Paul Gervais full name François Louis Paul Gervaise was a French palaeontologist and entomologist. Gervais was born in Paris, where he obtained the diplomas of doctor of science and of medicine, in 1835 he began palaeontological research as assistant in the laboratory of comparative anatomy at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. In 1841 he obtained the chair of zoology and comparative anatomy at the Faculty of Sciences in Montpellier, of which he was in 1856 appointed dean. In 1848-1852 appeared his important work Zoologie et paléontologie françaises, supplementary to the palaeontological publications of Georges Cuvier and Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville. In 1865 he accepted the professorship of zoology at the Sorbonne, vacant through the death of Louis Pierre Gratiolet, he died in Paris on 10 February 1879. According to Florentino Ameghino, Paul Gervais studied a fossil collection obtained from Juan Manuel de Rosas the governor of Buenos Aires. Earlier on, this collection would have been donated or donated-by-force to the Buenos Aires Province by Francisco Javier Muñiz.
Gervais is commemorated in the vernacular and scientific names of the following taxa: a species of snake, Calamaria gervaisii. A species of cetacean, Gervais' beaked whale. Apart from the works mentioned he wrote: with Charles Athanase Walckenaer Histoire naturelle des insectes Zoologie et paléontologie françaises Histoire naturelle des Mammifères Zoologie médicale, mit Pierre-Joseph van Beneden Recherches sur l'ancienneté de l'homme et la période quaternaire Zoologie et Paléontologie générales Ostéographie des cétacés vivants et fossiles,with Pierre-Joseph van Beneden Brachistosternus ehrenbergii Gervais' beaked whale This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gervais, Paul". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. P. 907
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon was a French naturalist, mathematician and encyclopédiste. His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier. Buffon published thirty-six quarto volumes of his Histoire Naturelle during his lifetime. Ernst Mayr wrote that "Truly, Buffon was the father of all thought in natural history in the second half of the 18th century". Buffon held the position of intendant at the Jardin du Roi, now called the Jardin des Plantes. Georges Louis Leclerc was born at Montbard, in the Province of Burgundy to Benjamin Francois Leclerc, a minor local official in charge of the salt tax and Anne-Christine Marlin from a family of civil servants. Georges was named after his mother's uncle Georges Blaisot, the tax-farmer of the Duke of Savoy for all of Sicily. In 1714 Blaisot died childless. Benjamin Leclerc purchased an estate containing the nearby village of Buffon and moved the family to Dijon acquiring various offices there as well as a seat in the Dijon Parlement.
Georges attended the Jesuit College of Godrans in Dijon from the age of ten onwards. From 1723–1726 he studied law in Dijon, the prerequisite for continuing the family tradition in civil service. In 1728 Georges left Dijon to study mathematics and medicine at the University of Angers in France. At Angers in 1730 he made the acquaintance of the young English Duke of Kingston, on his grand tour of Europe, traveled with him on a large and expensive entourage for a year and a half through southern France and parts of Italy. Georges-Louis Leclerc had an elder brother, Pierre Daubenton, who wrote numerous articles for the Encyclopédie by Diderot There are persistent but undocumented rumors from this period about duels and secret trips to England. In 1732 after the death of his mother and before the impending remarriage of his father, Georges left Kingston and returned to Dijon to secure his inheritance. Having added'de Buffon' to his name while traveling with the Duke, he repurchased the village of Buffon, which his father had meanwhile sold off.
With a fortune of about 80 000 livres Buffon set himself up in Paris to pursue science, at first mathematics and mechanics, the increase of his fortune. In 1732 he moved to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of other intellectuals, he first made his mark in the field of mathematics and, in his Sur le jeu de franc-carreau, introduced differential and integral calculus into probability theory. In 1734 he was admitted to the French Academy of Sciences. During this period he corresponded with the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer, his protector Maurepas had asked the Academy of Sciences to do research on wood for the construction of ships in 1733. Soon afterward, Buffon began a long-term study, performing some of the most comprehensive tests to date on the mechanical properties of wood. Included were a series of tests to compare the properties of small specimens with those of large members. After testing more than a thousand small specimens without knots or other defects, Buffon concluded that it was not possible to extrapolate to the properties of full-size timbers, he began a series of tests on full-size structural members.
In 1739 he was appointed head of the Parisian Jardin du Roi with the help of Maurepas. Buffon was instrumental in transforming the Jardin du Roi into museum, he enlarged it, arranging the purchase of adjoining plots of land and acquiring new botanical and zoological specimens from all over the world. Thanks to his talent as a writer, he was invited to join Paris's second great academy, the Académie française in 1753. In his Discours sur le style, pronounced before the Académie française, he said, "Writing well consists of thinking and expressing well, of clarity of mind and taste... The style is the man himself". For him, Buffon's reputation as a literary stylist gave ammunition to his detractors: The mathematician Jean le Rond D'Alembert, for example, called him "the great phrase-monger". In 1752 Buffon married Marie-Françoise de Saint-Belin-Malain, the daughter of an impoverished noble family from Burgundy, enrolled in the convent school run by his sister. Madame de Buffon's second child, a son born in 1764, survived childhood.
When in 1772 Buffon became ill and the promise that his son should succeed him as director of the Jardin became impracticable and was withdrawn, the King raised Buffon's estates in Burgundy to the status of a county – and thus Buffon became a Count. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1782. Buffon died in Paris in 1788, he was buried in a chapel adjacent to the church of Sainte-Urse Montbard. His heart was saved, as it was guarded by Suzanne Necker, but was lost. Today, only Buffon's cerebellum remains, as it is kept in the base of the statue by Pajou that Louis XVI had commissioned in his honor in 1776, located at the Museum of Natural History in Paris. Buffon's Histoire naturelle, générale et partic
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre, it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating. There are 37 bridges within dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur; the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864. A number of associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source.
The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of the dea Sequana "Seine goddess" and other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archaeological museum; the Seine can artificially be divided into five parts: the Petite Seine "Small Seine" from the sources to Montereau-Fault-Yonne the Haute Seine "Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris the Traversée de Paris "the Paris waterway" the Basse Seine "Lower Seine" from Paris to Rouen the Seine maritime "Maritime Seine" from Rouen to the English channel. The Seine is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Commercial craft can use the river from 516 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges; the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus navigable. The Seine Maritime, 123 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.
The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Smaller locks at Bougival and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the junction with the Canal Saint-Martin is located; the distance from the mouth of the Oise is 72 km. The Haute Seine, from Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne, has 8 locks. At Charenton-le-Pont is the mouth of the Marne. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine. From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft to Marcilly-sur-Seine. At Marcilly-sur-Seine the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes; this canal has been abandoned since 1957. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres.
Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks. Today the depth is controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is filled with water; the average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur. A severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city; the Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, January 2018. After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms.
A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas. In January 2018 the Seine again flooded. An official warning was issued on January 24 that heavy rainfall was to cause the river to flood. By January 27, the river was rising; the Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by climate change, that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality." The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres, 2 percent of, forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen in the Seine valley and Reims at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent. The population density is 201 per square kilometer. Periodically
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of its properties. Chemists describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates, other chemical properties; the word'chemist' is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share skills with chemists; the work of chemists is related to the work of chemical engineers, who are concerned with the proper design and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind, it was fire. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold; this led to the protoscience called alchemy. The word chemist is derived from an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783; the discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions those in research, require a Master of Science or a Doctor of Philosophy.
Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry because chemistry is known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have a well-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, thermochemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a chemistry degree, are referred to as chemical technicians; such technicians do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, having an associate degree. A chemical technologist has more education or experience than a chemical technician but less than a chemist having a bachelor's degree in a different field of science with an associate degree in chemistry or having the same education as a chemical technician but more experience.
There are degrees specific to become a chemical technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to perform chemical analyzes than a chemical technician, they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of environmental quality control and the operational phase of a chemical plant. In addition to all the training given to chemical technologists in their respective degree, a chemist is trained to understand more details related to chemical phenomena so that the chemist can be capable of more planning on the steps to achieve a distinct goal via a chemistry-related endeavor; the higher the competency level achieved in the field of chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist and the more complicated the task might be.
Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks and objectives can be given to workers or scientists with these different levels of education or experience. The specific title of each job varies from position to position, depending on factors such as the kind of industry, the routine level of the task, the current needs of a particular enterprise, the size of the enterprise or hiring firm, the philosophy and management principles of the hiring firm, the visibility of the competency and individual achievements of the one seeking employment, economic factors such as recession or economic depression, among other factors, so this makes it difficult to categorize the exact roles of these chemistry-related workers as standard for that given level of education; because of these factors affecting exact job titles with distinct responsibilities, some chemists might begin doing technician tasks while other chemists might begin doing more complicated tasks than those of a technician, such as tasks th
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII was a monarch of the House of Bourbon, King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated, his mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court. Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, ending the revolt of the French nobility, they systematically denounced the use of private violence. By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine.
The reign of Louis "the Just" was marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain. Born at the Palace of Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici; as son of the king, he was a Fils de France, as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his second cousin, Henry III of France, in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, his maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother; as a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat. The ambassador of King James I of England to the court of France, Sir Edward Herbert, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:...
I presented to the King a letter of credence from the King my master: the King assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King my master, of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word. Although Louis XIII became of age at thirteen, his mother did not give up her position as Regent until 1617, when he was 16. Marie maintained most of her husband's ministers, with the exception of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, unpopular in the country, she relied on Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy, Noël Brûlart de Sillery, Pierre Jeannin for political advice. Marie pursued a moderate policy, she was not, able to prevent rebellion by nobles such as Henri, Prince of Condé, second in line to the throne after Marie's second surviving son Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Condé squabbled with Marie in 1614, raised an army, but he found little support in the country, Marie was able to raise her own army.
Marie agreed to call an Estates General assembly to address Condé's grievances. The assembly of this Estates General was delayed until Louis XIII formally came of age on his thirteenth birthday. Although his coming-of-age formally ended Marie's Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France; the Estates General accomplished little, spending its time discussing the relationship of France to the Papacy and the venality of offices, but reaching no resolutions. Beginning in 1615, Marie came to rely on the Italian Concino Concini, who assumed the role of her favourite. Concini was unpopular because he was a foreigner; this further antagonised Condé, who launched another rebellion in 1616. Huguenot leaders supported Condé's rebellion, which led the young Louis XIII to conclude that they would never be loyal subjects. Condé and Queen Marie made peace via the Treaty of Loudun, which allowed Condé great power in government but did not remove Concini. With growing dissatisfaction from nobles due to Concini's position, Queen Marie, with Louis's help, imprisoned Condé to protect Concini, leading to renewed revolts against the Queen and Concini.
In the meantime, Charles d'Albert, the Grand Falconer of France, convinced Louis XIII that he should break with his mother and support the rebels. Louis staged a palace coup d'état; as a result, Concino Concini was assassinated on 24 April 1617. His widow, Leonora Dori Galigaï, was tried for witchcraft, condemned and burned on 8 July 1617, Marie was sent into exile in Blois. Louis conferred the title of Duke of Luynes on d'Albert. Luynes soon became as unpopular. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV's ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de' Medici; the Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618. The French court was unsure which side to support. On the one hand, F
Sorbonne University Association
Sorbonne University Association is a group of 10 academic institutions associated with the Sorbonne University. After the fusion between Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, under the name "Sorbonne University" in 2018, the group Sorbonne Universités changed its name to Association Sorbonne Université; the original group was founded in June 2010 by, at that time by: Panthéon-Assas University, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University. The two latter merged in 2018 into Sorbonne University and Panthéon-Assas is now an associate member. Other members include the INSEAD, the University of Technology of Compiègne, the National Museum of Natural History, research centers such as the French National Centre for Scientific Research, the French Institute of Health and Medical Research, the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation, the French Institute of Research for the Development; the group comprises nearly 60,000 students annually, of which 5,000 are Ph.
D. students. Members of the group have set up many projects altogether to strengthen the relations between them and create new academic courses and research programs in the fields of science, law and social science, business management, arts. Alumni and faculty include 19 Nobel laureates and 7 Field Medalists; the group has been granted €130 million from the French government. Its budget was €680 million as of 2012, it was founded in June 2010 by, at that time, some of the successors of the University of Paris: Panthéon-Assas University, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University. The University of Paris known as the Sorbonne, the medieval university of Paris, divided into 13 autonomous universities after the French riots in 1968. In the early 2000s, to perform on the international scale, these thirteen universities started to join their forces into University groups along with public research and higher education institutions and grandes écoles. In 2006, a French law organizing research compelled every university institution to join a university group.
This was aimed at forming big university and research clusters able to compete with the best international universities. In 2010, Sorbonne University formed its first group. Since other university institutions have entered, such as the National Museum of Natural History. Panthéon-Assas University left the group in 2013 because it was not happy of the governance of the group and became an associate member in 2014. In 2015, Sorbonne University grouped 11 founding members, 11 other associate members. Like the other French university groups, this group is a first step toward a merge of the relevant universities, here Sorbonne University. Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University merged in 2018 as Sorbonne University. Panthéon-Assas University and University of Technology of Compiègne may merge with it in the years to come; as of January 1, 2018 Sorbonne University University of Technology of Compiègne INSEAD National Museum of Natural History Pôle Supérieur d'Enseignement Paris Boulogne-Billancourt Centre international d'études pédagogiques French National Centre for Scientific Research French Institute of Health and Medical Research French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation French Institute of Research for the Development As of January 1, 2018 Panthéon-Assas University Archives nationales Paris Notarial Institute Centre des monuments nationaux École de formation professionnelle des barreaux de la cour d'appel de Paris École Nationale des Chartes French National School for the Judiciary École Navale École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale Camp Coëtquidan École nationale supérieure de la Police National Institute for Art History The main campus of Sorbonne University is the historic central Sorbonne building in the Latin quarter, that Paris-Sorbonne University shares with other universities not included in Sorbonne University.
Sorbonne University is located in the Jussieu Campus, near the Latin quarter. The Campus is occupied by Marie Curie University. After a long period of restoration, the first half of the new campus was inaugurated in September 2014 with new academic buildings, new dormitories, a gymnasium. In Paris, Sorbonne University has the campuses of Sorbonne, Pitié-Salpêtrière, Saint-Antoine, Tenon, the Paris Institute of Astrophysics, the Vision Institute belonging to the Pierre and Marie Curie University.