St Ninian's Isle Treasure
The St Ninian's Isle Treasure found on St Ninian's Isle, Scotland, is the best survival of Scottish silver metalwork from the Early Medieval period, some pieces gilded. There are pieces for secular use such as a series of different penannular brooches and different chapes from sword scabbards, pieces which might have been used for religious ceremonies and rituals like the bowls, "thimbles" and all of those joined with some pieces of unsure meanings like the heavy ring chains or collars which are referred to as "power symbols of Pictish chieftains" by some scholars; the brooches show a variety of typical Pictish forms, with both animal-head and lobed geometrical forms of terminal. Two of the scabbard chapes and a sword pommel appear to be Anglo-Saxon pieces made in Mercia in the late 8th century. One of the mounts has a triple spiral design. We know of exchanges of gifts between Anglo-Saxon and Pictish rulers, "weapons are among the objects which travelled most in the early medieval period".
The treasure was discovered under a cross-marked slab in the floor of the early St. Ninian's church, on 4 July 1958 by a local schoolboy, Douglas Coutts. Coutts was helping visiting archaeologists led by Professor A. C. O'Dell of Aberdeen University at a dig on the isle; the silver bowls and other pieces are believed to date from approx. 800 AD. The treasure was donated to the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland in 1965-6 and is now in the successor Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, whilst replicas are held by the Shetland Museum. Professor Andrew Charles O'Dell, writing in December 1959 in Antiquity magazine, recounts that: "... the church on this site was described early in the 18th century as being still venerated by local people although it had been abandoned at the Reformation in favour of a more central parish church...... from the sandy spit, which has formed between the mainland and the isle, gales have carried sand and this, together with the accretion of a graveyard in use until c.1850, buried the church remains and all knowledge of its exact location had vanished from living memory...
At the occasion of the first Viking Congress in 1951 Dr W. Douglas Simpson suggested a search might prove rewarding and this was undertaken in 1955 by a party of my students under my direction; the results in this and succeeding years have exceeded expectations.... The medieval building with its massive mortared walls, main altar and a side altar had made the excavation noteworthy before 4 July 1958, when the hoard was discovered. Close to the southern chancel arch foundation, missed by inches by burials, was found a broken sandstone slab, 10.5 in. by 15 in. Inscribed with a cross and, below this, was the hoard, it had been contained in a larch box of which a few splinters, impregnated with metal salts, had escaped decay. The bowls were upside down and the brooches and other objects tangled together, showing it has been hurriedly carried and buried with the top down. In with the objects was the porpoise jawbone and this, the only non-metallic object, is strong evidence of its ecclesiastical connection, although the brooches suggest a secular link..."
Norrie's Law hoard O'Dell, A. St. Ninian's Isle Treasure. A Silver Hoard Discovered on St. Ninian's Isle, Zetland on 4th July, 1958. Aberdeen University Studies. No. 141 Youngs, Susan, "The Work of Angels", Masterpieces of Celtic Metalwork, 6th–9th centuries AD, pp. 108–112, 1989, British Museum Press, London. Webster, Anglo-Saxon Art, 2012, British Museum Press, ISBN 9780714128092 Photographs of the St Ninian's Isle Treasure, at the National Museums Scotland website Shetland Museum - Pictures of the treasure St Ninian's Isle - Shetland Heritage St Ninian's Isle Treasure on Shetlopedia
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Ashur-nasir-pal II was king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC. Ashurnasirpal II succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 883 BC. During his reign he embarked on a vast program of expansion, first conquering the peoples to the north in Asia Minor as far as Nairi and exacting tribute from Phrygia invading Aram conquering the Aramaeans and Neo-Hittites between the Khabur and the Euphrates Rivers, his harshness prompted a revolt that he crushed decisively in a two-day battle. According to his monument inscription, while recalling this massacre he says: Following this victory, he advanced without opposition as far as the Mediterranean and exacted tribute from Phoenicia. On his return home, he moved his capital to the city of Kalhu. Ashurnasirpal II's father was Tukulti-Ninurta II, his son and successor was Shalmaneser III. The palaces and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth and art, he was renowned for his brutality, using enslaved captives to build a new Assyrian capital at Kalhu in Mesopotamia where he built many impressive monuments.
He was a shrewd administrator, who realized that he could gain greater control over his empire by installing Assyrian governors, rather than depending on local client rulers paying tribute. Like previous Assyrian monarchs Ashurnasirpal campaigned along the Euphrates against Aramaeans and in the Diyala against Babylon. Ashurnasirpal II's brutal treatment of rebels ensured that when his army was not present, there would not be further revolts. Further revolts would see the local monarch replaced with a governor loyal only to the Assyrian monarchy. Leading his army, composed of infantry, heavy & light cavalry and chariots, Ashurnasirpal conquered the Hittites and Aramaean states of northern Syria. Ashurnasirpal II did not destroy the Phoenician/Canaanite cities, he was unsuccessful in his siege of Tyre, which under Ittobaal settled Kition in Cyprus and opened up trade routes throughout the Aegean, at Rhodes and Miletus. Through tribute they became sources for the raw materials of his building programs.
Iron was needed for weapons, Lebanese cedar for construction and gold and silver for the payment of troops. Ashurnasirpal II's palace was built and completed in 879 BC in Kalhu, in modern-day Iraq north of Baghdad; the palace walls were lined with reliefs carved in alabaster. These reliefs bore elaborate carvings, many portraying the king surrounded by winged protective spirits, or engaged in hunting or on campaign; each had text inscribed in it. This text was the same or similar on each relief and is therefore called the Standard Inscription; the Standard Inscription begins by tracing Ashur-nasir-pal II's lineage back three generations and recounts his military victories, defines the boundaries of his empire, tells how he founded Kalhu, built the palace. Ashurnasirpal II built a massive gateway at Nimrud; the British archaeologist A. H. Layard excavated Kalhu in the 1840s, uncovering the North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II. Today, many of the reliefs and sculptures from the excavations in Nimrud are displayed in the galleries of the British Museum, including the Statue of Ashurnasirpal II and the Black Obelisk, with other reliefs on display in museums in Europe and the USA.
After Assyria fell in 612 BC, the palace became overgrown and completely buried, in which state it remained for nearly 2,500 years until rediscovered by the British born Austen Henry Layard in 1845. Layard oversaw the excavation of the palace during which time the reliefs that dominated the walls of the structure were removed from the site and sent to collections throughout Europe and North America, with the British Museum receiving the majority of these Nimrud reliefs. Despite excavating and removing many of these reliefs, a great number remained within the palace and were reburied with time. In 1949 M. E. L. Mallowan re-excavated the site, which lasted until 1957, at which time the project was taken over by the Iraq Department of Antiques which still remains in control of the site; the known area of the palace measures 200m from north to south and 120 meters from east to west. This is most only a portion of the original design, including the possibility of an upper level while no concrete evidence of this remains.
All of the walls of the palace were lined with stone slabs of which a majority were decorated with relief images. Among these relief images occurred a certain amount of standardization around 870 BC. Carved into each of the stone slabs, including the ones lacking relief, was what is referred to as the Standard Inscription; this text gave the various names and titles of the king, spoke of his relationship with the gods and summarized his military conquests. The text goes on to describe the founding of Kalhu and speaks of the palace itself; the slabs, which contain relief, consist of depictions of Assurnasirpal's royal ideology. This ideology can be categorized into four main ideas, the military success of the king, his service to the gods, which provided divine protection and Assyrian prosperity. There is a particular interest in the anatomy of both animals within the depictions. Royal hunting scenes are some of the most well known of the Nimrud reliefs those showing Assurnasirpal II hunting lions.
There is a distinct interest in the relationship between man and animal in many of the scenes. In several depictions the king is shown with supernatural creatures of human combination. All of the apotropaic portrayals, which would have decorated the doorways of the palace, wer
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended; the condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is released, to fall and forcefully decapitate the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket below; the device is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution, where it was celebrated as the people's avenger by supporters of the revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror by opponents. The name dates from this period, but similar devices had been used elsewhere in Europe over several centuries; the display of severed heads had long been one of the most common ways a European sovereign displayed their power to their subjects. The guillotine remained France's standard method of judicial execution until the abolition of capital punishment in 1981.
The last person to be executed in France was Hamida Djandoubi, guillotined on 10 September 1977. This was the last time that the government of a Western nation executed an individual by beheading; the use of beheading machines in Europe long predates such use during the French revolution in 1792. An early example of the principle is found in the High History of the Holy Grail, dated to about 1210. Although the device is imaginary, its function is clear; the text says: Within these three openings are the hallows set for them. And behold what I would do to them if their three heads were therein... She setteth her hand toward the openings and draweth forth a pin, fastened into the wall, a cutting blade of steel droppeth down, of steel sharper than any razor, closeth up the three openings. "Even thus will I cut off their heads when they shall set them into those three openings thinking to adore the hallows that are beyond." The Halifax Gibbet was a wooden structure consisting of two wooden uprights, capped by a horizontal beam, of a total height of 4.5 metres.
The blade was an axe head weighing 3.5 kg, attached to the bottom of a massive wooden block that slid up and down in grooves in the uprights. This device was mounted on a large square platform 1.25 metres high. It is not known; the machine remained in use. It was used for the last time, for the execution of two criminals on a single day, on 30 April 1650. Holinshed's Chronicles of 1577 included a picture of "The execution of Murcod Ballagh near Merton in Ireland in 1307" showing a similar execution machine, suggesting its early use in Ireland; the Maiden was constructed in 1564 for the Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh, it was in use from April 1565 to 1710. One of those executed was James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, in 1581, a 1644 publication began circulating the legend that Morton himself had commissioned the Maiden after he had seen the Halifax Gibbet; the Maiden was dismantled for storage and transport, it is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, together with German engineer Tobias Schmidt, built a prototype for the guillotine.
Schmidt recommended using an angled blade as opposed to a round one. On 10 October 1789, physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin proposed to the National Assembly that capital punishment should always take the form of decapitation "by means of a simple mechanism."Sensing the growing discontent, Louis XVI banned the use of the breaking wheel. In 1791, as the French Revolution progressed, the National Assembly researched a new method to be used on all condemned people regardless of class, consistent with the idea that the purpose of capital punishment was to end life rather than to inflict pain. A committee was formed under Antoine Louis, physician to the King and Secretary to the Academy of Surgery. Guillotin was on the committee; the group was influenced by the Italian Mannaia, the Scottish Maiden and the Halifax Gibbet, fitted with an axe head weighing 7 pounds 12 ounces. While these prior instruments crushed the neck or used blunt force to take off a head, devices usually used a crescent blade and a lunette.
Laquiante, an officer of the Strasbourg criminal court, designed a beheading machine and employed Tobias Schmidt, a German engineer and harpsichord maker, to construct a prototype. Antoine Louis is credited with the design of the prototype; the memoirs of the official executioner claim that King Louis XVI recommended that an oblique blade be used instead of a crescent blade, lest the blade not fit all necks. The first execution by guillotine was performed on highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier on 25 April 1792, he was executed in front of. All citizens deemed guilty of a crime punishable by death were from on executed there, until the scaffold was moved on 21 August to the Place du Carrousel; the machine was successful because it was considered a humane form of execution, contrasting with the methods used in the pre-revolutionary Ancien Régime. In France, before the invention of the guillotine, members of the nobility were beheaded with a sword or an axe, which took two or more blows to kill the condemned.
(The condemned or their families would sometimes pa
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, painter, urban planner and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930, his career spanned five decades, he designed buildings in Europe, Japan and North and South America. Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, was a founding member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne. Le Corbusier prepared the master plan for the city of Chandigarh in India, contributed specific designs for several buildings there. On 17 July 2016, seventeen projects by Le Corbusier in seven countries were inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret was born on 6 October 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, a small city in the French-speaking Neuchâtel canton in north-western Switzerland, in the Jura mountains, just 5 kilometres across the border from France.
It was an industrial town, devoted to the manufacture of watches. His father was an artisan who enameled watches, while his mother gave piano lessons, his elder brother Albert was an amateur violinist. He attended a kindergarten. Like his contemporaries Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier did not have formal academic training as an architect, he was attracted to the visual arts and at the age of fifteen he entered the municipal art school in La-Chaux-de-Fonds which taught the applied arts connected with watchmaking. Three years he attended the higher course of decoration, founded by the painter Charles L'Eplattenier, who had studied in Budapest and Paris. Le Corbusier wrote that L'Eplattenier had made him "a man of the woods" and taught him painting from nature, his father took him into the mountains around the town. He wrote "we were on mountaintops, his architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusier's earliest house designs.
However, he reported that it was the art teacher L'Eplattenier who made him choose architecture. "I had a horror of architecture and architects," he wrote. "... I was sixteen, I accepted the verdict and I obeyed. I moved into architecture." Le Corbusier began teaching himself by going to the library to read about architecture and philosophy, by visiting museums, by sketching buildings, by constructing them. In 1905, he and two other students, under the supervision of their teacher, René Chapallaz and built his first house, the Villa Fallet, for the engraver Louis Fallet, a friend of his teacher Charles L'Eplattenier. Located on the forested hillside near Chaux-de-fonds, it was a large chalet with a steep roof in the local alpine style and crafted colored geometric patterns on the façade. The success of this house led to his construction of two similar houses, the Villas Jacquemet and Stotzer, in the same area. In September 1907, he made his first trip outside of Switzerland. In Florence, he visited the Florence Charterhouse in Galluzzo, which made a lifelong impression on him.
"I would have liked to live in one of what they called their cells," he wrote later. "It was the solution for a unique kind of worker's housing, or rather for a terrestrial paradise." He traveled to Paris, during fourteen months between 1908 until 1910 he worked as a draftsman in the office of the architect Auguste Perret, the pioneer of the use of reinforced concrete in residential construction and the architect of the Art Deco landmark Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. Two years between October 1910 and March 1911, he traveled to Germany and worked four months in the office Peter Behrens, where Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius were working and learning. In 1911, he traveled again for five months, he spoke of what he saw during this trip in many of his books, it was the subject of his last book, Le Voyage d'Orient. In 1912, he began his most ambitious project. Located on the forested hillside near La-Chaux-de-Fonds; the Jeanneret-Perret house was larger than the others, in a more innovative style.
The interior spaces were organized around the four pillars of the salon in the center, foretelling the open interiors he would create in his buildings. The project was more expensive to build. However, it led to a commission to build an more imposing villa in the nearby village of Le Locle for a wealthy watch manufacturer. Georges Favre-Jacot. Le Corbusier designed the new house in less than a month; the building was designed to fit its hillside site, interior plan was spacious and designed around a courtyard for maximum light, significant de
The Lewis chessmen or Uig chessmen, named after the bay where they were found, are a group of distinctive 12th-century chess pieces, along with other game pieces, most of which are carved from walrus ivory. Discovered in 1831 on Lewis in the Outer Hebrides, they may constitute some of the few complete, surviving medieval chess sets, although it is not clear if a set as made can be assembled from the pieces; when found, the hoard contained 93 artifacts: 14 tablemen and one belt buckle. Today, 82 pieces are owned and exhibited by the British Museum in London, the remaining 11 are at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh; the British Museum claims the chessmen were made in Trondheim, Norway, in the 12th century, although some scholars have suggested other Nordic countries. During that period, the Outer Hebrides, along with other major groups of Scottish islands, were ruled by Norway. According to Dr. Alex Woolf, director of the University of St Andrews Institute for Medieval Studies, there are reasons for believing the pieces came from Trondheim: A broken queen piece in a similar style was found in an excavation of the archbishop's palace – it appeared the piece was broken as it was being made.
The presence of wealthy people in Trondheim able to pay craftsmen for high-quality chess pieces. Similar carving in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim; the excavation in Trondheim of a kite-shaped shield similar to shields on some of the pieces and a king piece of similar design found on Hitra Island, near the mouth of Trondheim Fjord. Woolf has said that the armour worn by the chess figures includes "perfect" reproductions of armour worn at the time in Norway. Icelanders Gudmundur Thorarinsson and Einar Einarsson have proposed that the chessmen originated in Iceland, since only in Iceland were the bishops called that at that time, while in other countries they used a name unassociated with the church, they further claim. However, this is disputed by Woolf, who stated that the use of bishops originated in England, by Norwegian chess historian and member of the Ken Whyld Association Morten Lilleøren; some historians believe that the Lewis chessmen were hidden after some mishap occurred during their carriage from Norway to wealthy Norse towns on the east coast of Ireland, such as Dublin.
The large number of pieces and their lack of wear may suggest that they were the stock of a trader or dealer. Along with the chess pieces, there were 14 plain round tablemen for the game of tables and one belt buckle, all made of ivory, making a total of 93 artifacts. All of the pieces in the collection are carved from walrus ivory, with a few made instead from whale teeth; the 78 pieces consist of eight queens, 16 bishops, 15 knights, 12 rooks and 19 pawns. The heights of the pawns range from 3.5 to 5.8 cm, while the other pieces are between 10.2 cm. Although there are 19 pawns, they have the greatest range of sizes of all the pieces, which has suggested that the 78 pieces might belong to at least five sets. All the pieces are sculptures of human figures, with the exception of the pawns, which are smaller, geometric shapes; the knights are shown holding spears and shields. The rooks are standing warders holding shields and swords; some pieces bore traces of red stain when found indicating that red and white were used to distinguish the two sides, rather than the black and white used in modern chess.
Scholars have observed that to the modern eye the figural pieces, with their bulging eyes and glum expressions, have a distinct comical character. This is true of the single rook with a worried, sideways glance and the berserkers biting their shields, which have been called "irresistibly comic to a modern audience." It is believed, that the comic or sad expressions were not intended or perceived as such by the makers, who instead saw strength, ferocity or, in the case of the queens who hold their heads with a hand and pensive expression, "contemplation and wisdom." The chessmen were discovered in early 1831 in a sand bank at the head of Camas Uig on the west coast of the Isle of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. There are various local stories concerning their arrival and modern discovery on Lewis. Malcolm "Sprot" MacLeod from the nearby township of Pennydonald discovered the trove in a small stone kist in a dune, exhibited them in his byre and sold them on to Captain Roderick Ryrie.
One reported detail, that it was a cow that unearthed the stash, is discounted in Uig as fabrication. After the Isle of Lewis was purchased by Sir James Matheson in 1844, Malcolm Macleod and his family were evicted and the district was transformed into sheep farms, they were exhibited by Ryrie at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, on 11 April 1831. The chessmen were soon after split up, with 10 being purchased by Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe and the others purchased on behalf of the British Museum in London. Kirkpatrick Sharpe found another bishop to take his collection up to eleven, all of which were sold to Lord Londesborough. In 1888, they were again sold, but this time the purchaser was the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, who donated the pieces to the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh; the eleven are now on display in the National Museum of Scotland. Of the pieces given to the Britis
Ralph Appelbaum Associates
Ralph Appelbaum Associates is one of the world's largest museum exhibition design firms. It has offices in New York City, Beijing, Berlin and Dubai; the firm was founded in 1978 by Ralph Appelbaum, a graduate of Pratt Institute and former Peace Corps volunteer. Appelbaum directs RAA's undertakings, retains daily involvement in selected commissions; the New York Times reported in 1999 that the firm was composed of "architects, editors, model builders, childhood specialists, one poet, one painter and one astrophysicist."The company's best-known project is the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D. C., the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust. Established in 1993, the museum has been described as a "turning point in museology". According to its website, RAA has completed "700 commissions in over 40 countries". Canadian Museum of Human Rights The Crown Jewels, The Tower of London National Constitution Center, Philadelphia National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC National Museum of Scotland, Scotland National World War I Museum United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Royal Albert Memorial Museum United States Capitol Visitor Center The American Immigrant Wall of Honor, Ellis Island Culloden Battlefield Memorial Visitor Centre The Foundling Museum Greyhound Bus Station in Montgomery, Alabama Indiana State Museum The Jewish Museum, Manhattan Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center, Russia Lincoln Castle London Transport Museum Museum of Tomorrow Newseum Presidio Officers' Club Thomas Edison National Historical Park William J. Clinton Presidential Library World Music Gallery, The Horniman Museum Anchorage Museum Bishop Museum The Braid: Ballymena Town Hall Heard Museum Museum of World Religions NASCAR Hall of Fame St. Paul's Cathedral The Walt Whitman Birthplace State Historic Site & Interpretive Center World Golf Hall of Fame American Museum of Natural History, New York City Science History Institute Moody Gardens Natural History Museum of Utah Singapore Discovery Centre Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times Expo 2008: Water: A Unique Resource Expo 2010: United Arab Emirates Pavilion Mandela Day 2009 Pompeii the Exhibit: Life and Death in the Shadow of Vesuvius TING: Technology and Democracy What Price Freedom: New York Public Library Centennial Exhibition AT&T Carlsberg IBM 100: THINK IKEA museum Intel Museum The Walmart Museum American Museum of Natural History American Indian Cultural Center and Museum Expo 2020 Humboldt Forum International African American Museum Józef Piłsudski Museum Nariman House Vietnam Veterans Memorial World Museum Wien Ralph Appelbaum Associates website