National Park Service

The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 12,363 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 62 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.

They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the president to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.

President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.

Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 62. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.

Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.

The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Natio


KOCB, virtual channel 34, is a CW-affiliated television station licensed to Oklahoma City, United States. The station is owned by the Sinclair Broadcast Group, as part of a duopoly with Fox affiliate KOKH-TV; the two stations share studios and transmitter facilities on Wilshire Boulevard and 78th Street on the city's northeast side. On cable, KOCB is available on Cox Communications channel 11 and digital channel 711 and AT&T U-verse channels 34 and 1034 in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area, on channel 11 on most cable systems elsewhere within the Oklahoma City DMA; the UHF channel 34 allocation in Oklahoma City was contested between two groups that competed for the Federal Communications Commission's approval of a construction permit to build and license to operate a new television station. Rockford, Illinois-based General Media Corporation filed the initial application on January 24, 1977. On April 12, Oklahoma City Broadcasting, Inc.—majority owned by veteran television station manager and production director Ted F. Baze, co-founded with Oklahoma City-based businessman James H. Milligan and local real estate broker Ina Lou Marquis—filed a separate application.

The FCC granted the permit to General Media on March 2, 1979, shortly after Seraphim reached an agreement with Oklahoma City Broadcasting that gave the latter a 20% ownership stake in the station in exchange for the Baze-led group dismissing its license application. Shortly after obtaining approval for the permit and license, the General Media/Baze consortium chose to request KGMC as the television station's call letters; the station first signed on the air at 7:00 a.m. on October 28, 1979. It was the fifth commercial television station and second UHF station to sign on in the Oklahoma City market, as well as the second independent station to launch in the market; because Blair Broadcasting had converted educational independent KOKH-TV to a commercial entertainment format four weeks earlier on October 1, KGMC narrowly missed being the first commercial station to have signed on in the market since ABC affiliate KOCO-TV debuted 25 years earlier on July 2, 1954. The station operated from studio and office facilities located at 1501 Northeast 85th Street in northeastern Oklahoma City.

Broadcasting daily from 6:30 a.m. until 1:00 a.m. KGMC-TV maintained a programming format consisting of a mix of cartoons, classic sitcoms and drama series, religious programs and some older movies. Baze elected to based its programming acquisitions around the success of the chosen syndicated programs in other markets with independent stations; the station's feature film schedule—which consisted of two presentations per day Sunday through Friday and up to five each Saturday, with commercial breaks during its prime time presentations limited to nine minutes of advertising per film—also periodically included themed weeks of films centering around specific movie genres or classic film actors. On December 7, 1982, Oklahoma City Broadcasting purchased 80% of Seraphim Media for $5.2 million in stock, in exchange for increasing the Baze-led group's interest in KGMC to 85%. In August 1983, Baze sold 85% of Oklahoma City Broadcasting to the Beverly Hills Hotel Corp. for $7 million. The transfer was approved by the FCC on October 21, was finalized on December 9.

On September 3, 1986, three months before he was sentenced to a three-year prison term on stock fraud and insider trading charges, Boesky transferred direct control of KGMC-TV to his wife, Seema Boesky. Investigations launched by the FCC and the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission into the transfer and other potential improprieties concerning the Boeskys' ownership of KGMC revealed that the transfer was not disclosed until mid-December, that the Boeskys did not seek FCC approval of the transfer before its consummation, that they had effective control of the license through a voting trust created two years before Ivan purchased the station, never disclosed to the FCC. Seema—who blamed the issue on "too many layers of lawyers" being involved in the fam

Euro key

Euro key is a locking system which enables people with physical disabilities to access handicapped facilities free of charge. For example handicapped elevators and ramps, public toilets at motorways, train stations, in pedestrian zones, shopping centers, museums or public authorities etc, it has been introduced in 1986 by the CBF Darmstadt - Club Behinderter und Freunde in Darmstadt and environs. Euro key is now used throughout European countries: Austria, Czechia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK. In Europe the total number of Euro key locks is over 100 000, in US it's about 350, in Turkey it's about 50. Eurokey system in Switzerland