Somerset House is a large Neoclassical building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The Georgian building, built on the site of a Tudor palace belonging to the Duke of Somerset, was designed by Sir William Chambers in 1776, it was further extended with Victorian wings to the east and west in 1856 respectively. The East Wing is now part of the adjacent Strand campus of King's College London. Somerset House stood directly on the River Thames until the Victoria Embankment was built in the late 1860s. In the 16th century, the Strand, the north bank of the Thames between the City of London and the Palace of Westminster, was a favoured site for the mansions of bishops and aristocrats, who could commute from their own landing stages upriver to the court or downriver to the City and beyond. In 1539, Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, obtained a grant of land at "Chester Place, outside Temple Bar, London" from his brother-in-law King Henry VIII.
When his nephew the young King Edward VI came to the throne in 1547, Seymour became Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector. In about 1549 he pulled down an old Inn of Chancery and other houses which stood on the site and began to build himself a palatial residence, making liberal use of other nearby buildings including some of the chantry chapels and cloisters at St Paul's Cathedral, which were demolished at his behest as part of the ongoing dissolution of the monasteries, it was a two-storey house built around a quadrangle, with a gateway rising to three storeys, was one of the earliest examples of Renaissance architecture in England. It is not known. Before it was finished, the Duke of Somerset was overthrown, attainted by Parliament and in 1552 was executed on Tower Hill. Somerset Place, as the building was referred to came into the possession of the Crown; the duke's royal nephew's half-sister, the future Queen Elizabeth I, lived there during the reign of her half-sister Queen Mary I. The process of completion and improvement was costly.
As late as 1598 John Stow refers to it as "yet unfinished". In the 17th century, the house was used as a residence by the queen's consort. During the reign of King James I, the building became the London residence of his wife, Anne of Denmark, was renamed Denmark House, she commissioned a number of some to designs by Inigo Jones. In particular, during the period between 1630 and 1635, he built a chapel where Henrietta Maria of France, wife of King Charles I, could exercise her Roman Catholic religion; this was on a site to the southwest of the Great Court. A small cemetery was attached and some of the tombstones are still to be seen built into one of the walls of a passage under the present quadrangle. Royal occupation of Somerset House was interrupted by the Civil War, in 1649 Parliament tried to sell it, they failed to find a buyer, although a sale of the contents realised the considerable sum of £118,000. Use was still found for it however. Part of it served with General Fairfax being given official quarters there.
It was in Somerset House that Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell's body lay in state after his death in 1658. Two years with the Restoration, Queen Henrietta Maria returned and in 1661 began a considerable programme of rebuilding, the main feature of, a magnificent new river front, again to the design of the late Inigo Jones, who had died at Somerset House in 1652; however she returned to France in 1665. It was used as an occasional residence by Catherine of Braganza, wife of King Charles II. During her time it received a certain notoriety as being, in the popular mind, a hot-bed of Catholic conspiracy. Titus Oates made full use of this prejudice in the fabricated details of the Popish Plot and it was alleged that Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, whose murder was one of the great mysteries of the age, had been killed in Somerset House before his body had been smuggled out and thrown into a ditch below Primrose Hill. Somerset House was refurbished by Sir Christopher Wren in 1685. After the Glorious Revolution in 1688, Somerset House entered on a long period of decline, being used for grace and favour residences.
In the conditions of the time this meant inevitably that little money could be found for its upkeep, a slow process of decay crept in. During the 18th century, the building ceased its royal associations. Though the view from its terraced riverfront garden, open to the public, was painted twice on his London visit by Canaletto, it was used for storage, as a residence for visiting overseas dignitaries and as a barracks for troops. Suffering from neglect, Old Somerset House began to be demolished in 1775. Since the middle of the 18th century there had been growing criticism that London had no great public buildings. Government departments and the learned societies were huddled away in small old buildings all over the city. Developing national pride found comparison with the capitals of continental Europe disquieting. Edmund Burke was the leading proponent of the scheme for a "national building", in 1775 Parliament passed an act for the purpose of, inter alia, "erecting and establishing Publick Offices in Somerset House, for embanking Parts of the River Thames lying within the bounds of the Manor of Savoy".
The list of public offices mentioned in the act comprised "The Salt Office, The Stamp Office, The Tax Office, The Navy Office, The Navy Victu
Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area known as Charing Cross. Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar; the site of Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 13th century and contained the King's Mews. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, the square did not open until 1844; the 169-foot Nelson's Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999; the square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations, including Bloody Sunday in 1887, the culmination of the first Aldermaston March, anti-war protests, campaigns against climate change.
A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year's Eve, it was well known for its feral pigeons until their removals in the early 21st century. The square is named after the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, southwest Spain, although it was not named as such until 1835; the name "Trafalgar" is a Spanish word of Arabic origin, derived from either Taraf al-Ghar or Taraf al-Gharb. Trafalgar Square is owned by the Queen in Right of the Crown and managed by the Greater London Authority, while Westminster City Council owns the roads around the square, including the pedestrianised area of the North Terrace; the square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north, in front of the National Gallery. The roads around the square form part of the A4, a major road running west of the City of London.
The square was surrounded by a one-way traffic system, but works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic. Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens between 1937 and 1939 and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer. At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson, who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar. Surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields Church to the east. On the east is South Africa House, facing it across the square is Canada House. To the south west is The Mall, which leads towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall is to the south and the Strand to the east. Charing Cross Road passes between the church. London Underground's Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square; the lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line, rerouted to Westminster in 1999.
Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle and Bakerloo lines, Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines. London bus routes 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453 pass through Trafalgar Square. A point in Trafalgar Square is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and when measuring distances from the capital. Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial. Among the findings were the remains of cave lion, straight-tusked elephant and hippopotamus; the site of Trafalgar Square has been a significant location since the 13th century. During Edward I's reign, the area was the site of the King's Mews, running north from the original Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City met Whitehall coming north from Westminster. From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand; the name "Royal Mews" comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting.
After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace. After 1732, the King's Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables, a large block, built to the designs of William Kent, its site is occupied by the National Gallery. In 1826 the Commissioners of H. M. Woods and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, as far east as St Martin's Lane, his plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy. The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin's Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road across the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields; the Charing Cross Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after. Nash died; the square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830.
Around 1835, it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor, commemorating Nelson's victory over the Fre
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Charlotte Brontë was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels became classics of English literature. She enlisted in school at Roe Head in January aged 14 years, she left the year after to teach her sisters and Anne, at home, returning in 1835 as a governess. In 1839 she undertook the role as governess for the Sidgwick family, but left after a few months to return to Haworth where the sisters opened a school, but failed to attract pupils. Instead they turned to writing and they each first published in 1846 under the pseudonyms of Currer and Acton Bell, her first novel The Professor was rejected by publishers, her second novel Jane Eyre was published in 1847. The sisters admitted to their Bell pseudonyms in 1848, by the following year were celebrated in London literary circles. Brontë experienced the early deaths of all her siblings, she became pregnant shortly after her marriage in June 1854 but died on 31 March 1855 certainly from hyperemesis gravidarum, a complication of early pregnancy which causes excessive nausea and vomiting.
Charlotte Brontë was born on 21 April 1816 in Market Street Thornton, west of Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the third of the six children of Maria and Patrick Brontë, an Irish Anglican clergyman. In 1820 her family moved a few miles to the village of Haworth, where her father had been appointed perpetual curate of St Michael and All Angels Church. Maria died of cancer on 15 September 1821, leaving five daughters, Elizabeth, Charlotte and Anne, a son, Branwell, to be taken care of by her sister, Elizabeth Branwell. In August 1824, Patrick sent Charlotte, Emily and Elizabeth to the Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire. Charlotte maintained that the school's poor conditions permanently affected her health and physical development, hastened the deaths of Maria and Elizabeth, who both died of tuberculosis in June 1825. After the deaths of his older daughters, Patrick removed Emily from the school. Charlotte used the school as the basis for Lowood School in Jane Eyre.
At home in Haworth Parsonage, Brontë acted as "the motherly friend and guardian of her younger sisters". Brontë wrote her first known poem at the age of 13 in 1829, was to go on to write more than 200 poems in the course of her life. Many of her poems were "published" in their homemade magazine Branwell's Blackwood's Magazine, concerned the fictional Glass Town Confederacy, she and her surviving siblings – Branwell and Anne – created their own fictional worlds, began chronicling the lives and struggles of the inhabitants of their imaginary kingdoms. Charlotte and Branwell wrote Byronic stories about their jointly imagined country and Emily and Anne wrote articles and poems about Gondal; the sagas they created were episodic and elaborate, they exist in incomplete manuscripts, some of which have been published as juvenilia. They provided them with an obsessive interest during childhood and early adolescence, which prepared them for literary vocations in adulthood. Between 1831 and 1832, Brontë continued her education at Roe Head in Mirfield, where she met her lifelong friends and correspondents Ellen Nussey and Mary Taylor.
In 1833 she wrote The Green Dwarf, using the name Wellesley. Around about 1833, her stories shifted from tales of the supernatural to more realistic stories, she returned to Roe Head as a teacher from 1835 to 1838. Unhappy and lonely as a teacher at Roe Head, Brontë took out her sorrows in poetry, writing a series of melancholic poems. In "We wove a Web in Childhood" written in December 1835, Brontë drew a sharp contrast between her miserable life as a teacher and the vivid imaginary worlds she and her siblings had created. In another poem "Morning was its freshness still" written at the same time, Brontë wrote "Tis bitter sometimes to recall/Illusions once deemed fair". Many of her poems concerned the imaginary world of Angria concerning Byronic heroes, in December 1836 she wrote to the Poet Laureate Robert Southey asking him for encouragement of her career as a poet. Southey replied, that "Literature cannot be the business of a woman's life, it ought not to be; the more she is engaged in her proper duties, the less leisure will she have for it as an accomplishment and a recreation."
This advice she did not heed. In 1839 she took up the first of many positions as governess to families in Yorkshire, a career she pursued until 1841. In particular, from May to July 1839 she was employed by the Sidgwick family at their summer residence, Stone Gappe, in Lothersdale, where one of her charges was John Benson Sidgwick, an unruly child who on one occasion threw a Bible at Charlotte, an incident that may have been the inspiration for a part of the opening chapter of Jane Eyre in which John Reed throws a book at the young Jane. Brontë did not enjoy her work as a governess, noting her employers treated her as a slave humiliating her. Brontë was less than five feet tall. In 1842 Charlotte and Emily travelled to Brussels to enrol at the boarding school run by Constantin Héger and his wife Claire Zoé Parent Héger. During her time in Brussels, Brontë, who favoured the Protestant ideal of an individual in direct contact with God, objected to the stern Catholicism of Madame Héger, which she considered a tyrannical religion that enforced conformity and submission to the Pope.
In return for board and tuition Charlotte taught Emily taught music. Their time at the school was cut short when their aunt Elizabeth Branwell, who had joined the family
Exhibition Road is a street in South Kensington, London, home to several major museums and academic establishments, including the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum. The road gets its name from The Great Exhibition of 1851, held just inside Hyde Park at the northern end of the road, it forms the central feature in an area known as Albertopolis. It provides access to many nationally significant institutions, including the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum, Natural History Museum, the Royal Geographical Society, Imperial College London, Pepperdine University Abroad and Jagiellonian University Abroad; the London Goethe Institute and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints meeting house are located on Exhibition Road. A design competition for plans of how to improve the street's design to reflect its cultural importance was held in 2003 by the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea; the competition was won by the architectural firm Dixon and Jones for a shared space scheme for the road and surrounding streets which would give pedestrians greater priority whilst still allow some vehicular traffic at a reduced speed.
The project aimed to improve the artistic and architectural merit of the streetscape, draws inspiration from the work of Gordon Cullen's Townscape. The scheme was completed ahead of the 2012 London Olympics. Cromwell Gardens Cromwell Road Museum Lane Thurloe Square Prince Consort Road Albertopolis: South Kensington from above History and future plans, from the Royal Institute of British Architects A Vision for Exhibition Road: A Space for the New Century and Exhibition Road Trail from the Victoria and Albert Museum Exhibition Road is reborn from the Evening Standard, dated 27 March 2008 Discover South Kensington activities and cultural events Road users mingle in naked scheme from the BBC, dated 6 January 2005
Edward VI of England
Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a regency council; the council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, who from 1551 was Duke of Northumberland. Edward's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace; the transformation of the Church of England into a recognisably Protestant body occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although his father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the Church and Rome, Henry VIII had never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony.
It was during Edward's reign that Protestantism was established for the first time in England with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the Mass, the imposition of compulsory services in English. In February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill; when his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession", to prevent the country's return to Catholicism. Edward named his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir, excluding his half-sisters and Elizabeth; this decision was disputed following Edward's death, Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen. During her reign, Mary reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mother's room inside Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex, he was the son of King Henry VIII by Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long", with joy and relief.
Te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, "their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes". Queen Jane, appearing to recover from the birth, sent out signed letters announcing the birth of "a Prince, conceived in most lawful matrimony between my Lord the King's Majesty and us". Edward was christened on 15 October, with his half-sisters, the 21-year-old Lady Mary as godmother and the 4-year-old Lady Elizabeth carrying the chrisom; the Queen, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, died the following night. Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that "Divine Providence... hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness". Edward was a healthy baby who suckled from the outset, his father was delighted with him. That September, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Audley, reported vigour; the tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by more recent historians. At the age of four, he fell ill with a life-threatening "quartan fever", despite occasional illnesses and poor eyesight, he enjoyed good health until the last six months of his life.
Edward was placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, "lady mistress" of the prince's household. She was succeeded by Lady Troy; until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it in his Chronicle, "among the women". The formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymour's wife, Anne Stanhope. Henry demanded exacting standards of security and cleanliness in his son's household, stressing that Edward was "this whole realm's most precious jewel". Visitors described the prince, lavishly provided with toys and comforts, including his own troupe of minstrels, as a contented child. From the age of six, Edward began his formal education under Richard Cox and John Cheke, concentrating, as he recalled himself, on "learning of tongues, of the scripture, of philosophy, all liberal sciences", he received tuition from Elizabeth's tutor, Roger Ascham, Jean Belmain, learning French and Italian. In addition, he is known to have studied geometry and learned to play musical instruments, including the lute and the virginals.
He collected globes and maps and, according to coinage historian C. E. Challis, developed a grasp of monetary affairs that indicated a high intelligence. Edward's religious education is assumed to have favoured the reforming agenda, his religious establishment was chosen by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, a leading reformer. Both Cox and Cheke were "reformed" Catholics or Erasmians and became Marian exiles. By 1549, Edward had written a treatise on the pope as Antichrist and was making informed notes on theological controversies. Many aspects of Edward's religion were Catholic in his early years, including celebration of the mass and reverence for images and relics of the saints. Both Edward's sisters were attentive to their brother and visited him – on one occasion, Elizabeth gave him a shirt "of her own working". Edward "took special content" in Mary's company, though he disapproved of her taste for foreign dances. In 1543, Henry invited his children to spend Christmas with him, signalling hi
William Hogarth FRSA was an English painter, pictorial satirist, social critic, editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects" best known being his moral series A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress and Marriage A-la-Mode. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are referred to as "Hogarthian". Hogarth was born in London to a lower middle-class family. In his youth he took up an apprenticeship, his father underwent periods of mixed fortune, was at one time imprisoned in lieu of outstanding debts. Influenced by French and Italian painting and engraving, Hogarth's works are satirical caricatures, sometimes bawdily sexual of the first rank of realistic portraiture, they became popular and mass-produced via prints in his lifetime, he was by far the most significant English artist of his generation. William Hogarth was born at Bartholomew Close in London to Richard Hogarth, a poor Latin school teacher and textbook writer, Anne Gibbons.
In his youth he was apprenticed to the engraver Ellis Gamble in Leicester Fields, where he learned to engrave trade cards and similar products. Young Hogarth took a lively interest in the street life of the metropolis and the London fairs, amused himself by sketching the characters he saw. Around the same time, his father, who had opened an unsuccessful Latin-speaking coffee house at St John's Gate, was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years. Hogarth never spoke of his father's imprisonment. Hogarth became a member of the Rose and Crown Club, with Peter Tillemans, George Vertue, Michael Dahl, other artists and connoisseurs. By April 1720, Hogarth was an engraver in his own right, at first engraving coats of arms, shop bills, designing plates for booksellers. In 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. Morris heard that he was "an engraver, no painter", declined the work when completed. Hogarth accordingly sued him for the money in the Westminster Court, where the case was decided in his favour on 28 May 1728.
In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King. Early satirical works included an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme, about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. In the bottom left corner, he shows Protestant and Jewish figures gambling, while in the middle there is a huge machine, like a merry-go-round, which people are boarding. At the top is a goat, written below, "Who'l Ride"; the people are scattered around the picture with a sense of disorder, while the progress of the well dressed people towards the ride in the middle shows the foolishness of the crowd in buying stock in the South Sea Company, which spent more time issuing stock than anything else. Other early works include The Lottery; the latter is a satire on contemporary follies, such as the masquerades of the Swiss impresario John James Heidegger, the popular Italian opera singers, John Rich's pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields, the exaggerated popularity of Lord Burlington's protégé, the architect and painter William Kent.
He continued that theme with the Large Masquerade Ticket. In 1726 Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings for Samuel Butler's Hudibras; these he himself valued and they are among his best book illustrations. In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small "conversation pieces". Among his efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were The Fountaine Family, The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, several pictures of the chief actors in John Gay's popular The Beggar's Opera. One of his real low-life and real-life subjects was Sarah Malcolm whom he sketched two days before her execution. One of Hogarth's masterpieces of this period is the depiction of an amateur performance by children of John Dryden's The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico at the home of John Conduitt, master of the mint, in St George's Street, Hanover Square. Hogarth's other works in the 1730s include A Midnight Modern Conversation, Southwark Fair, The Sleeping Congregation and After, Scholars at a Lecture, The Company of Undertakers, The Distrest Poet, The Four Times of the Day, Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn.
He might have printed Burlington Gate, evoked by Alexander Pope's Epistle to Lord Burlington, defending Lord Chandos, therein satirized. This print gave great offence, was suppressed. However, modern authorities such as Ronald Paulson no longer attribute it to Hogarth. In 1731 Hogarth completed the earliest of his series of moral works, a body of work that led to significant recognition; the collection of six scenes was entitled A Harlot's Progress and appeared first as paintings before being published as engravings. A Harlot's Progress depicts the fate of a country girl who begins prostituting – the six scenes are chronological, starting with a meeting with a bawd and ending with a funeral ceremony that follows the character's death from venereal disease; the inau