A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and even the mood of the person, for this reason, in photography a portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features. The 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c.2144 -2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality. Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypts Fayum district. These are almost the only paintings from the world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures. Although the appearance of the figures differs considerably, they are considerably idealized, the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones.
During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of a symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are mostly generalized, true portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings. Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations which produced portraits and these works accurately represent anatomical features in great detail. The individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the elite, warriors. They were represented during several stages of their lives, the faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found, there is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vincis painting titled Mona Lisa.
What has been claimed as the worlds oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old. Profile view, full view, and three-quarter view, are three common designations for portraits, each referring to a particular orientation of the head of the individual depicted. Such terms would tend to have greater applicability to two-dimensional artwork such as photography, in the case of three-dimensional artwork, the viewer can usually alter their orientation to the artwork by moving around it
Scrivener Dam, a concrete gravity dam that impounds Molongolo River, is located in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. The dam creates Lake Burley Griffin, that was established for recreational and ornamental purposes, the dam wall is located on Lady Denman Drive and is adjacent to the National Zoo & Aquarium and a viewing area for the official residence of the Governor-General of Australia. Scrivener Dam, designed in Germany, holds back the waters of the Molongolo River within Lake Burley Griffin, about 55,000 cubic metres of concrete was used in the construction of the dam wall. The dam is 33 metres high and 319 metres long with a wall thickness of 19.7 metres. The dam is designed to handle a once in 5,000 year flood event and it utilised state-of-the-art post-tensioning techniques to cope with any problems or movements in the riverbed. The dam has five bay spillway controlled by 30.5 metres wide, hinge anchors support the flap gates, with six hinges per gate, and four anchors per hinge.
The fish-belly gates allow for a control of water level. As at November 2010, the five gates have only been opened simultaneously once in the dams history, the dam wall provides a crossing for the lake and consists of a roadway, called Lady Denman Drive, and a bicycle path. The roadway was possible because the dam gates are closed by pushing up from below, the Authority manages external contractors to deliver services that are competitively tendered. A routine annual audit of the dam wall undertaken during 2011 revealed that the anchor bolts and these bolts, of which there are 120 in total, are each 50 millimetres in diameter and 2 metres long. It wasanticipated that work would be completed by the end of 2013, Scrivener Dam is operated in an environment that minimises flooding of the environs of Lake Burley Griffin. Flows of 2,000 m3/s and above at the dam spillway are achieved with all five floodgates open and are able to maintain the level of the Lake at 555.93 metres. With three floodgates open, outflows of 55 m3/s can be achieved through either automatic or manual operation of the dam, a minimum base flow of 0.03 m3/s is required in the Molonglo River, downstream of Scrivener Dam at the gauging station below Coppins Crossing.
A prolonged drought coincided with and eased work on the lakes construction, the valves on the Scrivener Dam were closed on 20 September 1963 by Interior Minister Gordon Freeth, Prime Minister Menzies was absent due to ill health. Several months on, with no rain in sight, mosquito-infested pools of water were the visible sign of the lake filling. With the eventual breaking of the drought and several days of rain, the lake filled. On 17 October 1964, Menzies commemorated the filling of the lake and this was accompanied by fireworks display, and Griffins lake had finally come to fruition after five decades, at the cost of A$5,039,050. The dam, together with Lake Burley Griffin and adjacent lands, is listed on the Register of the National Estate, since 2012, the register has frozen
Canberra Glassworks is an Australian gallery and glass art studio open to the general public to view the glass artists working. Opened in May 2007 by Jon Stanhope, it is the largest dedicated glass studio facility in Australia and it is located in the Kingston Powerhouse which was designed by John Smith Murdoch and constructed from 1913-1915. The power station generated electricity until 1957 and is Canberras oldest public building, particular effort was made to preserve the original building and surroundings where possible, and was developed within a framework of Ecologically Sustainable Design. The centre is linked with the ANU School of Art Glass Workshop. The current workshop head Richard Whiteley is involved with the centre and has work on display. The centre was scheduled to be opened in September 2006. The creation of Glassworks and renovation of building is part of the redevelopment of the lake foreshore surrounding Kingston. The studio contains a viewing gallery above the main hotshop areas as well as public access walkways around all glass working areas.
Glassworks offers courses to non-practicing artists and members of the public, there is a volunteer program. The studio offers members of the public to commission works through artists working at the studio. Canberra Glassworks official site Glassworks at artsACT website ANU School of Art Glass Workshop ANU Glass Australia Database
Walter Burley Griffin
Walter Burley Griffin was an American architect and landscape architect. He is known for designing Canberra, Australias capital city and he has been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, the carport and an innovative use of reinforced concrete. Influenced by the Chicago-based Prairie School, Griffin developed a modern style. He worked in partnership with his wife Marion Mahony Griffin, in 28 years they designed over 350 buildings and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors and other household items. Griffin was born in 1876 in Maywood, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago and he was the eldest of the four children of George Walter Griffin, an insurance agent, and Estelle Burley Griffin. His family moved to Oak Park and to Elmhurst, as a boy he had an interest in landscape design and gardening, and his parents allowed him to landscape the yard at their new home in Elmhurst. Griffin went to Oak Park High School and he considered studying landscape design but was advised by the landscape gardener O. C.
Simonds to pursue a more lucrative profession. Griffin chose to study architecture, and, in 1899, completed his bachelors degree in architecture at the University of Illinois, the University of Illinois program was run by Nathan Clifford Ricker, a German-educated architect, who emphasized the technical aspects of architecture. During his studies, he took courses in horticulture and forestry. After his studies, Griffin moved to Chicago and was employed as a draftsman for two years in the offices of progressive architects Dwight H. Perkins, Robert C, spencer, Jr. and H. Webster Tomlinson in Steinway Hall. Griffins employers worked in the distinctive Prairie School style and this style is marked by horizontal lines, flat roofs with broad overhanging eaves, solid construction and strict discipline in the use of ornament. Other architects of that school include George Grant Elmslie, George Washington Maher, William Gray Purcell, William Drummond and most importantly, in July 1901 Griffin passed the new Illinois architects licensing examination and this permitted him to enter private practice as an architect.
He began to work in Frank Lloyd Wrights famous Oak Park, although he was never made a partner, Griffin oversaw the construction on many of Wrights noted houses including the Willits House in 1902 and the Larkin Administration Building built in 1904. From 1905 he began to supply plans for Wrights buildings. Wright allowed Griffin and his staff to undertake small commissions of their own. The William Emery house, built in Elmhurst, Illinois, in 1903 was such a commission, while working for Wright, Griffin fell in love with Mr. Wrights sister, Maginel Wright. He proposed marriage to her, but his affections for her were not returned, in 1906 he resigned his position at Wrights studio and established his own practice at Steinway Hall. Griffin and Wright had fallen out over events following Mr. Wrights trip to Japan in 1905, while Wright was away for five months, Griffin ran the practice
Parkes, Australian Capital Territory
Parkes is an inner southern suburb of the Canberra Central district of Canberra, located within the Australian Capital Territory of Australia. Located south-east of the Canberra central business district, Parkes contains the Parliamentary Triangle, Parkes is named in honour of Sir Henry Parkes, a Federalist and one of the founders of the Australian Constitution. Streets in Parkes are named after monarchs and constitutional references, Parkes contains many of Canberras large institutions and contains no residential area. As at the 2011 census, there were no people living in the suburb of Parkes, however, at the 2006 census and the 2001 census censuses, there were four people and 27 people respectively living within the suburbs boundaries. Canberra Formation, calcareous shale is found in the lower parts and this overlies middle Silurian Camp Hill Sandstone. The sandstone unconformably overlies the early Silurian Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale, State Circle Shale is Late Llandovery in a more finely divided time scale and it has been dated to 445 ±7 million years old.
The State Circle Shale is composed of laminated shales and siltstone, Black Mountain Sandstone is composed of a white quartz sandstone. Parkes residents get preference for, Forrest Primary Telopea Park School Narrabundah College Parliamentary Triangle
Lake Burley Griffin
Lake Burley Griffin is an artificial lake in the centre of Canberra, the capital of Australia. It was completed in 1963 after the Molonglo River—which ran between the city centre and Parliamentary Triangle—was dammed and it is named after Walter Burley Griffin, the American architect who won the competition to design the city of Canberra. Griffin designed the lake with many geometric motifs, so that the axes of his design lined up with natural geographical landmarks in the area, government authorities changed his original plans and no substantial work was completed before he left Australia in 1920. His scheme remained unfulfilled as the Great Depression and World War II intervened, after much political dispute over several proposed variations, excavation work began in 1960 with the energetic backing of Prime Minister Robert Menzies. After the completion of the bridges and dams, the dams were locked in September 1963, however, a drought meant that the target water level was not reached until April 1964.
It was formally inaugurated on 17 October 1964, the lake is located in the approximate geographic centre of the city, and is the centrepiece of the capital in accordance with Griffins original designs. Its surrounds, consisting mainly of parklands, are popular with recreational users, though swimming in the lake is uncommon, it is used for a wide variety of other activities, such as rowing and sailing. The lake is a body with a length of 11 kilometres, at its widest. It has a depth of 4 metres and a maximum depth of about 18 metres near the Scrivener Dam. Its flow is regulated by the 33-metre-tall Scrivener Dam, designed to handle floods that once in 5,000 years. In times of drought, water levels can be maintained through the release of water from Googong Dam, Charles Robert Scrivener recommended the site for Canberra in 1909, which was to be a planned capital city for the country. In 1911, a competition for the design of Canberra was launched, most of the proposals took the hint and included artificial bodies of water.
Griffins proposal, which had an abundance of geometric patterns, incorporated concentric hexagonal and octagonal streets emanating from several radii, the East Lake was supposed to be 6 metres higher than the remaining components. Griffins proposal was the grandest scheme submitted, yet it had a simplicity and clarity. The lakes were designed so that their orientation was related to various topographical landmarks in Canberra. This was designed so that looking from Capital Hill, the War Memorial stood directly at the foot of Mount Ainslie, at the southwestern end of the land axis was Bimberi Peak. The straight edge of the segment that formed the central basin was designated the water axis, and it extended northwest towards Black Mountain. A line parallel to the axis, on the northern side of the city, was designated the municipal axis
National Gallery of Australia
The National Gallery of Australia is the national art museum of Australia as well as one of the largest art museums in Australia, holding more than 166,000 works of art. Located in Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory, it was established in 1967 by the Australian government as a public art museum. Prominent Australian artist Tom Roberts had lobbied various Australian prime ministers, starting with the first, Prime Minister Andrew Fisher accepted the idea in 1910, and the following year Parliament established a bipartisan committee of six political leaders—the Historic Memorials Committee. The Committee decided that the government should collect portraits of Australian governors-general, parliamentary leaders and this led to the establishment of what became known as the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board, which was responsible for art acquisitions until 1973. Prior to the opening of the Gallery these paintings were displayed around Parliament House, in Commonwealth offices, including diplomatic missions overseas, from 1912, the building of a permanent building to house the collection in Canberra was the major priority of the CAAB.
Finally in 1965 the CAAB was able to persuade Prime Minister Robert Menzies to take the necessary to establish the gallery. On 1 November 1967, Prime Minister Harold Holt formally announced that the Government would construct the building, the design of the building was complicated by the difficulty in finalising its location, which was affected by the layout of the Parliamentary Triangle. The main problem was the site of the new Parliament House. In Canberras original Griffin 1912 plan, Parliament House was to be built on Camp Hill and he envisaged the Capitol to be either a general administration structure for popular receptions and ceremony or for housing archives and commemorating Australian Achievements. The Gallery would be built on Capital Hill, along with other cultural institutions. In 1968, Colin Madigan of Edwards Madigan Torzillo and Partners won the competition for the design, even though no design could be finalised, as the final site was now in doubt. Gorton proposed to Parliament in 1968 that it endorse Holfords lakeside site for the new Parliament House, as a result, the Government decided that the Gallery could not be built on Capital Hill.
In 1971, the Government selected a 17-hectare site on the side of the proposed National Place. Even though it was now unlikely that the lakeside Parliament House would proceed, Madigans final design was based on a brief prepared by the National Capital Development Commission with input from James Johnson Sweeney and James Mollison. Mollison said in 1989 that the size and form of the building had been determined between Colin Madigan and J. J, and the National Capital Development Commission. I was not able to alter the appearance of the interior or exterior in any way. Its a very difficult building in which to make art look more important than the space in which you put the art. In November 1970, the CAAB recommended that he should be re-designated as assistant director, in May 1971, following Gortons fall from power, the Government endorsed Madigans sketches for the building. The new Prime Minister, William McMahon announced the appointment of Mollison as Acting Director of the NGA in October 1971, tenders for construction were called in November 1972, just before the McMahon governments defeat in the December 1972 election
Old Parliament House, Canberra
Old Parliament House, known formerly as the Provisional Parliament House, was the seat of the Parliament of Australia from 1927 to 1988. The building began operation on 9 May 1927 after Parliaments relocation from Melbourne to the new capital, in 1988, the Commonwealth Parliament transferred to the new Parliament House on Capital Hill. It serves as a venue for exhibitions, lectures. On 2 May 2008 it was made an Executive Agency of the Department of the Prime Minister, on 9 May 2009, the Executive Agency was renamed the Museum of Australian Democracy at Old Parliament House, reporting to the Special Minister of State. The design extended from the building to include its gardens, décor, the building is in the Simplified or Stripped Classical Style, commonly used for Australian government buildings constructed in Canberra during the 1920s and 1930s. It does not include such classical elements as columns, entablatures or pediments. The gardens were neglected for a period after the building was vacated by the parliament in 1988, after restoration, they were officially reopened to the public in 2004, now known as the National Rose Garden.
Old Parliament House is a three storey building with the principal floor on the middle level. Murdoch designed it to be simple and functional, and this is reflected throughout the design, the façade originally incorporated a grid of recessed openings and balconies, with four bays having arched bronze windows and stepped parapets. The height of the building at the roof of the chambers is 18.5 metres, the building was constructed from Canberra clay brick, with timber and lightweight concrete floors. It was rendered originally in white concrete, since painted, except for a pedestal of bricks left with their natural colour, the original roofs were constructed of flat concrete slabs with a membrane waterproofing and finished with a bituminous coating which was designed to be walked on. At the roofline, on side of the main entrance, are large painted reliefs of the Royal. The railings on the front steps were installed after the parliament had left the building and were not present during its active lifetime.
The interior continues the stripped-classicism of the exterior, with the use of motifs and simple lines. The building is designed to make good use of natural light from windows, skylights. It can be seen from the illustrations that considerable restoration and maintenance effort is being lavished on this building, to this end, activities are performed as detailed in a Heritage Management Plan. In keeping with its forms, the building has strong symmetrical planning based on a number of major spaces. The cross-axis features the House of Representatives and Senate chambers on either side of Kings Hall, originally having an H-shape, the building now forms a large rectangle as a consequence of various extensions, with a small rear projection
Springbank Island, within Lake Burley Griffin, is located in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. The island was named after the property that was partly submerged as a result of the creation of the lake. Springbank Island is located in the West Basin of Lake Burley Griffin, the only means of access is across the lake by boat. The perimeter of the island is lined with trees, the island is quite bare, other than the treed picnic area and shelter. The island is not irrigated, there is no power source on the island, barbecue facilities, tap water, picnic tables, and toilets are available. The National Capital Authority is responsible for oversight and management of the island, Springbank Island is the venue for Canberra Beach Cricket, a semi-annual beach cricket carnival. Springbank included both the river flats of the Molonglo River and Black Mountain plus a portion of the area now occupied by the Australian National University. In October 1831, John MacPherson was granted 640 acres of land, the homestead of the property was on the high ground that now forms Springbank Island.
One of their children, John Alexander MacPherson, grew up to become, briefly and it has been suggested that he was probably the first European boy born on the Limestone Plains. McPhersons grant was disputed by Joshua John Moore, a neighbouring landowner, Moore wrote to Robert Hoddle, the Government Surveyor, I beg leave to inform you that I am desirous of retaining the 1,000 acres already in my possession. It is called and known by the name Canburry and it was agreed that Moore retain the ridge and the name Canburry for his land, whilst the basin be shared with MacPherson. The Macpherson family sold the property to the Kaye family in 1844, joseph Kaye had migrated to Australia in 1832 and in 1838 arrived in Queanbeyan, where he ran the local pub for several years. In 1844 the family moved to Springbank, taking over the existing farm, the area included the old Canberra race track, the original Federal golf course and a large part of the present ANU Acton campus. The Kaye family moved in 1855 from the Springbank home to a house near the present Hotel Canberra, apparently the family found the house unpleasant to live in because of the snakes in the swamps of the nearby Molonglo River which became a menace during times of flood.
Before it was purchased by the Sullivan family in 1888, the property served two years as a school under James Abernethy, and Mr Evans, a tutor at Duntroon, the Sullivan family had lived in the area since the mid-1850s. Canberry Creek which ran through the property was renamed Sullivans Creek after William Sullivan, in 1913 the Sullivan family left the area after the government resumed their land in 1910. From 1913 until 1924 the farm was occupied by the Cox family, the Kaye family returned in 1924 until 1961, the family sold the farm assets once construction of Lake Burley Griffin began. The 115 acres of alluvial flats had a frontage to the Molonglo River to the south, Scotts Paddock on the West, the arable flats were valued at 30 pounds per acre