History of modern Greece
The history of modern Greece covers the history of Greece from the recognition of its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire by the Great Powers in 1828, after the Greek War of Independence, to the present day. The Byzantine Empire had ruled most of the Greek-speaking world since late Antiquity, but experienced a decline as a result of Muslim Arab and Seljuk Turkish invasions and was fatally weakened by the sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in 1204; the establishment of Catholic Latin states on Greek soil, the struggles of the Orthodox Byzantine Greeks against them, led to the emergence of a distinct Greek national identity. The Byzantine Empire was restored by the Palaiologos dynasty in 1261, but it was a shadow of its former self, constant civil wars and foreign attacks in the 14th century brought about its terminal decline; as a result, most of Greece became part of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th and early 15th century, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the conquest of the Duchy of Athens in 1458, of the Despotate of the Morea in 1460.
Ottoman control was absent in the mountainous interior of Greece, many fled there becoming brigands. Otherwise, only the islands of the Aegean and a few coastal fortresses on the mainland, under Venetian and Genoese rule, remained free from Ottoman rule, but by the mid-16th century, the Ottomans had conquered most of them as well. Rhodes fell in 1522, Cyprus in 1571, the Venetians retained Crete until 1670; the Ionian Islands were only ruled by the Ottomans, remained under the rule of Venice. The first large-scale insurrection against Ottoman rule was the Orlov Revolt of the early 1770s, but it was brutally repressed; the same time, however marks the start of the Modern Greek Enlightenment, as Greeks who studied in Western Europe brought knowledge and ideas back to their homeland, as Greek merchants and shipowners increased their wealth. As a result in the aftermath of the French Revolution and nationalist ideas began to spread across the Greek lands. In 1821, the Greeks rose up against the Ottoman Empire.
Initial successes were followed by infighting, which caused the Greek struggle to collapse. Greece was to be an autonomous state under Ottoman suzerainty, but by 1832, in the Treaty of Constantinople, it was recognized as a independent kingdom. In the meantime, the 3rd National Assembly of the Greek insurgents called upon Ioannis Kapodistrias, a former foreign minister of Russia, to take over the governance of the fledgling state in 1827. On his arrival, Kapodistrias launched a major reform and modernisation programme that covered all areas, he re-established military unity by bringing an end to the second phase of the civil war. Kapodistrias negotiated with the Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire to establish the borders and degree of independence of the Greek state. Furthermore, he tried to undermine the authority of the traditional clans that he considered the useless legacy of a bygone and obsolete era. However, he underestimated the political and military strength of the capetanei who had led the revolt against Ottoman Empire in 1821, who had expected a leadership role in the post-revolution Government.
When a dispute between the capetanei of Laconia and the appointed governor of the province escalated into an armed conflict, he called in Russian troops to restore order, because much of the army was controlled by capetanei, part of the rebellion. George Finlay's 1861 History of Greek Revolution records that by 1831 Kapodistrias's government had become hated, chiefly by the independent Maniots, but by the Roumeliotes and the rich and influential merchant families of Hydra and Psara; the customs dues of the inhabitants of Hydra were the chief source of revenue for these municipalities, they refused to hand these over to Kapodistrias. It appears that Kapodistrias had refused to convene the National Assembly and was ruling as a despot influenced by his Russian experiences; the municipality of Hydra instructed Admiral Miaoulis and Alexandros Mavrokordatos to go to Poros and seize the Hellenic Navy's fleet there. This Miaoulis did so with the intention of preventing a blockade of the islands, so for a time it seemed as if the National Assembly would be called.
Kapodistrias called on the British and French residents to support him in putting down the rebellion, but this they refused to do. Nonetheless, an Admiral Rikord took his ships north to Poros. Colonel Kallergis took a half-trained force of Greek Army regulars and a force of irregulars in support. With less than 200 men, Miaoulis was unable to make much of a fight.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed over time. Today the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan countries: Greece, North Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo, it covers 67,000 square kilometres and has a population of 4.76 million. Its oldest known settlements date back to 7,000 BC. From the middle of the 4th century BC, the Kingdom of Macedon became the dominant power on the Balkan Peninsula; the definition of Macedonia has changed several times throughout history. Prior to its expansion under Alexander the Great, the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, to which the modern region owes its name, lay within the central and western parts of the current Greek province of Macedonia and was consisted of 17 provinces/districts or eparchies. Expansion of Kingdom of Macedon: Kingdom of Perdiccas I: Macedonian Kingdom of Emathia consisting of six provinces Emathia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia and Almopia. Kingdom of Alexander I: All the above provinces plus the eastern annexations Crestonia and the western annexations Elimiotis and Lynkestis.
Kingdom of Philip II: All the above provinces plus the appendages of Pelagonia and Macedonian Paeonia to the north, Sintike and Edonis to the east and the Chalkidike to the south. In the 2nd century, Macedonia covered the area where it is considered to be today, but the northern regions of today Republic of North Macedonia were not identified as Macedonian lands. For reasons that are still unclear, over the next eleven centuries Macedonia's location was changed significantly; the Roman province of Macedonia consisted of what is today Northern and Central Greece, much of the geographical area of the present-day Republic of North Macedonia and southeast Albania. Put, the Romans created a much larger administrative area under that name than the original ancient Macedon. In late Roman times, the provincial boundaries were reorganized to form the Diocese of Macedonia, consisting of most of modern mainland Greece right across the Aegean to include Crete, southern Albania, parts of south-west Bulgaria and southern Republic of North Macedonia.
In the Byzantine Empire, a province under the name of Macedonia was carved out of the original Theme of Thrace, well east of the Struma River. This thema variously gave its name to the Macedonian dynasty. Hence, Byzantine documents of this era that mention Macedonia are most referring to the Macedonian thema; the region of Macedonia, on the other hand, ruled by the First Bulgarian Empire throughout the 9th and the 10th century, was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire in 1018 as the Themе of Bulgaria. With the gradual conquest of southeastern Europe by the Ottomans in the late 14th century, the name of Macedonia disappeared as an administrative designation for several centuries and was displayed on maps; the name was again revived to mean a distinct geographical region in the 19th century, defining the region bounded by Mount Olympus, the Pindus range, mounts Shar and Osogovo, the western Rhodopes, the lower course of the river Mesta and the Aegean Sea, developing the same borders that it has today.
During medieval and modern times, Macedonia has been known as a Balkan region inhabited by ethnic Greeks, Vlachs, Bulgarians and Turks. Today, as a frontier region where several different cultures meet, Macedonia has an diverse demographic profile. Macedonian Greeks self-identify culturally and regionally as "Macedonians", they form the majority of the region's population. They number 2,500,000 and, they live entirely in Greek Macedonia; the Greek Macedonian population is mixed, with other indigenous groups and with a large influx of Greek refugees descending from Asia Minor, Pontic Greeks, East Thracian Greeks in the early 20th century. This is due to the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, during which over 1.2 million Orthodox Christian refugees from Turkey were settled in Greece, 638,000 of whom were settled in the Greek province of Macedonia. Smaller Greek minorities exist in Bulgaria and the Republic of North Macedonia, although their numbers are difficult to ascertain. In official census results, only 86 persons declared themselves Greeks in Bulgarian Macedonia in 2011, out of a total of 1,379 in all Bulgaria.
Ethnic Macedonians self-identify as "Macedonians" in an ethnic sense as well as in the regional sense. They are the second largest ethnic group in the region; because of their Slavic origin they are known as "Macedonian Slavs" and "Slav Macedonians". They form the majority of the population in the Republic of North Macedonia where according to the 2002 census 1,300,000 people declared themselves as Macedonians. According to the latest Bulgarian census held in 2011, there are 561 people declaring themselves ethnic Macedonians in the Blagoevgrad Province of Bulgaria; the official number of ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria is 1,654. A small number of ethnic Macedonians exist among the Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia. There has not been a census in Greece on the question of mother tongue since 1951, when the census recorded 41,017 Slavic-speakers, mostly
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years in Greek culture. This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern-day Greece by the Persian Empire and its subsequent independence. Classical Greece had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and on the foundations of Western civilization. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought, scientific thought, theatre and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history. In the context of the art and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC; the Classical period in this sense follows the Greek Dark Ages and Archaic period and is in turn succeeded by the Hellenistic period. This century is studied from the Athenian outlook because Athens has left us more narratives and other written works than the other ancient Greek states. From the perspective of Athenian culture in Classical Greece, the period referred to as the 5th century BC extends into the 4th century BC. In this context, one might consider that the first significant event of this century occurs in 508 BC, with the fall of the last Athenian tyrant and Cleisthenes' reforms.
However, a broader view of the whole Greek world might place its beginning at the Ionian Revolt of 500 BC, the event that provoked the Persian invasion of 492 BC. The Persians were defeated in 490 BC. A second Persian attempt, in 481–479 BC, failed as well, despite having overrun much of modern-day Greece at a crucial point during the war following the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisium; the Delian League formed, under Athenian hegemony and as Athens' instrument. Athens' excesses caused several revolts among the allied cities, all of which were put down by force, but Athenian dynamism awoke Sparta and brought about the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. After both forces were spent, a brief peace came about. Athens was definitively defeated in 404 BC, internal Athenian agitations mark the end of the 5th century BC in Greece. Since its beginning, Sparta had been ruled by a diarchy; this meant. The two kingships were both hereditary, vested in the Eurypontid dynasty. According to legend, the respective hereditary lines of these two dynasties sprang from Eurysthenes and Procles, twin descendants of Hercules.
They were said to have conquered Sparta two generations after the Trojan War. In 510 BC, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow their king, the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy headed by Isagoras, but his rival Cleisthenes, with the support of the middle class and aided by democrats, took over. Cleomenes intervened in 508 and 506 BC, but could not stop Cleisthenes, now supported by the Athenians. Through Cleisthenes' reforms, the people endowed their city with isonomic institutions — equal rights for all citizens —and established ostracism; the isonomic and isegoric democracy was first organized into about 130 demes, which became the basic civic element. The 10,000 citizens exercised their power as members of the assembly, headed by a council of 500 citizens chosen at random; the city's administrative geography was reworked, in order to create mixed political groups: not federated by local interests linked to the sea, to the city, or to farming, whose decisions would depend on their geographical position.
The territory of the city was divided into thirty trittyes as follows: ten trittyes in the coastal region ten trittyes in the ἄστυ, the urban centre ten trittyes in the rural interior. A tribe consisted of three trittyes, selected at one from each of the three groups; each tribe therefore always acted in the interest of all three sectors. It was this corpus of reforms that allowed the emergence of a wider democracy in the 460s and 450s BC. In Ionia, the Greek cities, which included great centres such as Miletus and Halicarnassus, were unable to maintain their independence and came under the rule of the Persian Empire in the mid-6th century BC. In 499 BC that region's Greeks rose in the Ionian Revolt, Athens and some other Greek cities sent aid, but were forced to back down after defeat in 494 BC at the Battle of Lade. Asia Minor returned to Persian control. In 492 BC, the Persian general Mardonius led a campaign through Macedonia, he was victorious and again subjugated the former and conquered the latter, but he was wounded and forced to retreat back into Asia Minor.
In addition, a fleet of around 1,200 ships that accompanied Mardonius on the expedition was wrecked by a storm off the coast of Mount Athos. The generals Artaphernes and Datis led a successful naval expedition against the Aegean islands. In 490 BC, Darius the Great, having suppressed the Ionian cities, sent a Persian fleet to punish the Greeks, they landed in Attica intending to take Athens, but were defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a Greek army of 9,000 Athenian hoplites and 1,000 Plataeans led by the Athenian general Miltiades. The Persian fleet continued to Athens but, seeing it garrisoned, decided not to attempt an assault. In 480 BC, Darius' successor Xerxes I sent a much more powerful force of 300,000 by land, with 1,207 ships in supp
Venetian rule in the Ionian Islands
The Ionian Islands were an overseas possession of the Republic of Venice from the mid-14th century until the late 18th century. The conquest of the islands took place gradually; the first to be acquired was Cythera and the neighboring islet of Anticythera, indirectly in 1238 and directly after 1363. In 1386, Corfu voluntarily became part of Venice's colonies. Following a century, Venice captured Zante in 1485, Cephalonia in 1500 and Ithaca in 1503; the conquest was completed in 1718 with the capture of Lefkada. Each of the islands remained part of the Venetian Stato da Màr until Napoleon Bonaparte dissolved the Republic of Venice in 1797, annexing Corfu; the Ionian Islands are situated off the west coast of Greece. Cythera, the southernmost, is just off the southern tip of the Peloponnese and Corfu, the northernmost, is located at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea. In modern Greek, the period of Venetian rule over Greek territory is known as Venetokratia or Enetokratia and means "rule of the Venetians".
It is believed that the Venetian period on the Ionian Islands was agreeable compared with the coinciding Tourkokratia — Turkish rule over the remainder of present-day Greece. The governor of the Ionian Islands during the Venetian period was the Provveditore generale da Mar, who resided on Corfu. Additionally, each island's authorities were divided into the domestic authorities; the economy of the islands was based on exporting local goods raisins, olive oil and wine, whereas Venetian lira, the currency of Venice, was the currency of the islands. Some features of the culture of Venice were incorporated in the culture of the Ionian Islands, thus influencing to this day local music and language; the Italian language, for instance, introduced on the islands as the official language and was adopted by the upper class, is still popular today throughout the islands. Venice was founded in 421 after the destruction of nearby communities by the Huns and the Lombards. In the shifting Italian borders of the following centuries, Venice benefited from remaining under the control of the Roman Empire - as the furtherest Northwestern outpost of the now Constantinople centered power.
During Justinian I's reconquest of Italy from the Visigoths, Venice was an important stronghold for the Empire's Exarchate of Ravenna. The political centre of the exarchate, the most senior military officials of the Empire, were situated in Ravenna; the subordinate military officials who were their representatives in the Venetian lagoons were called tribunes, only in about AD 697 were the lagoons made a separate military command under a dux. Notwithstanding the election of the first Doge, vassalic evidence such as honours and orders received by the doge from the Emperor implies that Venice was considered part of the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Ravenna by the Lombards. Despite the Pax Nicephori, which recognised Venice as Byzantine territory, the influence of the Eastern Roman Emperor faded away. By 814 Venice functioned as a independent republic. So, Venice became a partner of the Empire and trading privileges were granted to it by the Emperors via treaties, such as the Byzantine–Venetian Treaty of 1082.
The Fourth Crusade was intended to invade Muslim-controlled areas. As Venice was one of the participants in the Crusade its relations with the Byzantine Empire were strained during this period. Moreover, by styling themselves "Lord of one-quarter and one-eighth of the whole Empire of Romania" after the Crusade, the Doges of Venice contributed to the deterioration of the relations between the two states. Efforts to improve relations, for example through the Nicaean–Venetian Treaty of 1219, proved unsuccessful. A period of friendly relations only followed the Sicilian Vespers in 1282, when Venice, foreseeing the fall of Charles, the French King of Sicily, began forming closer relations with Byzantium. Venice had been bound by an alliance with Charles against Byzantium in 1281; the Islands were referred both individually and collectively, by various names. After Venice captured Cephalonia on 24 December 1500, the administration of the defense of all the islands was delegated to an official seated in Corfu.
This official was being referred to as "the General Provveditore of the Three Islands" and resided at the fortress of Angelokastro from 1387 to the end of the 16th century. The Three Islands refer to Corfu and Cephalonia; the Venetian equivalent for "Ionian Islands" is Ixołe Jonie, the Italian being Isole Ionie and the Greek Ιόνια Νησιά in Modern Greek and Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι in Katharevousa. Below are the seven principal islands from north to south, including their Greek and Italian names in parentheses: Corfu Paxos Lefkada Cephalonia Ithaca Zante, see the long account here Cythera Cythera and Lefkada were additionally called Çuha Adası or Çuka Adası and Ayamavra by the Ottomans. During the Roman Empire, the Ionian Islands were variously part of the provinces of Achaea and Epirus vetus; these would form, with the exception of Cythera, the Byzantine theme of Cephallenia in the late 8th century. From the late 11th century, the Ionian Islands became a battleground in the Byzantine–Norman Wars; the island of Corfu was held by the Normans in 1081–1085 and 1147–1149, while
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
The Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria—hence known as the Quadruple Alliance —was one of the two main coalitions that fought World War I. It was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente; the Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1879. Despite having nominally joined the Triple Alliance before, Italy did not take part in World War I on the side of the Central Powers; the Central Powers consisted of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in 1914. In 1915, the Kingdom of Bulgaria joined the alliance; the name "Central Powers" is derived from the location of these countries. Finland and Lithuania joined them in 1918 before the war ended and after the Russian Empire collapsed The Central Powers were composed of the following nations: In early July 1914, in the aftermath of the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the immediate likelihood of war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, Kaiser Wilhelm II and the German government informed the Austro-Hungarian government that Germany would uphold its alliance with Austria-Hungary and defend it from possible Russian intervention if a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia took place.
When Russia enacted a general mobilization, Germany viewed the act as provocative. The Russian government promised Germany that its general mobilization did not mean preparation for war with Germany but was a reaction to the events between Austria-Hungary and Serbia; the German government regarded the Russian promise of no war with Germany to be nonsense in light of its general mobilization, Germany, in turn, mobilized for war. On 1 August, Germany sent an ultimatum to Russia stating that since both Germany and Russia were in a state of military mobilization, an effective state of war existed between the two countries; that day, France, an ally of Russia, declared a state of general mobilization. In August 1914, Germany waged war on Russia, the German government justified military action against Russia as necessary because of Russian aggression as demonstrated by the mobilization of the Russian army that had resulted in Germany mobilizing in response. After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war.
On 3 August 1914, Germany responded to this action by declaring war on France. Germany, facing a two-front war, enacted what was known as the Schlieffen Plan, that involved German armed forces needing to move through Belgium and swing south into France and towards the French capital of Paris; this plan was hoped to gain victory against the French and allow German forces to concentrate on the Eastern Front. Belgium would not accept German forces crossing its territory. Germany invaded the country to launch an offensive towards Paris; this caused Great Britain to declare war against the German Empire, as the action violated the Treaty of London that both nations signed in 1839 guaranteeing Belgian neutrality and defense of the kingdom if a nation reneged. Subsequently, several states declared war on Germany in late August 1914, with Italy declaring war on Austria-Hungary in 1915 and Germany on 27 August 1916, the United States declaring war on Germany on 6 April 1917 and Greece declaring war on Germany in July 1917.
EuropeUpon its founding in 1871, the German Empire controlled Alsace-Lorraine as an "imperial territory" incorporated from France after the Franco-Prussian War. It was held as part of Germany's sovereign territory. AfricaGermany held multiple African colonies at the time of World War I. All of Germany's African colonies occupied by Allied forces during the war. Cameroon, German East Africa, German Southwest Africa were German colonies in Africa. Togoland was a German protectorate in Africa. AsiaThe Kiautschou Bay concession was a German dependency in East Asia leased from China in 1898, it was occupied by Japanese forces following the Siege of Tsingtao. PacificGerman New Guinea was a German protectorate in the Pacific, it was occupied by Australian forces in 1914. German Samoa was a German protectorate following the Tripartite Convention, it was occupied by the New Zealand Expeditionary Force in 1914. Austria-Hungary regarded the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand as being orchestrated with the assistance of Serbia.
The country viewed the assassination as setting a dangerous precedent of encouraging the country's South Slav population to rebel and threaten to tear apart the multinational country. Austria-Hungary formally sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding a full-scale investigation of Serbian government complicity in the assassination, complete compliance by Serbia in agreeing to the terms demanded by Austria-Hungary. Serbia submitted to accept most of the demands, however Austria-Hungary viewed this as insufficient and used this lack of full compliance to justify military intervention; these demands have been viewed as a diplomatic cover for what was going to be an inevitable Austro-Hungarian declaration of war on Serbia. Austria-Hungary had
Names of the Greeks
The Greeks have been identified by many ethnonyms. The most common native ethnonym is "Hellen", pl. Hellenes; the mythological patriarch Hellen is the named progenitor of the Greek peoples. Among his descendants are mentioned the Graeci and the Makedones; the first Greek-speaking people, called Myceneans or Mycenean-Achaeans by historians, entered present-day Greece sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age. Homer refers to Achaeans as the dominant tribe during the Trojan war period dated to the 12th–11th centuries BC, using "Hellenes" to describe a small tribe in Thessaly; the Dorians, an important Greek-speaking group appeared at that time. According to the Greek tradition, the "Graeci" were renamed "Hellenes" with the establishment of the Great Amphictyonic League after the Trojan war; when the Romans first encountered Greek colonists in southern Italy, they used the name Graeci for the colonists and for all Greeks. The Persians used the name Yaunas after the Ionians, a Greek tribe who colonized part of the coasts of western Asia Minor.
The term was used in Hebrew, by the Turks. The word entered the languages of the Indian subcontinent as the Yona. A unique form is used in Georgian. By Late Antiquity, the Greeks referred to themselves as Graikoi and Rhomaioi/Romioi the latter of, used since all Greeks were Roman citizens after 212 CE; the term "Hellene" became applied to the followers of the polytheistic religion after the establishment of Christianity by Theodosius I. Most European languages, as well as other languages that have borrowed the name from one of them, use names for Greece that come from the Latin Graecia and Graecus, the name the Romans used for the Greeks, itself from the Greek Γραικός: In languages of Middle East and South and Central Asia, the common root is "yun" or "ywn", it is borrowed from the Greek name Ionia, a once Greek region of Asia Minor, the Ionians: The third form is "Hellas", used by a few languages around the world, including Greek: Other forms: Middle Persian: Laz: Xorumona Georgian: საბერძნეთი The first people speaking an ancient Proto-Greek language entered mainland Greece during the Neolithic period or the Bronze Age.
From the Ancient Greek dialects as they presented themselves centuries it seems that at least two migrations of Greeks followed, the first of the Ionians and the Aeolians in the 19th century BC and the second of the Dorians in the 13th century BC. The first migration resulted in Mycenean Greek, an archaic Greek language which appears in Linear B syllabic inscriptions and the second resulted in the Dorian dialect which displaced the Arcadocypriot dialect that seems to be closest to the Mycenean Greek; the Greeks called the autochthonous or Proto-Greek speaking people by the names: Pelasgians who have uncertain origins and lived in Thessaly and Epirus, Eteocretans who lived in Crete and Minyans who lived in Boeotia. The tribes called Aeolians and Ionians established several feudal kingdoms around Greece, the historians called them Myceneans after their most powerful kingdom Mycenea in Peloponnese, or Myceneans-Achaeans because in Homer the Achaeans were the dominating tribe in Greece and the name Achiyawa that appears in Hittite texts seems to correspond to a thalassocratic country which might be Mycenea.
Although Homer refers to a union of the Greek kingdoms under the leadership of the king of Mycenae during the Trojan War, there is no evidence that these kingdoms were dominated by a central power. Most of the Mycenean palaces were destroyed at the end of the 13th century BC; the Greek tradition relates this destruction to the Dorians, but it is suggested that the Dorian invasion was only one of the causes of the Bronze Age collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean, as there is no evidence that the newcomers established a different civilization. The destruction was followed by the Greek Dark Ages with poor archaeological findings, when most occupied areas were deserted, but some areas like Attica occupied by the Ionians remained untouched by the invaders. Several Greek tribes moved to regions of Greece where they acquired different names, population groups moved through the islands to the western coasts of Asia Minor where they kept their native names Aeolians and Dorians, it seems that the myth of Hellen, the patriarch of Hellenes was invented when the Greek tribes started to separate from each other, stressed their common origin.
The name "Hellenes" was used by the Greeks with the establishment of the Great Amphictyonic League, an ancient association of Greek tribes. According to legend it was founded after the Trojan War, by the eponymous Amphictyon, brother of Hellen, it had twelve founders and was organized to protect the great temples of Apollo in Delphi and of Demeter near Thermopylae. The twelve founders enumerated by Aeschines were the Aenianes or Oetaeans, the Boeotians of Thebes, the Dolopes, the Dorians of Sparta, the Ionians of Athens, the Phthian Achaeans, the Locrians (Opuntians, Ὀπούντιοι and