William Harding Jackson
William Harding Jackson was a U. S. civilian administrator, New York lawyer, investment banker who served as Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Jackson served under President Dwight D. Eisenhower as United States National Security Adviser from 1956 to 1957. William Harding Jackson was born on March 25, 1901 on the Belle Meade Plantation, in Belle Meade, Tennessee near Nashville, Tennessee, he was named after his father William Harding Jackson. His mother was Anne Davis Richardson.. Jackson attended the Fay School in Boston and St. Mark's School, an Episcopal Preparatory school in Southborough, Massachusetts, he received his undergraduate Bachelor of Arts degree from Princeton University and his LL. B. from Harvard Law School. In 1928, Jackson joined the New York law firm of Wickersham & Taft. In 1929 he became an Associate of Bobue & Clark. Following the stock market crash of 1929, Jackson moved to the business and financial interest law firm of Carter, Ledyard & Milburn, where he became a full partner in 1934.
During World War II, Jackson served in the United States Army as an intelligence officer, graduating from the Army-Air Force Air Combat Intelligence School at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He was assigned as an A-2 Assistant Intelligence officer, HQ 1st Bomber Command at 90 Church Street in New York, which became the USAAF Anti-Submarine Command. Jackson was the principal author of the USAAF Bay of Biscay Intelligence Estimate, calling for the attack on Nazi U-boats at their source on the coast of France; this was a significant turning point for the Battle of the Atlantic. After graduation from Harrisburg in June 1942, Jackson was promoted to Major and brought into the War Department by Secretary Henry L. Stimson, where he became General Staff with the cover title Chief of G-2 intelligence for 1st Army Group. After training on the Enigma codes at Bletchley Park, UK, he became the senior ULTRA SCIU team leader for all US armies in the ETO. Jackson achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel, was assigned by Gen. Hap Arnold to the planning staff of Brig. Gen. Harold George, who had just taken over the USAAF Air Transport Command.
He was listed as the Adjutant General for the ATC European Wing that ferried more than 7,000 U. S. aircraft to Britain during WW II. He received recognition for work rebuilding or expanding air fields in the United Kingdom for American aircraft and creating an expanded communications network for top secret secured communications. By summer of 1943, he was given the'cover title' Assistant Attache for Air, stationed at the US Embassy under Ambassador Gil Winant near Grosvenor Square, next to the Office of Strategic Services. Shortly thereafter he was promoted to full colonel and appointed G-2 intelligence chief at 1st Army Group headquarters in London's West End to work on Operation Bodyguard, the massive deception plan to make the Nazis believe the D-Day assault would come from Scandinavia in the north and at Pas-de-Calais under the command of Gen. George S. Patton, at the narrowest point of the English Channel, he worked with Gen. T. J. Betts, Deputy G-2 SHAEF and Colonel Edwin L. Sibert at Headquarters, 1st Army located in Bristol.
After the successful D-Day feint, Jackson was made head of all OSS X-2 Special Counter-Intelligence Units in the ETO, traveling with 12th Army Group's forward EAGLE TAC headquarters to Luxembourg on General Omar Bradley's staff. During the "Battle of the Bulge" in Dec-Jan 1945, on January 1, 1945 during the middle of heated battle, Jackson was named Deputy G-2 for all U. S. armies at 12th Army Group. Decorations—For service to his country and the people of Europe, Jackson was awarded the Bronze Star, the Legion of Merit with 1-OLC, the Belgian Croix de Guerre, he is believed to be the only US Army officer below the rank of general to receive both the French Legion of Honor and Croix de Guerre with Palm. Prior to discharge from the Army and OSS, Jackson was assigned the task of studying the British Secret Intelligence Service; the study took four months working in London with MI-5, MI-6 and Sir Anthony Eden to complete a report for Gen. Marshall and Gen. Donovan on June 14, 1945. On November 14, 1945 at the request of SecNav James Forrestal, William Harding Jackson submitted his own plan for a new central intelligence agency as an alternative to General Donovan's plan.
After World War II, Jackson resigned from Carter, Ledyard & Milburn to become an investment banker and the'Managing Partner' for J. H. Whitney & Co. of New York. In 1948, George F. Kennan proposed that control over the government's directorate for political warfare should be "answerable" to the Secretary of State, suggesting that "one man must be boss; some believe this started an inter-agency squabble over just "whom" would control intelligence among the military-industrial and civilian intelligence complex. National Security Council executive dir
The Oval Office is, since 1909, the working office space of the President of the United States, located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, D. C. Opened in 1909, the room features three large south-facing windows behind the president's desk, a fireplace at the north end, it has four doors: the east door opens to the Rose Garden. Presidents decorate the office to suit their personal taste, choosing new furniture, new drapery, designing their own oval-shaped carpet to take up most of the floor. Artwork is selected from the White House's own collection, or borrowed from museums for the president's term in office; the Oval Office has become associated in Americans' minds with the presidency itself through memorable images, such as a young John F. Kennedy, Jr. peering through the front panel of his father's desk, President Richard Nixon speaking by telephone with the Apollo 11 astronauts during their moonwalk, daughter Amy Carter bringing her Siamese cat Misty Malarky Ying Yang to brighten President Jimmy Carter's day.
Several presidents have addressed the nation from the Oval Office on occasion. Examples include Kennedy presenting news of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Nixon announcing his resignation from office, Ronald Reagan following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, George W. Bush in the wake of the September 11 attacks. In 2018, former White House stenographer Beck Dorey-Stein published a memoir about her years working for Obama called From the Corner of the Oval. George Washington never occupied the White House, he spent most of his presidency in Philadelphia, which served as the temporary national capital for 10 years, 1790–1800, while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In 1790, Washington built a large, two-story, semi-circular addition to the rear of the President's House in Philadelphia, creating a ceremonial space in which the public would meet the President. Standing before the three windows of this Bow Window, he formally received guests for his Tuesday afternoon audiences, delegations from Congress and foreign dignitaries, the general public at open houses on New Year's Day, the Fourth of July, his birthday.
Washington received his guests. The company, entering a front room and passing through an unfolding door, made their salutations to the President, turning off, stood on one side. President John Adams occupied the Philadelphia mansion beginning in March 1797, used the Bow Window in the same manner as his predecessor. Curved foundations of Washington's Bow Window were uncovered during a 2007 archaeological excavation of the President's House site, they are exhibited under glass at the President's House Commemoration, just north of the Liberty Bell Center. Architect James Hoban visited President Washington in Philadelphia in June 1792 and would have seen the Bow Window; the following month, he was named winner of the design competition for The White House. The "elliptic salon" at the center of the White House was the outstanding feature of Hoban's original plan. An oval interior space was a Baroque concept, adapted by Neoclassicism. Oval rooms became popular in eighteenth century neoclassical architecture.
In November 1800, John Adams became the first President to occupy the White House. He and his successor, President Thomas Jefferson, used Hoban's oval rooms in the same ceremonial manner that Washington had used the Bow Window, standing before the three windows at the south end to receive guests. During the 19th century, a number of presidents used the White House's second-floor Yellow Oval Room as a private office or library; the West Wing was the idea of President Theodore Roosevelt, brought about by his wife's opinion that the second floor of the White House shared between bedrooms and offices, should be just a domestic space. The one-story Executive Office Building was intended to be a temporary structure, for use until a permanent building was erected either on that site or elsewhere. Building it to the west of the White House allowed the removal of a vast, dilapidated set of pre-Civil War greenhouses, constructed by President James Buchanan. Roosevelt moved the offices of the executive branch to the newly constructed wing in 1902.
His workspace was a two-room suite of Executive Office and Cabinet Room, located just west of the present Cabinet Room. The furniture, including the president's desk, was designed by architect Charles Follen McKim and executed by A. H. Davenport and Company, of Boston. President William Howard Taft made the West Wing a permanent building, expanding it southward, doubling its size, building the first Oval Office. Designed by Nathan C. Wyeth and completed in 1909, the office was centered on the south side of the building, much as the oval rooms in the White House are. Taft intended it to be the hub of his administration, and, by locating it in the center of the West Wing, he could be more involved with the day-to-day operation of his presidency; the Taft Oval Office had simple Georgian Revival trim, was the most colorful in history. On December 24, 1929, during President Herbert Hoover's administration, a fire damaged the West Wing. Hoover used this as an opportunity to create more space, excavating a partial basement for additional offices.
He restored the Oval Office, installing air-conditioning. He replaced the furniture, which had undergone no major changes in twenty years. Dissatisfied with the size and layout of the West Wing, President Franklin D
Walt Whitman Rostow
Walt Whitman Rostow was an American economist and political theorist who served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to US President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1969. Prominent for his role in the shaping of US foreign policy in Southeast Asia during the 1960s, he was a staunch anti-communist, noted for a belief in the efficacy of capitalism and free enterprise supporting US involvement in the Vietnam War. Rostow is known for his book The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, used in several fields of social science, his older brother Eugene Rostow held a number of high government foreign policy posts. Rostow was born in New York City, to a Russian Jewish immigrant family, his parents and Victor Rostow, were active socialists, named Walt after Walt Whitman. His brother Eugene, named for Eugene V. Debs, became a legal scholar, his brother Ralph, after Ralph Waldo Emerson, a department store manager. Rostow entered Yale University at the age of 15 on a full scholarship, graduated at 19, completed his Ph.
D. there in 1940. He won a Rhodes Scholarship to study at Balliol College, where he completed a B. Litt. Degree. In 1936, during the Edward VIII abdication crisis, he assisted broadcaster Alistair Cooke, who reported on the events for the NBC radio network. After completing his education, he started teaching economics at Columbia University. During World War II, Rostow served in the Office of Strategic Services under William Joseph Donovan. Among other tasks, he participated in selecting targets for US bombardment. Nicholas Katzenbach joked: "I understand the difference between Walt and me I was the navigator, shot down and spent two years in a German prison camp, Walt was the guy picking my targets." In 1945 after the war, Rostow became assistant chief of the German-Austrian Economic Division in the United States Department of State in Washington, D. C. In 1946, he returned to Oxford as the Harold Vyvyan Harmsworth Professor of American History. In 1947, he became the assistant to the Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Europe, was involved in the development of the Marshall Plan.
Rostow spent a year at Cambridge University as the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions. He was professor of economic history at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1950 to 1961, a staff member of the Center for International Studies at MIT from 1951 to 1961. From late 1951 to August 1952, Rostow headed the Soviet Vulnerabilities Project; the project, sponsored by CIS and received significant support from the U. S. government, sought to identify Soviet vulnerabilities to political/psychological warfare, received contributions from top Sovietologist and psychological warfare specialists. In June 1955, Rostow headed a group of stalwart cold warriors called the Quantico Vulnerabilities Panel which issued a report advocating nuclear coercion toward the Soviet Union. Although the experts were invited by Nelson Rockefeller, their proposal ran contrary to the policy of the Eisenhower administration. In 1954, Rostow advised President Dwight Eisenhower on economic and foreign policy, in 1958 he became a speechwriter for him.
In August 1954, Rostow and fellow CIA-connected MIT economics professor Max F. Millikan convinced Eisenhower to massively increase US foreign aid for development as part of a policy of spreading American-style capitalist economic growth in Asia and elsewhere, backed by the military. While working as national security advisor, Rostow became involved in setting the United States' posture towards Israel. Although he supported military and economic assistance to Israel, Rostow believed that increased public alignment between the two states could run counter to US diplomatic and oil interests in the region. After reviewing the May 1967 report from the Atomic Energy Commission team that had inspected Dimona along with other intelligence, Rostow informed President Johnson that, though the team found no evidence of a nuclear weapons program, "there are enough unanswered questions to make us want to avoid getting locked in too with Israel." Concerns about Israel's nuclear program were tabled by the United States during the build-up to the Six-Day War and its aftermath.
Though Rostow and Secretary of State Dean Rusk tried to convince Israel not to resort to military force, they supported Israel once the war began. When the nuclear issue resurfaced in January 1968, just prior to Prime Minister Levi Eshkol's visit to the United States, Rostow recommended that the president make it clear that the United States expected Israel to sign the NPT. In 1960, Rostow published The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, which proposed the Rostovian take-off model of economic growth, one of the major historical models of economic growth, which argues that economic modernization occurs in five basic stages of varying length: traditional society, preconditions for take-off, take-off, drive to maturity, high mass consumption; this became one of the important concepts in the theory of modernization in social evolutionism. Rostow's thesis was criticized at the time and subsequently as universalizing a model of Western development that could not be replicated in places like Latin America or sub-Saharan Africa.
The book impressed presidential candidate John F. Kennedy, who appointed Rostow as one of his political advisers, sought his advice; when Kennedy became president in 1961, he appointed Rostow as deputy to his national security assistant McGeorge Bundy. That year, Rostow became Director of the State Department's Policy Planning Staff. After Kennedy's assassin
Executive Office of the President of the United States
The Executive Office of the President of the United States is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The EOP supports the work of the President, it consists of several offices and agencies, such as the White House Office, National Security Council or Office of Management and Budget. With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to address various fields of the modern day. There are about 4,000 positions in the Executive Office of the President, most of which do not require confirmation from the U. S. Senate; the budget for the EOP in FY 2017 was $714 million. The Executive Office is overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, since January 2, 2019 held by acting Chief of Staff, Mick Mulvaney, appointed by Donald Trump, the current and 45th President of the United States. In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created.
Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts, known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, created in 1921 and located in the Treasury Department, it absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council. The new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice, but it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors. Roosevelt's efforts are notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the 19th century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally.
It was not until 1857. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president", two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, there were thirty-one staff. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939 as he expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions. After World War II, in particular during the presidency of Dwight David Eisenhower, the staff was expanded and reorganized. Eisenhower, a former U. S. Army general, had been Supreme Allied Commander during the war, brought ideas of effective organization from that experience.
Today, the staff is much bigger. Estimates indicate some 3,000 to 4,000 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million. Senior staff within the EOP have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President; the core White House staff appointments, most EOP officials are not required to be confirmed by the U. S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions; the information in the following table is current as of April 4, 2018. Only principal executives are listed; the White House Office is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President. The various agencies of the EOP are listed above. Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations White House Records Office Executive Office of the President The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment and Congressional Oversight Congressional Research Service Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the Executive Office of the President of the United States Works by Executive Office of the President of the United States at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Executive Office of the President of the United States at Internet Archive
Gordon Gray (politician)
Gordon Gray was an official in the government of the United States during the administrations of Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower associated with defense and national security. Gordon Gray was born in Baltimore, the son of Bowman Gray Sr. and Nathalie Lyons Gray. He was married in 1938 to the former Jane Boyden Craige, they had four sons: Gordon Gray Jr. Burton C. Gray, C. Boyden Gray and Bernard Gray. After Jane's death, Gray married the former Nancy Maguire Beebe, his father Bowman, his uncle James A. Gray Jr. and his brother, Bowman Gray Jr. were all heads of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, his son, C. Boyden Gray, a graduate of Harvard and the University of North Carolina Law School, served as White House counsel for President George Herbert Walker Bush, his nephew, Lyons Gray a graduate of both North Carolina and Yale, is chief financial officer for the Environmental Protection Agency Gordon Gray attended Woodberry Forest School for high school. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1930, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity & the secretive, Order of Gimghoul.
He earned his law degree from Yale Law School in 1933 and practiced law for two years in New York City before returning to Winston-Salem. UNC presented Gray with an honorary law degree in 1949. Gray began his public life as a lawyer and was elected to the North Carolina General Assembly in 1939, 1941, 1947, representing Forsyth County, he entered the U. S. Army in 1942 as a private and rose to captain, serving in Europe with General Omar Bradley's forces. Gray's service to the federal government began with his appointment as President Harry S. Truman's assistant secretary of the army in 1947, he served in this post from 1949 until 1950. The following year he became director of the newly formed Psychological Strategy Board which planned for and coordinated government psychological operations, he was the second president of the Consolidated University of North Carolina, succeeding Frank Porter Graham in 1950. In 1954 Gray chaired a committee appointed by AEC chairman Lewis Strauss which recommended revoking Robert Oppenheimer's security clearance.
The Gray Board, as it was known, issued its split decision on May 27, 1954, with Gray and Thomas A. Morgan recommending the revocation, despite their finding that Oppenheimer was a "loyal citizen." Dr. Ward V. Evans, a conservative Republican and the third member of the board, saying that most of the allegations against Oppenheimer had been heard before, in 1947, when he had received his clearance. In the book American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer the chairmanship of Gray during the hearings was described as lacking. Gray had allowed that the prosecutors briefed the committee for a full week without representatives from the defendants being present. Moreover, Gray let the prosecutors use documents and testimonies that the defendants attorneys were denied access to, as well as material, obtained by illegal means such as unwarranted wiretaps; the authors called the Gray Board a "veritable kangaroo court in which the head judge accepted the prosecutors lead". Gray shocked proponents of public education in North Carolina when he said, in a November 1954 Founder's Day speech at Guilford College, that "if I had to make a choice between a complete system of publicly supported higher education or a complete system of private higher education, I would choose the latter as a greater safeguard of the things for which we live."
Less than a year Secretary of Defense Charles Erwin Wilson named Gray assistant secretary for international security affairs and Gray's brief career in academia was ended. President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him to head the Office of Defense Mobilization in 1957, where he served until the office's consolidation in 1958. Eisenhower appointed Gray his National Security Advisor from 1958 until 1961. On January 18, 1961, President Eisenhower awarded Gray the Presidential Medal of Freedom, he served on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board under Presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. In 1976, he was awarded the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award. From 1962 to 1963, Gray was head of the Federal City Council, a group of business, civic and other leaders interested in economic development in Washington, D. C. Gray was publisher of the Winston-Salem Journal, chairman of the board of Piedmont Publishing Company and chairman of the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
Inventory of the Office of President of the University of North Carolina: Gordon Gray Records, 1950-1955, in the University Archives, UNC-Chapel Hill. Papers of Gordon Gray, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Records of the White House Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Undersecretary of the Army biography Gordan Gray biography in Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army, United States Army Center of Military History; the American Presidency Project Gordon Gray Photograph Collection United States Army Heritage and Education Center, Pennsylvania
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag