The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA is alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones' metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
FRAZ: Frauenzeitung was a feminist magazine published in Switzerland from 1976 to 2009. It was one of the early feminist publications in German-speaking countries and was the first feminist magazine in Switzerland; the magazine was started in 1976 as the official organ of the Women's Liberation Movement. It was first named Fraue-Zitig, it appeared as an unaffiliated publication. The magazine was published quarterly and covered articles about politics and society; the headquarters of the magazine was located inZurich. FRAZ: Frauenzeitung was the recipient of the 2001 Equality Award by the city of Zurich. FRAZ: Frauenzeitung ceased publication in 2009 due to financial challenges; the last issue appeared in September 2009. List of magazines in Switzerland
Georgiy Prokopievich Basharin, March 21, 1912 - April 18, 1992) was a Sakha historian, public figure, an honorable scholar of the Sakha Republic and of the Russian Federation, the first Laureate of the A. E. Kulakovsky State Prize, Sakha Republic. Basharin was born in Sylan village, in the Yakutsk Oblast of the Russian Empire, in a large poor peasant family, he was introduced to literacy at the age of 17 during the illiteracy eradication campaign initiated by the Soviet state. In 1932 Basharin became a student of the Yakutsk Pedagogical College and transferred to the History department inside the newly established Yakutsk Pedagogical Institute. In 1937 he continued his education at the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. Upon his graduation, in 1938, Basharin returned to his homeland to teach at the Yakutsk Pedagogical Institute. On September 10, 1943, he defended his dissertation titled "The Three Yakut Realists-Enlighteners", which analyzed the lives and work of the founders of the Sakha national literature—Alexey Kulakovsky, Anempodist Sofronov, Nikolay Neustroev.
During Stalin's totalitarian era, these three enlighteners had been accused of bourgeois nationalism and their writings were prohibited. Basharin's dissertation, published as a separate book in 1944, became a scholarly triumph over erroneous political accusations of the founders and classics of Sakha literature; the history of its appearance and the political struggle that unfolded around it became the example of courage, fight for the historical truth and decency, defense of the national pride of the Sakha people and their best representatives. In 1949 Basharin has defended his doctoral dissertation"The History of Agrarian Relations in Yakutia" and became the first ethnic Sakha to obtain a doctoral degree, his dissertation was published as a book in 1956 and republished in two separate volumes in 2003. In 1952 Basharin was accused of "bourgeois nationalism" for rehabilitating the prohibited Sakha national writers, he was excluded from the Communist Party, deprived of his job. The accusations were dismissed in 1962.
Shortly after, Basharin defended his doctoral dissertation for the second time. After his name was cleared, Basharin worked as a dean of the History and Philology Department, a Professor of the Yakutsk State University, a researcher at the Yakutsk Institute of Humanitarian Studies known as Institute of Language and History. Basharin is the author of over 400 scholarly papers, he devoted his life to investigating key problems regarding the socio-cultural and political life of the Sakha republic, including: The history of Sakha literature. The origin and development of agriculture in the Sakha republic; the inclusion of Siberia and Sakha republic in its significance. He investigated and developed a theory of peaceful, voluntary joining of Yakutia to the Russian state; the origin and socio-cultural development of the Sakha people. The problems of historiography Three Yakut realists-enlighteners. – Yakutsk: Gosizdat YASSR, 1944 — 141p. Culture and public health in YASSR over a period of 20 years. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1944.
– 56 p. The history of agrarian relations in Yakutia – Moscow: Academy of Sciences of USSR, 1956. – 428 p. – Institute of History The historical significance of Yakutia becoming a part of Russian state. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1957 – 32 p. From the history of Yakuts adapting to the Russian agricultural tradition. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1958. – 52 p. The history of cattle-breeding in Yakutia in the second half of the 19th century to the beginning of 20th century. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1962. – 128 p. An overview of the historiography in prerevolutionary Yakutia. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1965. – 72 p. A. I. Sofronov. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1969. – 63 p. Social-political relations in Yakutia during the second half of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1970. – 216 p. Ostrovsky and Yakutia. – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1973. – 48 p. Several questions regarding the historiography of Siberia becoming a part of Russia – Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 1975.
– 135 p. The history of agriculture in Yakutia in 2 volumes. Volume 1: Harvesting grain and potato cultures. -- Yakutsk publishing house, 1989. – 350 p. The history of agriculture in Yakutia in 2 volumes. Volume 2: Vegetable growing. Technology of agriculture. Field-crop cultivation system. Social and economical importance of agriculture. Yakut publishing house, 1990. – 413 p. The historical fate of Kulakovsky's letter. Pp. 5 – 30. – In Kulakovsky, A. E. To Yakut intelligentsia. -- Yakut publishing house, 1992. Social and political conditions in Yakutia in 1921-1925. National publishing house "Bichik", 1996. – 317 p. In the union of free Russia. – Moscow: Art-Flex, 2002. – 383 p. The history of agrarian relations in Yakutia: Agrarian relations from ancient times to the 1770s. Volume 1. -- Moscow: Art-Flex, 2003. – 447 p. The history of agrarian relations in Yakutia: Agrarian crisis and agrarian movement in 18th to 19th centuries Volume II. Moscow: Art-Flex, 2003. – 519 p. Gabysheva, M. I. Platonova, K. I. Sleptsova, L.
E.. A Bibliography of the doctors of sciences of YSU: Georgiy Prokopyevich Basharin. – Yakutsk: Publishing House of Yakutsk State University, 1995. – 107 p. Dalan, V. S. My life and fate: Novel-esse. Yakutsk: Bichik, 2003. Ivanov, V. N. Contribution of Basharin into