Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Yang Chen-Ning or Yang Zhenning is a Chinese physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics. He and Tsung-dao Lee received the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on parity nonconservation of weak interaction; the two proposed that one of the basic quantum-mechanics laws, the conservation of parity, is violated in the so-called weak nuclear reactions, those nuclear processes that result in the emission of beta or alpha particles. The most important work of Yang is Yang-Mills theory. Yang was born in Hefei, China. Yang attended elementary school and high school in Beijing, in the autumn of 1937 his family moved to Hefei after the Japanese invaded China. In 1938 they moved to Kunming, where National Southwestern Associated University, was located. In the same year, as a second year student, Yang passed the entrance examination and studied at Lianda, he received his bachelor's degree in 1942, with his thesis on the application of group theory to molecular spectra, under the supervision of Ta-You Wu.
He continued to study graduate courses there for two years under the supervision of Wang Zhuxi, working on statistical mechanics. In 1944 he received his master's degree from Tsinghua University, which had moved to Kunming during the Sino-Japanese War. Yang was awarded a scholarship from the Boxer Indemnity Scholarship Program, set up by the United States government using part of the money China had been forced to pay following the Boxer Rebellion, his departure for the United States was delayed for one year, during which time he taught in a middle school as a teacher and studied field theory. From 1946, Yang studied with Edward Teller at the University of Chicago, where he received his doctorate in 1948, he remained at the University of Chicago for a year as an assistant to Enrico Fermi. In 1949 he was invited to do his research at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he began a period of fruitful collaboration with Tsung-Dao Lee, he was made a permanent member of the Institute in 1952, full professor in 1955.
In 1963, Princeton University Press published Elementary Particles. In 1965 he moved to Stony Brook University, where he was named the Albert Einstein Professor of Physics and the first director of the newly founded Institute for Theoretical Physics. Today this institute is known as the C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, he retired from Stony Brook University in 1999. In 2010, Stony Brook University honored Yang's contributions to the university by naming its newest dormitory building C. N. Yang Hall, he has been elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Academia Sinica, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society. He was awarded honorary doctorate degrees by Princeton University, Moscow State University, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Yang visited the Chinese mainland in 1971 for the first time after the thaw in China–US relations, has subsequently made great efforts to help the Chinese physics community rebuild the research atmosphere, destroyed by the radical political movements during the Cultural Revolution.
After retiring from Stony Brook he returned as an honorary director of Tsinghua University, where he is the Huang Jibei-Lu Kaiqun Professor at the Center for Advanced Study. He is one of the two Shaw Prize Founding Members and is a Distinguished Professor-at-Large at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Yang married Chih-li Tu, a teacher, in 1950 and has two sons and a daughter with her: Franklin Jr. Gilbert and Eulee, his father-in-law was a Kuomintang General Du Yuming. Some scholars suspect that Du was promoted to a high-ranking position in Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in order to convince Yang to return to China after seeking refuge in the US. After Tu died in the winter of 2003, Yang married the 28-year-old Weng Fan in December 2004. Yang became a U. S. citizen in 1964. He now resides in China, he was granted permanent residency in China in 2004, he renounced his U. S. citizenship as of Sep 2015 and reclaimed his Chinese citizenship. On Yang's religious views, he is an agnostic.
Yang has worked on statistical mechanics, condensed matter theory, particle physics and quantum field theory. At The University of Chicago, Yang first spent twenty months working in an accelerator lab, but he found he was not as good as an experimentalist and switched back to theory, his doctoral thesis was about anglular distribution in nucleon reactions. He worked on particle phenomenology. In 1956, he and Tsung Dao Lee proposed that in the weak interaction the parity symmetry was not conserved, Chien-shiung Wu's team at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington experimentally verified the theory. Yang and Lee received the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for their parity violation theory. Yang has worked on neutrino theory with Tsung Dao Lee, 1957, 1959, CT nonconservation, electromagnetic interaction of vector mesons, CP nonconservation. Yang is well known for his collaboration with Robert Mills in developing non Abelian gauge theory known as the Yang-Mills theory. Subsequently, in the last three decades, many other prominent scientists have developed key breakthroughs to what is now known as gauge theo
Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. An Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters, an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, the Inspector General of Military Training. In the mid-19th century, Japan had no unified national army and the country was made up of feudal domains with the Tokugawa shogunate in overall control, which had ruled Japan since 1603; the bakufu army, although large force, was only one among others, bakufu efforts to control the nation depended upon the cooperation of its vassals' armies.
The opening of the country after two centuries of seclusion subsequently led to the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War in 1868. The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate. On 27 January 1868, tensions between the shogunate and imperial sides came to a head when Tokugawa Yoshinobu marched on Kyoto, accompanied by a 15,000-strong force consisting of troops, trained by French military advisers, they were opposed by 5,000 troops from the Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa domains. At the two road junctions of Toba and Fushimi just south of Kyoto, the two forces clashed. On the second day, an Imperial banner was given to the defending troops and a relative of the Emperor, Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was named nominal commander in chief, in effect making the pro-imperial forces an Imperial army; the bafuku forces retreated to Osaka, with the remaining forces ordered to retreat to Edo. Yoshinobu and his closest advisors left for Edo by ship; the encounter at Toba–Fushimi between the imperial and shogunate forces marked the beginning of the conflict.
With the court in Kyoto behind the Satsuma-Chōshū-Tosa coalition, other domains that were sympathetic to the cause—such as Tottori and Hizen —emerged to take a more active role in military operations. Western domains that had either supported the shogunate or remained neutral quickly announced their support of the restoration movement; the nascent Meiji state required a new military command for its operations against the shogunate. In 1868, the "Imperial Army" being just a loose amalgam of domain armies, the government created four military divisions: the Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, San'indō, Hokurikudō, each of, named for a major highway. Overseeing these four armies was a new high command, the Eastern Expeditionary High Command, whose nominal head was prince Arisugawa-no-miya, with two court nobles as senior staff officers; this connected the loose assembly of domain forces with the imperial court, the only national institution in a still unformed nation-state. The army continually emphasized its link with the imperial court: firstly.
To supply food and other supplies for the campaign, the imperial government established logistical relay stations along three major highways. These small depots held stockpiled material supplied by local pro-government domains, or confiscated from the bafuku and others opposing the imperial government. Local villagers were impressed as porters to move and deliver supplies between the depots and frontline units; the new army fought under makeshift arrangements, with unclear channels of command and control and no reliable recruiting base. Although fighting for the imperial cause, many of the units were loyal to their domains rather than the imperial court. In March 1869, the imperial government created various administrative offices, including a military branch; the imperial court told the domains to restrict the size of their local armies and to contribute to funding a national officers' training school in Kyoto. However, within a few months the government disbanded both the military branch and the imperial bodyguard: the former was ineffective while the latter lacked modern weaponry and equipment.
To replace them, two new organizations were created. One was the military affairs directorate, composed of two bureaus, one for the army and one for the navy; the directorate drafted an army from troop contributions from each domain proportional to each domain's annual rice production. This conscript army integrated samurai and commoners from various domains into its ranks; as the war continued, the military affairs directorate expected to raise troops from the wealthier domains and, in June, the organization of the army was fixed, where each domain was required to send ten men for each 10,000 koku of rice produced. However, this policy put the imperial government in direct competition with the domains for military recruitment, not rectified until April 1868, when the government banned the domains from enlisting troops; the quota system never worked as intended an
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. It covers 11,819 km2 and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west and Zhuzhou to the south and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population. It is part of megalopolis. Changsha is located in the Xiang River valley plain, bordering on Luoxiao Mountains on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan Mountains, it has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate, with an average annual air temperature of 16.8 to 17.3 °C and an annual rainfall of 1,358.6 to 1,552.5 mm. Changsha has a history of more than 3,000 years. Changsha was the capital of Changsha State in the Han Dynasty, the capital of the Chu State in the Ten Kingdoms period; the lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from Mawangdui there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions.
In 1904, Changsha was opened to foreign trade, large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism, it was the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War and was occupied by the Japanese. Changsha is now an important commercial and transportation centre; the origins of the name "Changsha" in unknown. The name first appears in the 11th century BC, during the reign of King Cheng of the Zhou dynasty: a vassal lord from the Changsha area sent a type of softshell turtle known as "Changsha softshell turtle" to the Zhou king as a tribute. In the 2nd century AD, historian Ying Shao wrote that the Qin dynasty use of the name Changsha for the area was a continuance of its old name. Development started around 3000 BC when Changsha developed with the proliferation of Longshan culture, although there is no firm evidence of such a link. Despite this and bronze ware have been discovered. In the Central Plain region during the Zhou and Shang dynasties and Huangdi in regards to their relationship between the Central Plains, paid a visit.
Sima Qian writes in his Records of the Grand Historian "Huangdi, loving his Shaohao, gave him a parcel of land, an area amounted to Changsha and surrounding land." Evidence exists that people thrived in the area during the Bronze Age. Numerous examples of pottery and other objects have been discovered. Eastern Zhou's collapse swept in turmoil with the Autumn Period; the Yue culture spread and took a stronghold through the region through Changsha. During the height of the Warring States Period, the Chu Kingdom took a hardline nationalist and reform approach and took a large-scale military operations in South China. Chu Kingdom took control of Changsha and turned the city into an important part of the southern part of Chu. After years of war and occupation, Changsha replaced Yue culture with Chu culture. In 1951-1957, archaeologists explored numerous large and medium-sized Chu tombs from the warring states era. More than 3,000 tombs have been discovered; the city is sometimes called Qingyang in Warring States period texts.
Changsha transformed into the Changsha Kingdom. It existed as a fiefdom under the tutelage of the Qin and the Han dynasty. Under the Qin dynasty, it became a staging post for Qin expeditions into Guangdong province. By 202 BC, it was a fortified city. During the Han dynasty, it was the capital of Changsha Kingdom, an imperial fiefdom of the Han. From Han times, it was the seat of the Changsha commandery; the county was renamed back Changsha in 589 During the Han dynasty the Mawangdui tombs were constructed between 186 and 165 BC. The earliest tomb, when excavated in the 1970s, was seen to have preserved the corpse of Lady Xin Zhui in a good condition. Found in the tomb were the earliest versions of the Dao De Jing, the main text of Taoism, among many other historical documents. With the collapse of the Han dynasty, China fell into turmoil amidst of the rise of the Three Kingdoms; the power base of Changsha fragmented into three factions. Changsha soon fell under control of the Jin dynasty. Emperor Wudi appointed the governor to be the sixth son of a general Sima Yi.
The local government had over 100 counties at the beginning of the dynasty. Over the course of the dynasty, the local government of Changsha lost control over a few counties, leaving them to local rule. In 589, the Sui dynasty emerged as the sole power in China; this emergence ended the northern and Southern dynasties era and reunified China once again under one government. With the emergence of the Sui dynasty, Changsha was renamed to the name of Tanzhou. In addition, a new form of government was reintroduced. Changsha's 3-tier division system was changed to a 2-tier state and county system, eliminating the middle canton region; this new system is a significant improvement for efficiency. The existing counties in the Hunan region, including Changsha, were either outright replaced or restructured; some of the new counties created, such as Wangcheng, Liling still exist to this day. Neighboring town such as Xiangtan have experienced such restructure of counties that still exist to this day. Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty brought new peace to Changsha.
The city bec
Tsinghua University is a major research university in Beijing, a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. Since its establishment in 1911, it has graduated numerous Chinese leaders in politics, business and culture. Reflecting its motto of Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, Tsinghua University is dedicated to academic excellence, advancing the well-being of Chinese society, global development. Tsinghua is perennially ranked as one of the top academic institutions in China and worldwide, was recognized as the 14th best university in the 2017 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings. Since 2015, Tsinghua has been ranked as the best engineering and computer science school in the world based on factors including total research output and performance. Tsinghua is a Class A institution in the Double First Class University Plan. Tsinghua University was established in Beijing, during a tumultuous period of national upheaval and conflicts with foreign powers which culminated in the Boxer Rebellion, an anti-imperialist uprising against foreign influence in China.
After the suppression of the revolt by a foreign alliance including the United States, the ruling Qing dynasty was required to pay indemnities to alliance members. US Secretary of State John Hay suggested that the US$30 million Boxer indemnity allotted the United States was excessive. After much negotiation with Qing ambassador Liang Cheng, US President Theodore Roosevelt obtained approval from the United States Congress in 1909 to reduce the indemnity payment by US$10.8 million, on the condition that the funds would be used as scholarships for Chinese students to study in the United States. Using this fund, the Tsinghua College was established in Beijing, on 29 April 1911 on the site of a former royal garden to serve as a preparatory school for students the government planned to send to the United States. Faculty members for sciences were recruited by the YMCA from the United States, its graduates transferred directly to American schools as juniors upon graduation; the motto of Tsinghua, Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, was derived from a 1914 speech by prominent scholar and faculty member Liang Qichao, in which he quoted the I Ching to describe a notion of the ideal gentleman.
In 1925, the school established its own four-year undergraduate program and started a research institute on Chinese studies. In 1928, Tsinghua changed its name to National Tsing Hua University. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, many Chinese universities were forced to evacuate their campuses to avoid the Japanese invasion. In 1937, Tsinghua University, along with neighboring Peking University and Nankai University, merged to form the Changsha Temporary University in Changsha, which became the National Southwestern Associated University in Kunming, Yunnan province. With the surrender of occupying Japanese forces at the end of World War II, Tsinghua University resumed operations in Beijing. After the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, China experienced a communist revolution leading to the creation of the People's Republic of China. Tsinghua University President Mei Yiqi, along with many professors, fled to Taiwan with the retreating Nationalist government, they established the National Tsing Hua Institute of Nuclear Technology in 1955, which became the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, an institution independent and distinct from Tsinghua University.
In 1952, the Communist Party of China regrouped the country's higher education institutions in an attempt to build a Soviet style system where each institution specialized in a certain field of study, such as social sciences or natural sciences. Tsinghua University was streamlined into a polytechnic institute with a focus on engineering and the natural sciences. From 1966 to 1976, China experienced immense sociopolitical upheaval and instability during the Cultural Revolution. Many university students walked out of classrooms at Tsinghua and other institutions, some went on to join the Red Guards, resulting in the complete shutdown of the university as faculty were persecuted or otherwise unable to teach, it was not until 1978, after the Cultural Revolution ended, that the university began to take in students and re-emerge as a force in Chinese politics and society. In the 1980s, Tsinghua evolved beyond the polytechnic model and incorporated a multidisciplinary system emphasizing collaboration between distinct schools within the broader university environment.
Under this system, several schools have been re-incorporated, including Tsinghua Law School, the School of Economics and Management, the School of Sciences, the School of Life Sciences, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the School of Public Policy and Management, the Academy of Arts and Design. In 1996, the School of Economics and Management established a partnership with the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One year Tsinghua and MIT began the MBA program known as the Tsinghua-MIT Global MBA. In 1997, Tsinghua became the first Chinese university to offer a Master of Laws program in American law, through a cooperative venture with the Temple University Beasley School of Law. Since resuming operations in 1978, Tsinghua University has re-established itself among the most elite Chinese universities, it is affiliated with the C9 League and it has been selected to participate in the Double First Class University Plan. Most national and international university rankings place Tsinghua among the best universities in Greater China and worldwide.
Tsinghua alumni include the current General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Paramount Leader of China, Xi Jinping'79, who graduated with a degree in c
Peking University is a major research university in Beijing, a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. The first modern national university established in China, it was founded during the late Qing Dynasty in 1898 as the Imperial University of Peking and was the successor of the Guozijian, or Imperial College; the university's English name retains the older transliteration of "Beijing", superseded in most other contexts. Throughout its history, Peking University has played an important role "at the center of major intellectual movements" in China. Starting from the early 1920s, the university became a center for China's emerging progressive movements. Faculty and students held important roles in originating the New Culture Movement, the May Fourth Movement protests, other significant cultural and sociopolitical events, to the extent that the university's history has been tied to that of modern China. Peking University has educated and hosted many prominent modern Chinese figures, including Mao Zedong, Lu Xun, Gu Hongming, Hu Shi, Mao Dun, Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, the current Premier Li Keqiang.
As of 2018, Peking University is ranked as one of the two top academic institutions in China, along with nearby Tsinghua University. It is among the most selective universities for undergraduate admissions in China and hosts one of the only undergraduate liberal arts colleges in Asia, it is a Class A institution under the national Double First Class University program. Peking University's faculty includes 76 members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 members of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 25 members of the World Academy of Sciences. Peking University Library is one of the largest libraries in the world with over 8 million volumes; the university operates the PKU Hall, a professional performing arts centers, the Arthur M. Sackler Museum of Arts and Archaeology. Peking University's affiliated Founder Corporation is the largest university-affiliated company in China, with total assets valued at 239.3 billion renminbi as of 2016. Peking University is renowned for its campus grounds and the beauty of its traditional Chinese architecture.
From its establishment on July 3, 1898, the school was known as the Imperial University of Peking. The school was established to replace the Taixue the Guozijian, or Imperial College, as part of the Hundred Days' Reform initiated by Emperor Guangxu. Liang Qichao drafted the University's organising regulations; the university was authorised to supervise all provincial schools. Sun Jianai, who served as the minister of the Ministry of Personnel under the Qing court, was appointed to manage the university. Recommended by Li Hongzhang, Emperor Guangxu appointed American missionary William Alexander Parson Martin to serve as the dean of Department of Western Learning. Emperor Guangxu's reform initiatives were intensely opposed by powerful conservatives of the Qing court. On Sep 21,1898, Empress Dowager Cixi, with support from conservatives, abruptly ended the Hundred Days' Reform and put Guangxu under house arrest at the Summer Palace. Cixi's coup d'état was followed by immediate rescinding of all policies and laws enacted by Guangxu and his reform-minded supporters, the Imperial University of Peking was the only part of the reform that survived.
In 1900, the university was paralyzed by the Boxer Rebellion in the year, the "Eight-Power Allied Forces" （八国联军）entered Beijing and the university's operating was continually suspended. In 1902, "Jingshitongwenguan", a school established by the Qing court in 1862 for foreign language learning was incorporated into the Imperial University of Peking. In 1904, the university sent 47 students to study abroad, which marked the first time for Chinese higher education institution to send students to foreign countries. Following the Xinhai Revolution, the Imperial University of Peking was renamed "Government University of Peking" in 1912 and "National University of Peking" in 1919; the noted scholar Cai Yuanpei was appointed president on January 4, 1917, helped transform Peking University into the country's largest institution of higher learning, with 14 departments and an enrollment of more than 2,000 students. President Cai, inspired by the German model of academic freedom, introduced faculty governance and democratic management to the university.
Cai recruited an intellectually diverse faculty that included some of the most prominent figures in the progressive New Culture Movement, including Hu Shih, Liu Banlong, Ma Yinchu, Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, Lu Xun and Liang Shuming. Meanwhile, leading conservatives Gu Hongming and Huang Kan taught at the university. A firm supporter for freedom of thought, Cai advocated for educational independence and resigned several times protesting the government's policy and interference. On May 1, 1919, some students of Peking University learned that the Treaty of Versailles would allow Japan to receive Germany's colonising rights in Shandong province. An assembly at Peking University that included these students and representatives from other universities in Beijing was organised. On May 4, students from thirteen universities marched to Tiananmen to protest the terms of Treaty of Versailles, demanded the Beiyang government to refuse to sign the treaty. Demonstrators demanded the immediate resignation of three officials: Cao Rulin, Minister of the Ministry of Transportation, Zhang Zongxiang, China's Ambassador to Japan and Lu Zongyu, Minister of Currency, who they believed were in cooperation with Japanese.
The protest ended up