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National Transportation Safety Board

The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent U. S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes and marine accidents, pipeline incidents, railroad accidents; when requested, the NTSB will assist the military and foreign governments with accident investigation. The NTSB is in charge of investigating cases of hazardous materials releases that occur during transportation; the agency is based in Washington, D. C, it has four regional offices located in Alaska. The agency operates a national training center at its Ashburn facility; the origin of the NTSB was in the Air Commerce Act of 1926, which assigned the United States Department of Commerce responsibility for investigating domestic aviation accidents. Before the NTSB, the FAA independence was questioned as it was investigating itself and would be biased to find external faults, coalescing with the 1931 crash killing Notre Dame coach Knute Rockne.

The USA's first "independent" Air Safety Board was established in 1938: it lasted only fourteen months. In 1940, this authority was transferred to the Civil Aeronautics Board's newly formed Bureau of Aviation Safety. In 1967, Congress created a separate cabinet-level Department of Transportation, which among other things established the Federal Aviation Administration as an agency under the DOT. At the same time, the NTSB was established as an independent agency which absorbed the Bureau of Aviation Safety's responsibilities. However, from 1967 to 1975, the NTSB reported to the DOT for administrative purposes, while conducting investigations into the Federal Aviation Administration a DOT agency. To avoid any conflict, Congress passed the Independent Safety Board Act, on April 1, 1975, the NTSB became a independent agency; as of 2015, the NTSB has investigated over 140,000 aviation incidents and several thousand surface transportation incidents. Formally, the "National Transportation Safety Board" refers to a five-manager investigative board whose five members are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate for five-year terms.

No more than three of the five members may be from the same political party. One of the five board members is nominated as the Chairman by the President and approved by the Senate for a fixed 2-year term; this board is authorized by Congress under Chapter 11, Title 49 of the United States Code to investigate civil aviation, marine and railroad accidents and incidents. This five-member board is authorized to establish and manage separate sub-offices for highway, aviation, railroad and hazardous materials investigations. Collectively, "National Transportation Safety Board", the "Safety Board" or "NTSB" is used to refer to the entire investigative agency established and managed by this five-member board; as of 2017, Robert Sumwalt is chairman of the NTSB. Since its creation, the NTSB's primary mission has been "to determine the probable cause of transportation accidents and incidents and to formulate safety recommendations to improve transportation safety". Based on the results of investigations within its jurisdiction, the NTSB issues formal safety recommendations to agencies and institutions with the power to implement those recommendations.

The NTSB considers safety recommendations to be its primary tool for preventing future civil transportation accidents. However, the NTSB does not have the authority to enforce its safety recommendations. Robert L. Sumwalt Bruce Landsberg Jennifer Homendy Michael Graham Thomas B. Chapman The NTSB is the lead agency in the investigation of a civil transportation accident or incident within its sphere. An investigation of a major accident within the United States starts with the creation of a "go team," composed of specialists in fields relating to the incident who are deployed to the incident location; the "go team" can have as few as three people or as many as a dozen, depending on the nature of the incident. Following the investigation, the agency may choose to hold public hearings on the issue, it will publish a final report which may include safety recommendations based on its findings. The NTSB has no legal authority to implement or impose its recommendations, which must be implemented by regulators at either the federal or state level or individual transportation companies.

Aviation The NTSB has primary authority to investigate every civil aviation accident in the United States. For certain accidents, due to resource limitations, the Board will ask the FAA to collect the factual information at the scene of the accident. Surface Transportation The NTSB has the authority to investigate all highway accidents and incidents, including incidents at railway grade crossings, "in cooperation with a State"; the NTSB has primary jurisdiction over railway accidents and incidents which result in death or significant property damage, or which involve a passenger train. Marine For marine investigations, jurisdiction into investigations is divided between the NTSB and the U. S. Coast Guard; the division of investigative jurisdiction and responsibilities is prescribed in a detailed Memorandum of Understanding between the two agencies. Pipeline The NTSB has primary jurisdiction over pipeline inci

Emei Shan liocichla

The Emei Shan liocichla is a passerine bird in the Leiothrichidae family. The species known as the Omei Shan or grey-faced liocichla, is endemic to mountain ranges in Southern Sichuan, China, it is related to the Bugun liocichla, a species only described in 2006, which it resembles. The Emei Shan liocichla is an olive-grey coloured bird with red wing patches; the plumage on the face is grey with a slight red ring on each side of the face. The species feeds in the undergrowth of semi-tropical rainforest, it is an altitudinal migrant, spending the summer months above 1000 m and moving below 600m in the winter. The Emei Shan liocichla is considered vulnerable by the IUCN, it is threatened by habitat loss through logging and conversion to agriculture. Some populations are protected inside reserves, such as the Emei Shan Protected Scenic Site. Birdlife International Bugun Liocichla: a sensational discovery in north-east India Downloaded from on 12/9/2006 BirdLife International Species factsheet: Liocichla omeiensis.

Downloaded from on 12/9/2006 Collar, N. J. & Robson C. 2007. Family Timaliidae pp. 70 – 291 in. A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 12. Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Image at ADW

Sputnik 2

Sputnik 2, or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika. Laika didn't survive any orbit, she died a few hours after the launch. Launched by the U. S. S. R. Sputnik 2 was a 4 meters high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 meters that weighed around 500 kg, though it was not designed to separate from the rocket core that brought it to orbit, bringing the total mass in orbit to 7.79 tonnes. It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature-control system for the cabin, scientific instruments. A separate sealed cabin contained the dog Laika. Engineering and biological data were transmitted using the Tral D telemetry system, transmitting data to Earth for a 15-minute period during each orbit. Two photometers were on board for measuring cosmic rays. A 100 line television camera provided images of Laika.

Sputnik 2 was launched into space only 32 days after its predecessor Sputnik 1. Due to the huge success of Sputnik 1, Nikita Khrushchev ordered Sergei Korolev back to work creating a Sputnik 2 that needed to be ready for space for the 40th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution; the plan for Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 was initiated and presented by Korolev, was approved in January 1957. At that time, it was not clear that the Soviets' main satellite plan would be able to get to space because of the ongoing issues with the R-7 ICBM, which would be needed to launch a satellite of that size. "Korolev proposed substituting two'simple satellites' for the IGY satellite". The choice to launch these two instead of waiting for the more advanced Sputnik 3 to be finished was motivated by the desire to launch a satellite to orbit before the US. Sputnik 2, known to Korolev's design bureau as "Prosteyshiy Sputnik-2", meaning "Simple Satellite 2", was launched into a 212 × 1,660 km orbit with a period of 103.7 minutes on a modified ICBM R-7, similar to the one used to launch Sputnik 1.

Sputnik 2's launch vehicle had several modifications for the mission. These included modifying the launch trajectory to utilize propellant more efficiently and removing some flight control components to reduce weight. In addition, the core stage would be burned to propellant depletion instead of cutting off at a preset time; the telemetry system at engine cutoff would be switched from monitoring the booster's parameters to those of the capsule. It was designed to only transmit data for ten minutes at a time every 90 minutes, so as to prevent battery power from being used up sending data while the spacecraft was out of range of Soviet tracking stations; the interstage section between the booster and capsule was polished and equipped with thermal blankets so as to reflect off sunlight and keep the latter cool. A braking nozzle was added to the core stage to prevent it from tumbling in orbit. Several RD-107 engines were test-fired, with the best-performing units being selected for use on Sputnik 2's booster.

The launch vehicle arrived at Baikonur on 22 October, along with various parts of the capsule. On 1 November, the booster was erected on LC-1. Ten dogs were considered for the mission, with the final selection being narrowed down to three, Laika being the flight animal, Albina the backup, Muhka used to test equipment. Liftoff took place at about 17:30 Moscow time on 3 November. Booster performance was nominal and the command to terminate core stage thrust was issued at T+297 seconds, just as onboard sensors detected LOX depletion; the booster and capsule entered a 225 × 1,671 km orbit at a 65° inclination. During the first two orbits, it proved difficult to reliably track Sputnik 2's flight path, but ground controllers were able to intercept theodolite data from an American tracking station in Perth, Australia. Data showed that Laika's heart rate and breathing spiked during ascent, but she otherwise reached orbit unscathed. Official Soviet press releases stated that Laika survived a week in orbit, but information released in the post-Soviet era indicated that she died only a few hours into the mission.

Other sources suggested it had been four days before the dog succumbed to overheating and carbon dioxide buildup. Telemetry data indicated that Laika's vital signs were normal for the first three orbits, but during the fourth orbit, the cabin temperature rose to 43 °C followed by movements of the dog. Data received on the second day showed no signs of breathing, heart rate, or blood pressure, but the cardio sensor was still registering a heart beat. By the morning of 6 November, there were no signs of life in the capsule. On 10 November, the batteries in the spacecraft ran out and all data transmission ceased, after 150 separate telemetry sessions. Sputnik 2 reentered the atmosphere on 14 April 1958 after about 2500 orbits. Reentry was sighted from the east coast of the United States and surviving debris impacted in the Amazon region of South America; the flight sparked considerable ethical debate about cruelty to animals, as Laika had been launched with the full knowledge that she could not be recovered and may have suffered a quite unpleasant death from panic and overheating, some Soviet space program officials felt sorry about her.

An anonymously-written poem criticizing the mission and t

Zygmunt Noskowski

Zygmunt Noskowski was a Polish composer and teacher. Noskowski was born in Warsaw and was trained at the Warsaw Conservatory studying violin and composition with Stanisław Moniuszko, graduated with distinction in 1867. A scholarship enabled him to travel to Berlin where between 1872 and 1875, he studied with Friedrich Kiel, one of Europe’s leading teachers of composition. After holding several positions - kapellmeister and conductor of the Bodan Choral Society in Konstanz, Noskowski returned to Warsaw in 1880 where he remained for the rest of his life, professor of composition at the Warsaw Conservatory and conductor of Warsaw Society of Friends and the Warsaw Philharmonic, he worked not only as a composer, but became a famous teacher, a prominent conductor and a journalist. He was one of the leading figures in Polish music during the late 19th century and the first decade of the 20th, he taught all of the important Polish composers of the next generation, including Karol Szymanowski and Grzegorz Fitelberg.

See: List of music students by teacher: N to Q#Zygmunt Noskowski. He served as head of the Warsaw Music Society from 1880 to 1902 and was considered Poland’s leading composer during the last decade of his life, he died in Warsaw. While Noskowski is best known for his orchestral compositions, he composed opera, chamber music, instrumental sonatas and vocal works of importance. Discussing Nowkowski's chamber music, the famous critic and scholar Wilhelm Altmann wrote that it was "very effective and deserving of public attention and performance." Judging from the piano quartet written in 1879, one can hear that Noskowski had assimilated the recent musical developments taking place in Central Europe but the music, other than structurally, shows little or no influence of any of the major composers of the time, such as Brahms, Liszt, or Wagner, who were dominating the scene. Symphony No. 1 in A major String Quartet, Op. 9 Morskie Oko, Concert Overture for Orchestra, Op. 19 Symphony No. 2 in C minor, "Elegiac" Fantasy for String Quartet Piano Quartet in D minor, Op. 8 Polonaise élegiaque in E minor, orchestra, Op. 22 No. 3 The Steppe, symphonic poem, Op. 66 Marche funèbre, Op. 53, orchestra Livia Quintilla, opera Symphonic Variations on Chopin's Prelude in A, Op. 28/7, subtitled "From the Life of a Nation" Symphony No. 3 in F major, "From Spring to Spring" Wyrok, opera Zemsta za mur graniczny, opera based on a play by Aleksander Fredro 2008: Piano Works vol. 1 - Acte Préalable AP0188 - Valentina Seferinova: Impressions Op. 29.

2, Polnisches Wiegenlied op. 11, Les sentiments op. 14, Aquarelles op. 20, En pastel op. 30 2017: Piano Works vol. 3 - Acte Préalable AP0382 - Anna Mikolon: Images op. 27, Danses polonaises op. 23 a & 23 b, 3 Cracoviennes op. 5, 3 Morceaux op. 22, 3 Morceaux op. 26, 2 Morceaux op. 15 2018: Piano Works vol. 4 - Acte Préalable AP0415 - Anna Mikolon, Anna Liszewska: Cracoviennes op. 7, Danses masoviennes op. 38, Six Polonaises op. 42 2009: Chamber Works vol. 1 - Acte Préalable AP0234 - Four Strings Quartet: String Quartets Nos. 1 & 2 2013: Chamber Works vol. 2 - Acte Préalable AP0235 - Four Strings Quartet: String Quartet No. 3, Variations on a theme by Viotti, Humorous Quartet, Vis à vis for violin and cello 2011: Chamber Works vol. 3 - Acte Préalable AP0248 - *Jolanta Sosnowska: Violin sonata in A minor, Violin miniatures Symphonic poem "Step" Orchestre des Champs Élysées - Philippe Herreweghe (2012 Narodowy Instytut Frederika Chopina / The Frederyk Chopin Institute. Symphonic Works, Vol. 1: Symphony No.

1, Morskie Oka, Pan Zolzikiewicz Symphonic Works, Vol. 2: Symphony No. 2, Variations on an Original Theme, Odglosy paniątkowe Symphonic Works, Vol. 3: Symphony No. 3, From the Life of the Nation, Prelude to Act 2 of Livia Quintilla, Elegiac Polonaise Wronski, Zygmunt Noskowski, Warsaw 1960 Sutkowski, A, Zygmunt Noskowski, Kraków, 1957 Altmann, Handbuch fûr Streichquartettspieler, Amsterdam, 1972Some of the information on this page appears on the website of Edition Silvertrust but permission has been granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Zygmunt Noskowski Piano Quartet, Op.8 sound-bites and a short biograph Free scores by Zygmunt Noskowski at the International Music Score Library Project Concert Pianist Valentina Seferinova Grand Piano presented by the Polish society to Noskowski at the 25th anniversary of his work

Glen H. Taylor

Glen Hearst Taylor was an American politician, businessman, U. S. senator from Idaho. He was the vice presidential candidate on the Progressive Party ticket in the 1948 election. Taylor was otherwise a member of the Democratic Party. By one measure, Taylor was the second-most liberal member of the U. S. Senate, trailing only Wayne Morse of Oregon, the fourth-most liberal member of Congress overall between 1937 and 2002. Born in a boarding house in Portland, Taylor was the twelfth of thirteen children of Pleasant John Taylor and Olive Higgins Taylor, his father was a retired Texas ranger and wandering preacher, the family was with him in Portland for a protracted soul-saving meeting. The family homesteaded in North Central Idaho, near Kooskia, Taylor attended the public schools. In 1919, after completing eighth grade, he joined his older brother's stock theater company, between 1926 and 1944, he became the owner and manager of various entertainment enterprises. Taylor was a country-western singer.

Taylor was inspired to run for political office by King Camp Gillette's book The People's Corporation and Stuart Chase's 1932 book A New Deal. In 1935 Taylor unsuccessfully attempted to organize a Farmer -- Labor Party in Montana. By the late 1930s, Taylor had settled in Eastern Idaho at Pocatello, his first political campaign was in 1938 for an open seat in the US House of Representatives from the second district, but he finished a distant fourth in the Democratic primary. Taylor first ran for the US Senate in 1940 in a special election to fill the remaining term of the late William Borah, but lost to appointee John W. Thomas, with 47.1 to 52.9 percent. Despite being labeled as "semi-socialistic" and "communistic," he ran again in 1942 against Thomas and lost a closer race, 48.5 to 51.5 percent. Taylor lost both elections to Thomas because of stiff opposition from state Democratic Party leaders. Between elections, Taylor supported himself as a painter's assistant and sheet metal worker in California.

In his third try for the Senate, Taylor ran for the other Idaho seat in 1944, defeating incumbent D. Worth Clark in the Democratic primary, Governor C. A. Bottolfsen in the general election. Taylor, the first professional actor elected to the US Congress, had never been east of Chicago prior to his election. In the Senate, known as "The Singing Cowboy," acquired a reputation for eccentric behavior. Upon his arrival in Washington D. C. Taylor rode his horse, Nugget, up the steps of the U. S. Capitol building. Nugget accompanied Taylor during a 1947 tour of the country highlighting his antiwar activism and opposition to the time's US foreign policy; when Taylor moved to Washington in preparation to be sworn in in January 1945, the housing shortage caused by World War II was still in full swing and so he and his family had a difficult time finding a place to live. In response, Taylor, a musician and songwriter, stood outside the US Capitol building and sang, "O give us a home, near the Capitol dome, with a yard for two children to play..." to the tune of Home on the Range.

He and his family were offered several places to rent. Taylor was appointed to the Committee on Banking and Currency after telling Senator Robert F. Wagner of New York that he was qualified for the post because he had been a depositor with several banks. In October 1945, Taylor submitted a resolution to the Senate "favoring the creation of a world republic." In July 1946, at a convention of the National Lawyers Guild in Cleveland, Senator Taylor said: Success of monopolies in dealing with the present Congress is evident in the wrecking of price control, profit-guaranteeing tax rebates, blocking of power projects in the Columbia and Missouri Valleys, pigeonholing of the minimum wage bill and in the emasculation of the 1944 Kilgore Reconversion Bill and the 1945 Murray Full-Employment Bill. Monopolies have so influenced our foreign policy that it serves monopolistic aims. On election night in 1946, Taylor made national headlines by breaking the jaw of local Republican leader Ray McKaig in a hotel lobby in Boise.

Taylor claimed that McKaig had called him an obscene name, struck him first with a punch that broke his nose, but McKaig denied those claims. McKaig, 66, claimed that while he was lying on the floor Taylor proceeded to kick him in the face, but Taylor denied that claim; when Taylor lost his reelection bid in the 1950 primary, McKaig sent a telegram that said, "You may have broken my jaw, but I just broke your back!!!" Taylor feuded with other Idaho Democrats making critical remarks about Charles C. Gossett, who resigned as governor in November 1945 to have his successor appoint him to the vacant Senate seat. During the 1946 Democratic primary in June, Taylor supported Gossett's opponent, George E. Donart, calling the appointed incumbent Gossett a "conservative" who "hobnobbed" with Republicans in Congress. In the Senate, Taylor became noted for lengthy speeches that were critical of President Harry S. Truman's policies in foreign affairs, he was critical of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, both of which he believed brought the United States closer to war with the Soviet Union.

Taylor was decidedly less critical of the Soviet Union than most of his Senate colleagues, once noting that there was no need to criticize Soviet policy when there were 90 other senators willing to do it every day. Taylor was an early proponent of the Civil Rights Movement and, as senator opposed supporters and policies of racial segregation. In January 1947, Taylor requested for the Senate to delay the swearing-in of Mississippi Senator Theodore G. Bi

Military awards and decorations of the United Kingdom

The British Armed Forces recognises service and personal accomplishments of individuals while a member of the Royal Navy, British Army or Royal Air Force with the awarding of various awards and decorations. Together with rank and qualification badges, such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a serviceperson's career. All services use a common order of wear, the following general rules apply: The Victoria Cross and the George Cross United Kingdom Orders United Kingdom Decorations Order of St John United Kingdom Medals for Gallantry and for Distinguished Service United Kingdom Campaign and Operational Service Medals. Worn in order of date of award United Kingdom Polar Medals United Kingdom Police Medals for Valuable Service United Kingdom Jubilee and Durbar Medals Long Service and Efficiency Awards Commonwealth Orders and Medals instituted by the Sovereign. Worn in order of date of award. Commonwealth Orders and Medals instituted since 1949 otherwise than by the Sovereign.

Worn in order of date of award. Foreign Orders. If approved for wear, worn in order of date of award. Foreign Decorations. If approved for wear, worn in order of date of award. Foreign Medals. If approved for wear, worn in order of date of award. Note: Jubilee and Durbar medals were worn before campaign medals until November 1918, after which the order of wear was changed, with them now worn after campaign medals and before long service awards. Note Eligibility period start dates reflect respective establishment dates, except where available evidence indicates otherwise. Notes: Worn with other United Kingdom campaign medals in order of date of issue. Worn after all United Kingdom awards. Honorary awards are worn before substantive awards. Worn after all Commonwealth orders. Worn after all Commonwealth decorations. Worn after all Commonwealth awards. Worn after all foreign orders. Worn after all foreign decorations. Official permission has been granted for this medal to be accepted, but it is not authorised for wear.

Official permission has been granted for these medals to be accepted, but they are not authorised for wear. Official permission has been refused for these medals to be accepted and they are not authorised for wear. Orders and medals of the United Kingdom British campaign medals List of military decorations State decoration Duckers, Peter. British Campaign Medals 1815–1914. Oxford: Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0465-9. OCLC 44397385. ——. British Campaign Medals 1914–2005. Oxford: Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0649-3. OCLC 72145103. ——. British Gallantry Awards 1815–2000. Oxford: Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0516-8. OCLC 248128466. ——. British Orders and Decorations. Oxford: Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0580-9. OCLC 55587484. ——. The Victoria Cross. Oxford: Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0635-6. OCLC 61302377. Honours and Appointments Secretariat. Order of Wear. London: UK Honours and Appointments Secretariat. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2015. London Gazette.

Dates for the Introduction of Medals as shown by the Royal Warrants Published in the London Gazette. London: London Gazette. Retrieved 30 May 2010. Martin, Stanley; the Order of Merit: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour. New York: I. B. Tauris & Co. ISBN 978-1-86064-848-9. OCLC 50527777. Retrieved 14 June 2010. Ministry of Defence. JSP761 – Honours and Awards in the Armed Forces. London: UK Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 12 March 2017. Tinson, Ashley R.. Orders and Medals of the Sultanate of Oman. London: Spink. ISBN 0-907605-59-1. OCLC 5616224. UK Ministry of Defence Medals Office UK Ministry of Defence Medals Office – British Armed Forces Medals: Decorations, campaign medals and other awards awarded'On Her Majesty's Service' The UK Honours System Cabinet Office Ceremonial Secretariat website London Gazette website Crown Honours, Debretts, c. 2004, retrieved 23 May 2010 Medals of the World – United Kingdom Medals War Medals and Their History Detailed historical information on British military and naval awards from the Spanish Armada to World War I