National Autonomist Party
The National Autonomist Party was a conservative Argentine political party which ruled Argentina during the 1874-1916 period. Created on March 15, 1874 by the union of the Autonomist Party of Adolfo Alsina and the National Party of Nicolás Avellaneda, its principal figure was Julio Argentino Roca, twice president of Argentina. In economic matters it promoted the agricultural exports model, which favored the cattle and cereal producers of the Pampas and was a key in the development of the Argentine Railroad. After the 1890 Revolución del Parque, an opposing movement started inside the PAN opposed to the policies of Roca, which became known as the National Autonomist Party, which proposed and institutional modernization of the country, with goals towards opening up a true democratic system without electoral fraud as a means of perpetuating the party's power. Most preeminent in this political current were Roque Sáenz Peña, Carlos Pellegrini, Ramón J. Cárcano, among others. Under the administration of Roque Sáenz Peña, a law was written to allow for universal suffrage and mandatory, which permitted the free elections of 1916.
Its principal opposition was the Radical Civic Union, created after the 1890 revolution. After the electoral reform of 1912, the presidential elections of 1916, won by the UCR, the PAN disappeared from politics. Presidents from the PAN: Nicolás Avellaneda Julio Argentino Roca Miguel Juárez Celman Carlos Pellegrini Luis Sáenz Peña José Evaristo Uriburu Manuel Quintana José Figueroa Alcorta Roque Sáenz Peña Victorino de la Plaza Following the introduction of the Sáenz Peña Law in 1912, much of PAN would reorganise as the Conservative Party. Another faction would be the descendant of the Democratic Progressive Party which still exists today. In 1931, following the previous year's military coup, the conservatives returned to power under the banner of the National Democratic Party, leading the Concordancia coalition; the traditional conservative forces were politically marginalized following World War II and the rise of Peronism, after 1955 the PDN fell apart. Conservative parties descended. Generation of'80 History of Argentina List of Heads of State of Argentina
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
Times Higher Education
Times Higher Education The Times Higher Education Supplement, is a weekly magazine based in London, reporting on news and issues related to higher education. It is the United Kingdom's leading publication in its field. From its first issue, in 1971, until 2008, The Times Higher Education Supplement was published in newspaper format and was born out of, affiliated with, The Times newspaper. On 10 January 2008, it was relaunched as a magazine, it is published by TES Global, which until October 2005 was a division of Rupert Murdoch's News International. The magazine is edited by John Gill. Phil Baty is the editor-at-large, is responsible for international coverage, he is the editor of the magazine's World University Rankings. The magazine features a fictional satirical column written by Laurie Taylor, the "Poppletonian", which reflects on life at the fictional Poppleton University. In 2011 Times Higher Education was awarded the titles of "Weekly Business Magazine of the Year" and "Media Business Brand of the Year" by the Professional Publishers Association.
Times Higher Education became known for publishing the annual Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings, which first appeared in November 2004. On 30 October 2009 Times Higher Education broke with Quacquarelli Symonds its partner in compiling the Rankings, signed an agreement with Thomson Reuters to provide the data instead; the magazine developed a new methodology in consultation with its editorial board. Thomson Reuters collects and analyses the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education; the results have been published annually since autumn 2010. Quacquarelli Symonds, which collected and analysed the rankings data from 2004 to 2009, no longer has any involvement with Times Higher Education's World University Rankings; the magazine runs two sets of awards annually. The first is the "Times Higher Education Awards"; the 2011 awards took place on 24 November at the Grosvenor House Hotel on London's Park Lane and received a record number of entries across the 18 categories.
Seventeen universities were given awards in different categories, with the University of Sheffield being "University of the Year". Tessa Blackstone was given the "Lord Dearing Lifetime Achievement Award"; the University of Strathclyde was named as the University of the Year at the 2012 awards which took place on 29 November 2012 at the Grosvenor House Hotel on London's Park Lane. University of Strathclyde Principal and Vice-Chancellor Professor Sir Jim McDonald received the award at the ceremony; the "Times Higher Education Leadership and Management Awards" were launched in 2009. The Thelmas were set up to recognise the impact that administrative staff have on the success of higher education institutions. Times Higher Education official website
National University of Cuyo
The National University of Cuyo is the largest center of higher education in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. As of 2005, the university had 12 academic schools in the city of Mendoza and a delegation in the city of San Rafael, in addition to the Balseiro Institute, the most developed institute of Physics research in Argentina, located in the city of San Carlos de Bariloche, it includes the University Technological Institute which offers technical education in four other cities in Mendoza province. Moreover, UNCuyo is devoted to improving education due to having 7 other buildings working as High Schools: C. U. C. Escuela de Comercio Martín Zapata Liceo Agrícola Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Escuela del Magisterio Escuela de Agricultura D. A. D Escuela Carmen Vera Arenas The UNCuyo was established on March 21, 1939 by the presidential decree 26971; the university was established to offer tertiary education provision in the region of Cuyo. At its foundation the university was composed of some existing higher education colleges, new ones were incorporated.
Regional affiliations were established in Human Sciences, Medicine and Economics in Mendoza and Architecture in San Juan, Natural Sciences in San Luis. These links remained in place until 1973; that year the National University of San Juan and the National University of San Luis were established from the adjunct faculties of the National University of Cuyo in these regions. Thereafter, the National University of Cuyo concentrated itself in Mendoza, in addition to a campus in Río Negro Province: the Balseiro Institute. Industrial Engineering Civil Engineering Petroleum Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Architecture Computer Science PhD in Engineering Master in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Master in Environmental Engineering Specialization in Environmmental Engineering Master in Energy Master in Structural Engineering Diploma in Administration and Direction of Projects Diploma in Administration and Control of Buildings Diploma in Management of Good Quality Diploma in Management of Innovations and Technologies of Information and Communication.
Physics Nuclear Engineering Mechanical Engineering Telecommunications Engineering PhD in Physics PhD in Nuclear Engineering PhD in Engineering Sciences Master of Physic Sciences Master of Medical Physics Master of Engineering. Specialization Nuclear Energy Technological Applications Art History of Art Sculpture Graphic design Industrial design Scenic design Voice Musicology Choral Direction Instruments Dramatic Arts Theatre Production Accountancy Business Administration Economics MBA MBA - Executive Master in Management of Agroindustrial Business Master in Management of H. R. Specialization in Costs and Management of Business Specialization in Technology Management Specialization in Labour Unions Course of Merging and Scission of Enterprises. Course of Financial Strategy Course of Foreign Trade Course of AccountingsThere are many others. For further information please visit: http://www.fce.uncu.edu.ar/paginas/index/cursos Biology Mathematics Physics ChemistryFor more information, see the school's web site.
Medicine Nursing Anaesthesiology Clinical Pathology Surgery Haematology Radiology PhD in Social Sciences Political Science and Public Administration Sociology Social Work Communication Law PhD in Law Specialization in Law of Damages Master of Administrative Law Specialization and Master of Magistrature and Steps of the Judicial process Specialization in Labour Law Course of Family Law Course of History for the Bicentennial Philosophy Philology History Geography French English Italian Education Sciences Tourism Dentistry Dental Hygiene Primary Education Education for the deaf Speech Therapy Education for the blind Agricultural Engineering Bromatology Food Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Chemical Analysis Industrial Chemistry Bromatology In recent research conducted by UNCuyo's students it was discovered how methods of cutting and preparing food can affect how many nutrients are retained in a meal. Notably they found that the thiosulfinates found in garlic and onions do not form until crushing or cutting.
The research demonstrated that steaming instead boiling is preferable as vegetables retain more of their water-soluble vitamins. Argentine universities Science and Education in Argentina Argentine Higher Education Official Site
Pope Gregory XV
Pope Gregory XV, born Alessandro Ludovisi, was Pope from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623. Alessandro Ludovisi was born in Bologna in 1554 to Pompeo Ludovisi, the Count of Samoggia and of Camilla Bianchini, he was born as the third child. He was educated at the Roman College run by the Society of Jesus in Rome and he went to the University of Bologna to get degrees in canon and Roman law which he received on June 4, 1575, his early career was as a papal jurist in Rome, there is no evidence that he had been ordained to the priesthood. He returned to Rome in 1575 and he served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura from 1593 to 1596 and was appointed as the Vicegerent of Rome in 1597, a position he maintained until 1598, he served as the Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota from 1599 to 1612. On 12 March 1612, Pope Paul V appointed him as the Archbishop of Bologna, for which he was ordained to the priesthood and he was consecrated a bishop on 1 May of that year in the church of San Andrea al Quirinale in Rome.
In August 1616, the pope sent him as Apostolic Nuncio to the Duchy of Savoy, to mediate between Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Philip III of Spain in their dispute concerning the Gonzaga Marquisate of Montferrat. On 19 September 1616, Pope Paul V elevated him to the rank of cardinal and appointed him as a Cardinal Priest with the titular church of Santa Maria in Traspontina. Ludovisi remained in his episcopal see in Bologna until he went to Rome after the death of Pope Paul V to take part in the conclave at which he was chosen as pope and he selected the pontifical name of "Gregory XV", he was crowned on 14 February 1621 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto and assumed possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 14 May 1621. At the moment of his election, chiefly through the influence of Cardinal Borghese, at his advanced age and with his weak state of health he saw at once that he would need an energetic man, in whom he could place implicit confidence, to assist him in the government of the Church.
His nephew Ludovico Ludovisi, a young man of 25 years, seemed to him to be the right person and, at the risk of being charged with nepotism, he created him cardinal on the third day of his pontificate. On the same day, his youngest brother Orazio was appointed Captain General of the Church at the head of the papal army; the future revealed. The Catholic Encyclopedia allows that "Ludovico, it is true, advanced the interests of his family in every possible way, but he used his brilliant talents and his great influence for the welfare of the Church, was sincerely devoted to the pope". Gregory secured for the Ludovisi two dukedoms, one for his brother Orazio, made a Nobile Romano and Duke of Fiano Romano, 1621, the other, the Duchy of Zagarolo, purchased from the Colonna family by his nephew Ludovico Ludovisi in 1622. A second nephew, Niccolò, was made reigning Prince of Piombino and Lord of the Isola d'Elba in 1634, having married the heiress, 30 March 1632. Gregory XV interfered little in European politics, beyond assisting Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, the Catholic League against the Protestants—to the tune of a million gold ducats—as well as Sigismund III Vasa, King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, against the Ottoman Empire.
His Declaration against Magicians and Witches was the last papal ordinance against witchcraft. Former punishments were lessened, the death penalty was limited to those who were "proved to have entered into a compact with the devil, to have committed homicide with his assistance", he manifested a reforming spirit. As an example, his papal bull of 15 November 1621, Aeterni Patris Filius, regulated papal elections, which henceforth were to be by secret ballot. On 6 January 1622, he established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the missionary arm of the Holy See, his pontificate was marked by the canonizations of Teresa of Avila, Francis Xavier, Ignatius Loyola, Philip Neri and Isidore the Farmer. He beatified Peter of Alcantara, he was influential in bringing the Bolognese artist Guercino to Rome, a landmark in the development of the High Baroque style. He sat for his portrait busts, one of, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and by Alessandro Algardi, whose restrained bust in a tondo is in the Church of Santa Maria in Vallicella.
The pope created eleven cardinals in four consistories that saw him elevate his nephew Ludovico and his cousin Marcantonio Gozzadini as cardinals. On 12 March 1622, the pope canonized several saints: Francis Xavier, Ignatius of Loyola, Isidore the Laborer, Philip Neri and Teresa of Ávila. Gregory XV beatified three individuals during his pontificate: Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena, Albert the Great, Peter of Alcantara. Gregory XV was buried in the Church of Sant ` Ignazio, he was succeeded by Pope Urban VIII. The pope had been suffering from kidney stones for some time and was bedridden from 16 June to 1 July 1623, having been suffering from diarrhea and a stomach disorder that caused him great discomfort, his condition worsened on 4 July, as a fever weakened him, leading to the pope receiving the Viaticum on 5 July and the Extreme Unction on 6 July, before succumbing to his illness two days later. Cardinals created by Gregory XV Ludovisi "Alessandro Ludovisi". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. "Alessandro Ludovisi, no.
F3". Genealogy of the Ludovisi. Attribution: T
Argentine university reform of 1918
The Argentine university reform of 1918 was a general modernization of the universities tending towards democratization, brought about by student activism during the presidency of Hipolito Yrigoyen, the first democratic government. The events started in Córdoba and spread to the rest of Argentina, through much of Latin America; the reform set up the freedom for universities to define their own curriculum and manage their own budget without interference from the central government. This has had a profound effect on academic life at the universities through the nationalization process that boasts academic freedom and independence throughout the university life. Since the Jesuits founded the first university in Argentina in the 17th century, education was managed by the clergy and conservative upper-class citizens; the universities' authorities were selected by them, professors were appointed for life. Professors decided on the subjects to be taught following the preferences of the Church and suppressed modern ideas such as Darwin's theory of evolutionBy the end of the 19th century many changes were taking place in Argentina.
With the arrival of European immigrants in large waves, new ideas arrived with them which were opposed to the old oligarchic conservatism. The 1912 Sáenz Peña Law of the secret vote brought the less conservative Hipólito Yrigoyen to the presidency in 1916, it was in 1918 that the students of the National University of Córdoba the most conservative in Argentina at that time, demanded a revision of the university's statutes to modernize and democratize them. They succeeded in creating student centres; the demands of the students can be summarized in four main topics: University autonomy: the right for the university to choose its own government and studies without the intervention of the government or any other organism. Co-government: the equality of all parties in the university to participate in the election of the above. Scientific modernization: a review of the contents of curricula, to include modern scientific knowledge to the study material. No tuition: the right for every student to acquire university education.
Secular education: education programs and syllabuses free of Catholic dogmatism. The most important features of the Reform described in the Liminar Manifesto can be summarized as follows: a) Institutionalization of student participation in university councils, joining professors and alumni in a three-party system known as co-governance. B) A linkage between student politics and national politics in order to mobilize the university toward the solution of economic and political problems. C) An emphasis on university extension courses for workers that would lead to the development of fraternal bonds with the proletariat. D) Tuition-free education and open admission to all academically qualified applicants, in order to replace the elitist and archaic 19th century university with a democratic and mass university. E) A defense of institutional autonomy with respect to the state. F) Institutionalization of mechanisms to protect academic freedom, including the implementation of "free teaching" to ensure academic pluralism and to break the monopoly of teaching enjoyed by senior professors.
G) Promotion of new ideas, innovative methods of teaching, changes in exam systems, optional classroom attendance, original research, a rejection of dogmatism, all leading to the replacement of theology by positivist disciplines. H) Selection of faculty through open, competitive examinations in order to counteract nepotism and patronage, promotion of professors on the basis of merit and achievement rather than seniority. I) The enlargement and diversification of professional training through the establishment of new professional schools. J) An understanding of university life as a communitarian experience, therefore encouraging the development of a population of full-time professors and full time students; the conflict started with a lateral problem, the cancellation of the patients beds at the Hospital de Clínicas university hospital in late 1917. On March 31, 1918, when classes should have been restarted, the students organised another strike, with demonstrations, that forced the national government to intervene the university.
José Matienzo was named intervenor of the university, he confirmed most of the irregularities described by the students. He declared vacant the positions of Rector of the university and Deans of the faculties, commanded the democratisation of the university's statutes, but the students were not to be part of this process, since the conservative Antonio Nores was voted Rector of the University, against the wishes of the students. The students occupied the faculties' premises, so classes could not be restarted regularly, they resisted the police and were driven out by force by the national army. This produced a general uneasiness of the public throughout the country, which forced President Yrigoyen to appoint his Minister of Justice and Public Education, José S. Salinas, as a new intervenor of the university; the decree of the university reform was redacted on October 12, 1918. The objectives of the 1918 Cordoba Reform were promptly adopted by many student organizations, one by one, from Argentina to Mexico, Latin American universities experienced unprecedented uprisings.
The same year the reform statutes were enacted into law at Córdoba, they were extended to the University of Buenos Aires and to other Argentinean universities. Its principles were included in the 1920 manifesto of the Argentine University Federation, subsequently endorsed by the International Student Congress on University Reform hel