Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
A collegiate university is a university in which functions are divided between a central administration and a number of constituent colleges. The two principal forms are residential college universities, where the central university is responsible for teaching and colleges may deliver some teaching but are residential communities, federal universities where the central university has an administrative role and the colleges may be residential but are teaching institutions; the larger colleges or campuses of federal universities, such as University College London and University of California, may be universities in their own right and have their own student unions. For universities with residential colleges, the principal difference between these and non-collegiate halls of residence is that "colleges are societies, not buildings"; this is expressed in different ways in different universities. Residential colleges commonly have members drawn from the university's academic staff in order to form a whole academic community.
Students in residential colleges are organised into a junior common room, with academic staff forming a senior common room. The development of the collegiate university in western Europe followed shortly after the development of the medieval university itself; the first college to be established was the Collège des Dix-Huit at the University of Paris, founded in 1180 by John of London shortly after he had returned from Jerusalem. This has led to the suggestion that the college was inspired by madrasas he saw on his travels, although this has been disputed as, unlike madrasas, the early Paris colleges did not teach. Other colleges appeared in Paris shortly after this, including the College of St Thomas du Louvre and the College of the Good Children of St Honore – although these may both have had more of the character of grammar schools than colleges of the university – various monastic colleges starting with the Dominicans in 1217, the College of Sorbonne for non-monastic theology students in 1257.
From Paris, the idea spread to Oxford, where William of Durham, a Regent Master of Theology at Paris, left a legacy to found University College, Oxford in 1249. Although this is taken as the foundation date of University College, it was not until after 1280 that the college began operating. At around the same time Balliol College was founded by John de Balliol via a grant of land in 1263 as a penance imposed by the Bishop of Durham, Merton College was founded with an endowment by Walter de Merton in 1264; these original Oxford colleges were "merely endowed boardinghouses for impoverished scholars", were limited to those who had received their Bachelor of Arts degree and were reading for higher degrees. It was not until 1305 that teaching started in the College of Navarre in Paris, an innovation that reached Oxford in 1379 with the foundation of New College – the first college there to take undergraduate students. In Bologna and other Italian universities, the colleges, as Rashdall put it, "remained to the last eleemosynary institutions for the help of poor students, boarding-houses and not places of education" and never acquired the same importance as the colleges of Oxford or Paris.
Colleges evolved in different directions in different places, but many European universities lost their colleges in the early 18th century. At the University of Coimbra, for example, many colleges were established in the 16th century, although these were limited to the study of theology with the other faculties remaining non-collegiate; these colleges, joined by others in the 17th and 18th centuries, persisted until 1834, when they were suppressed following the Portuguese civil war. The colleges of Paris were closed along with the university itself and the rest of the French universities after the French Revolution, as were the colleges of the University of Salamanca. While the continental universities retained control over their colleges, in England it was the colleges that came to dominate the universities; the Hebdomadal Board was established by William Laud at Oxford in 1631 with the intent of diluting the influence of Congregation and Convocation. This led to criticism in the 19th century, with William Hamilton alleging that the colleges had unlawfully usurped the functions of the universities as the tutors had taken over the teaching from the professors.
Royal Commissions in the 1850s led to Acts of Parliament in 1854 and 1856 that, among other measures, limited the power of the colleges. Prior to these reforms, the first two new universities in England for over 600 years were established, both offering new versions of the collegiate university; the University of Durham was founded in 1832, taking Oxford for its model, University College, Durham was created at the same time. This college, unlike those of Oxford and Cambridge, was not distinct from the university and nor was it responsible for teaching, carried out by university professors rather than college tutors; this restored the teaching role of the central university, lost at Oxford and Cambridge and the original role of the college as a residential rather than educational institution. I
Merrion Square is a Georgian garden square on the southside of Dublin city centre. The square was laid out after 1762 and was complete by the beginning of the 19th century; the demand for such Georgian townhouse residences south of the River Liffey had been fuelled by the decision of the Earl of Kildare to build his Dublin home on the undeveloped southside. He constructed the largest aristocratic residence in Dublin, Leinster House, second only to Dublin Castle; as a result of this construction, three new residential squares appeared on the Southside: Merrion Square, St Stephen's Green, the smallest and last to be built, Fitzwilliam Square. Aristocrats and the wealthy sold their northside townhouses and migrated to the new southside developments. Merrion Square is considered one of the city's finest surviving squares. Three sides are lined with Georgian redbrick townhouses; the central railed-off garden is now a public park. The Wellington Testimonial to commemorate the victories of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was planned to be located in Merrion Square.
However it was built in the Phoenix Park after opposition from the square's residents. Until about the 1950s, the houses in the square were residential, but today most of them are used for office accommodation; the Irish Red Cross, the Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland and the Irish Georgian Society have their headquarters on the square. The National Maternity Hospital is on the North terrace; the poet and satirist Oscar Wilde lived at No. 1, poet W. B. Yeats lived at No. 82, Daniel O'Connell at No. 58, the latter of, now known as the O'Connell House, home to the Keough Naughton Centre of the University of Notre Dame, an American college. The fashion and interior designer Sybil Connolly lived at No. 71. A number of houses in the square have plaques with historical information on former notable residents, including A. E. and Sheridan Le Fanu. Despite the Square being occupied by commercial entities, there are still several residents, including fashion designer, Louise Kennedy, tycoon Dermot Desmond and US-based financier, Sean Reynolds.
Until 1972 the British Embassy was based at No 39. The Embassies of France and Slovakia are based on the south side of the square; the earliest plan of the park shows a double line of trees around the perimeter, enclosed by railings in the early years of the 19th century. A Jardin Anglaise approach was adopted for the layout of the park with contoured grass areas, informal tree clumps, sunken curved paths and perimeter planting. Up until the 1960s the park was only open to residents in possession of a private key. Now managed by Dublin City Council, the park contains a statue of Oscar Wilde. 1, Merrion Square from 1855 to 1876, many other sculptures and a collection of old Dublin lamp standards. The Irish American sculptor Jerome Connor, best known for his work Nuns of the Battlefield in Washington DC, designed the public art piece, "Eire"; the park contains a sculpture of a Joker's Chair in memory of Father Ted star Dermot Morgan. The park in the square was called "Archbishop Ryan Park", after Dermot Ryan, the Catholic archbishop who transferred ownership to the city.
In 2009, Dermot Ryan was criticised in the Murphy Report. In September 2010, the City Council voted to rename the park as Merrion Square Park; the park was used by the St John Ambulance Brigade for annual events such as review and first aid competitions. The organisation was founded in 1903 by Sir John Lumsden K. B. E. M. D. During this time Dr. Lumsden was living nearby at 4 Fitzwilliam Place, he was practiced at Mercer's Hospital. During the First World War both St. John Ambulance and the British Red Cross Society worked together in a join effort as part of the war effort; this ensured. Both organisations were a familiar site among Irish people but at Merrion Square where St. John Ambulance operated for 50 years; the headquarters of St. John Ambulance were situated at 40 Merrion Square during WWI moving to 14 Merrion Square. Today they are located at Lumsden House, 29 Upper Leeson Street, Dublin 4. Merrion Square was a fashionable address for politicians, lawyers and writers. Notable residents include.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education at a college or university. These institutions offer degrees at various levels including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees; the most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual. The doctorate appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach at a medieval university, its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible. The right to grant a licentia docendi was reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee; the Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.
This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the emancipating universities, but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a universal license to teach. However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree, it was reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching. At the University, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild; the traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Master of Arts", seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. The terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree. Today the terms "master", "Doctor" and "Professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the Medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university..
The earliest doctoral degrees reflected the historical separation of all higher University study into these three fields. Over time, the D. D. has become less common outside theology and is now used for honorary degrees, with the title "Doctor of Theology" being used more for earned degrees. Studies outside theology and medicine were called "philosophy", due to the Renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation; the degree title of Doctor of Philosophy is a much time and was not introduced in England before 1900. Studies in what once was called philosophy are now classified as humanities; the University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century. The University of Paris used the term "master" for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Edinburgh.
In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium and the quadrivium, together known as the Liberal Arts and who had passed examinations held by their master, would be admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, a term used of a squire to a knight. Further study and in particular successful participation in and moderating of disputations would earn one the Master of Arts degree, from the Latin magister, "master", entitling one to teach these subjects. Masters of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, Medicine or Theology and earn first a bachelor's and master or doctor's degrees in these subjects, thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", based on the Latin gradus. The naming of degrees became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "master", but those in theology and law were known as "doctor".
As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy, which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts; the practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within German universities and spread across the academic world. The French terminology is tied to the original meanings of the terms; the baccalauréat is conferred upon French students who have completed the
Galway is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht. Galway lies on the River Corrib between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay, surrounded by County Galway, is the sixth most populous city in Ireland, with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Galway will be the European Capital of Culture in 2020, alongside Croatia; the city's name comes from the Irish name Gaillimhe, which formed the western boundary of the earliest settlement, Dún Gaillimhe "Fort Gaillimh".. The name was Anglicised as Galliv or Gallive, closer to the Irish pronunciation; the city's name in Latin is Galvia. Residents of the city are referred to as Galwegians; the city bears the nickname "City of the Tribes" because of the fourteen merchant families called the "tribes of Galway" who led the city in its Hiberno-Norman period. Dún Gaillimhe was constructed by the King of Connacht, Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair. A settlement grew around it. During the Norman invasion of Connacht in the 1230s, Dún Gaillimhe was captured by Richard Mor de Burgh, who had led the invasion.
As the de Burghs became Gaelicised, the merchants of the town, the Tribes of Galway, pushed for greater control over the walled city. This led to their gaining complete control over the city and to the granting of mayoral status by the English crown in December 1484. Galway endured difficult relations with its Irish neighbours. A notice over the west gate of the city, completed in 1562 by Mayor Thomas Óge Martyn, stated "From the Ferocious O'Flahertys may God protect us". A by-law forbade the native Irish unrestricted access into Galway, saying "neither O’ nor Mac shall strutte nor swagger through the streets of Galway" without permission. During the Middle Ages, Galway was ruled by an oligarchy of fourteen merchant families; these were the "Tribes of Galway". The city thrived on international trade, in the Middle Ages, it was the principal Irish port for trade with Spain and France; the most famous reminder of those days is ceann an bhalla, now known as the Spanish Arch, constructed during the mayoralty of Wylliam Martin.
In 1477 Christopher Columbus visited Galway stopping off on a voyage to Iceland or the Faroe Islands. Seven or eight years he noted in the margin of his copy of Imago Mundi: Men of Cathay have come from the west. We have seen many signs, and in Galway in Ireland, a man and a woman, of extraordinary appearance, have come to land on two tree trunks The most explanation for these bodies is that they were Inuit swept eastward by the North Atlantic Current. During the 16th and 17th centuries Galway remained loyal to the English crown for the most part during the Gaelic resurgence for reasons of survival. However, by 1642 the city had allied itself with the Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. During the resulting Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Cromwellian forces captured the city after a nine-month siege. At the end of the 17th century the city supported the Jacobites in the Williamite war in Ireland and was captured by the Williamites after a short siege not long after the Battle of Aughrim in 1691.
The great families of Galway were ruined. The city suffered further under the potato famines of 1845–1852, it did not recover until the period of strong economic growth of the late 20th century. Like most of Ireland, has a oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification, being one of the world's mildest cities for latitude because it is on an island. Galway has a year-round mild, moist and changeable climate, due to the prevailing winds of the North Atlantic Current; the city does not experience temperature extremes, with temperatures below 0 °C and above 30 °C being rare. The city receives an average of 1,156 mm of precipitation annually, evenly distributed throughout the year; the average January temperature in the city is 5.9 °C and the average July temperature is 15.9 °C.system. The highest temperature recorded in Galway was 31.7 °C in July 1921, whilst the lowest temperature recorded was −11.7 °C in January 1945. While extreme weather is rare, the city and county can experience severe windstorms that are the result of vigorous Atlantic depressions that pass along the north west coast of Ireland.
Most of these storms occur between early spring. Due to the city's northerly location, Galway has long summer days. Daylight at midsummer is before 04:20 and lasts until after 23:00. In midwinter, daylight does not start until 08:49, is gone by 16:19. Lynch's Castle on Shop Street is a medieval town house, now a branch of Allied Irish Banks; the Church of Ireland St. Nicholas' Collegiate Church is the largest medieval church still in everyday use in Ireland, it was founded in enlarged in the following two centuries. The Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas was consecrated in 1965 and is a far larger building constructed from limestone, it has an eclectic style, with a Renaissance Revival dome and round arches, a Romanesque Revival portico that dominates the main façade –, an unusual feature in modern Irish church building. The original quadrangle building of NUI Galway, erected in 1
Constitution of Ireland
The Constitution of Ireland is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland. It asserts the national sovereignty of the Irish people; the constitution falls broadly within the tradition of liberal democracy, being based on a system of representative democracy. It guarantees certain fundamental rights, along with a popularly elected non-executive president, a bicameral parliament based on the Westminster system, a separation of powers and judicial review, it is the second constitution of the Irish state since independence, replacing the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State. It came into force on 29 December 1937 following a statewide plebiscite held on 1 July 1937; the Constitution may be amended by a national referendum. The Constitution of Ireland replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State, in effect since the independence, as a dominion, of the Irish state from the United Kingdom on 6 December 1922. There were two main motivations for replacing the constitution in 1937. Firstly, the Statute of Westminster 1931 granted parliamentary autonomy to the six British Dominions within a British Commonwealth of Nations.
This had the effect of making the dominions sovereign nations in their own right. The Irish Free State constitution of 1922 was, in the eyes of many, associated with the controversial Anglo-Irish Treaty; the anti-treaty faction, who opposed the treaty by force of arms, was so opposed to the institutions of the new Irish Free State that it took an abstentionist line toward them, boycotting them altogether. However, the largest element of this faction became convinced that abstentionism could not be maintained forever; this element, led by Éamon de Valera, formed the Fianna Fáil party in 1926, which entered into government following the 1932 general election. After 1932, under the provisions of the Statute of Westminster, some of the articles of the original Constitution which were required by the Anglo-Irish Treaty were dismantled by acts of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State; such amendments removed references to the Oath of Allegiance, appeals to the United Kingdom's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the British Crown and the Governor-General.
The sudden abdication of Edward VIII in December 1936 was used to redefine the Royal connection. The Fianna Fáil government still desired to replace the constitutional document they saw as having been imposed by the British government in 1922; the second motive for replacing the original constitution was symbolic. De Valera wanted to put an Irish stamp on the institutions of government, chose to do this in particular through the use of Irish Gaelic nomenclature. De Valera supervised the writing of the Constitution, it was drafted by John Hearne, legal adviser to the Department of External Affairs. It was translated into Irish over a number of drafts by a group headed by Micheál Ó Gríobhtha, who worked in the Irish Department of Education. De Valera served as his own External Affairs Minister, hence the use of the Department's Legal Advisor, with whom he had worked as opposed to the Attorney General or someone from the Department of the President of the Executive Council, he received significant input from The Rt Rev. John Charles Monsignor McQuaid, the President of Blackrock College, on religious, educational and social welfare issues.
Monsignor McQuaid became, in 1940, the Catholic Archbishop of Dublin. Other religious leaders who were consulted were: Archbishop Edward Byrne, Archbishop John Gregg, Rev. William Massey and Dr James Irwin. There are a number of instances where the texts in English and Irish clash, a potential dilemma which the Constitution resolves by favouring the Irish text though English is more used in the official sphere. A draft of the constitution was presented to the Vatican for review and comment on two occasions by the Department Head at External Relations, Joseph P. Walsh. Prior to its tabling in Dáil Éireann and presentation to the Irish electorate in a plebiscite, Vatican Secretary of State Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, the future Pope Pius XII, said of the final amended draft: "We do not approve, neither do we disapprove; the quid pro quo for this indulgence of the Catholic Church's interests in Ireland was the degree of respectability which it conferred on De Valera's denounced republican faction and its reputation as the'semi-constitutional' political wing of the'irregular' anti-treaty forces.
The text of the draft constitution, with minor amendments, was approved on 14 June by Dáil Éireann. The draft constitution was put to a plebiscite on 1 July 1937, when it was passed by a plurality. 56 % of voters were in favour. The constitution formally came into force on 29 December 1937. Among the groups who opposed the constitution were supporters of Fine Gael and the Labour Party and some independents and feminists; the question put to voters was "Do you approve of the Draft Constitution, the subject of this plebiscite?". When the draft new constitution was published, the Irish Independent described it as one of Mr. de Valera's "finest tributes to his predecessors". The Irish Times criticised the constitution's assertion of a territorial claim on Northern Ireland, the absence in its text of any reference to the British Commonwealth. The
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua