The National Wrestling Alliance is an American professional wrestling promotion and former governing body operating via its parent company Lightning One, Inc. Founded in 1948, the NWA began as a governing body for a group of independent professional wrestling promotions, the heads of which made up the Board of Directors; the group operated a territory system which sanctioned various championships, recognized one world champion, participated in talent exchanges, collectively protected the territorial integrity of member promotions. Prior to the 1960s it acted as the sole governing body for most of professional wrestling, it remained the largest and most influential body in wrestling until the mid-1980s by which time most of the original member promotions went out of business as a result of the World Wrestling Federation's national expansion. In September 1993, the largest remaining member promotion, World Championship Wrestling, left the NWA for the second and final time; the NWA would continue as a loose coalition of independent promotions, with NWA: Total Nonstop Action given exclusivity over its World Heavyweight and Tag Team championships from June 2002 to May 2007.
In August 2012, the NWA discontinued its memberships and started licensing its brand to wrestling promotions. As of 2019, the NWA is no longer a governing body and has since become a singular wrestling promotion. Before the NWA was founded, many regional professional wrestling promotions existed across North America with each promoting its own world champion. However, none of them had recognition outside of their own respective geographic areas. In 1948, Paul "Pinkie" George, a promoter from the Midwest, founded the original version of the National Wrestling Alliance with the backing of five other promoters: Al Haft, Tony Strecher, Harry Light, Orville Brown, Sam Muchnick; the concept of the NWA was to consolidate the championships of these regional companies into one true world championship of professional wrestling, whose holder would be recognized worldwide. This newly formed NWA Board of Directors decided on Brown to be the first-ever NWA World Heavyweight Champion. NWA member promotions were divided up into territories that each promoter would "own" and operate while the NWA President's territory served as the main territory of the entire alliance.
Having a territory meant that no other NWA member promotion could promote wrestling in that area unless special arrangements were made between the promoters involved. Threats of violence or physical retaliation were used against any promoter who disregarded the territory system. If any NWA member promotion broke the rules, it faced expulsion and thus risked missing out on having nationally known wrestlers appear on their local shows. Promotions that were not members of the NWA were labeled "outlaw," and while they didn't have to adhere to NWA rules, they were still subject to members' retaliation if they tried to invade territories; each territory received periodic guest visits from the NWA World Heavyweight Champion. The champion did not have a "home territory" as such, but instead traveled from territory to territory, defending the title against the top stars of each territory. Many NWA member promotions would build-up to the appearance of the NWA World Heavyweight Champion weeks or months in advance, making the local world title matches that much more special, the shows they headlined more lucrative.
In addition, each NWA member promotion produced a TV show that aired in their territory only, meaning that the local fans only saw the world champion when he came to their area and not year-round. Wrestlers from one territory could come into another territory and run an angle or two with its top local faces. If the local fans got tired of a wrestler, the wrestler could go to a whole new territory and perform the same act for new audiences who would think the act was brand-new; this storyline was advanced in the territory from which the wrestler was departing as a result of an highly promoted "loser leaves town" match. For most NWA member promotions, the benefits of membership were well worth the rules. In 1949, Lou Thesz was the National Wrestling Association World Heavyweight Champion when a deal was made to unify his title with Orville Brown’s NWA World Heavyweight Championship. On November 1, 1949, with just weeks before the scheduled bout, Brown was involved in an automobile accident that ended his career, he was forced to vacate the championship.
The NWA awarded the unified titles to the No. 1 contender, Thesz. In 1950, Sam Muchnick, one of the original promoters of the NWA and Thesz’s booker, was named the new NWA President, a position to which he was unanimously re-elected and held until 1960, making him one of the longest-tenured presidents in the organization’s history. Following the advent of television, professional wrestling matches began to be aired nationally during this time, reaching a larger fanbase than before; this was a time of enormous growth for professional wrestling, as rising demand and national expansion made it a much more popular and lucrative form of entertainment than in decades previous. This was called a "Golden Age" for the wrestling industry. From 1948 to 1955, each of the three major television networks broadcast wrestling shows. Up through 1956, during Thesz’s first reign as NWA World Heavyweight Champion, the title was further unified with several more competing world titles including the American Wrestling Alliance’s heavyweight title in Boston and the California World Heavyweight title from Baron Michele Leone in Los Angeles.
As NWA World Heavyweight Champion, Thesz became the close
Mary Beth Pauline Stewart known by her married name Mary McIlwaine, is a Canadian former competitive swimmer. Stewart twice broke the world record in the women's 100-metre butterfly in the early 1960s. Stewart competed in freestyle events as a member of the Canadian national team in major international championships; as a 14-yard-old, she represented Canada in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, where she finished eighth in the women's 100-metre freestyle, competed in the preliminary hears of the women's 4x100-metre medley relay event. Two years at the 1962 Commonwealth Games in Perth, she won the gold medal in the women's 100-metre butterfly. At the 1963 Pan American Games in São Paulo, Stewart enjoyed a four-medal performance, garnering silver medals for her second-place performances in the 100-metre freestyle, 100-metre butterfly, 4x100-metre freestyle relay, the 4x100-metre medley relay. Despite being of Canadian nationality she won the ASA National British Championships over 110 yards butterfly 1963.
In her final international appearance at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, she finished eighth in the 100-metre butterfly, competed as a member of the Canadian teams in the 4x100-metre freestyle and 4x100-metre medley relay events. She is the sister of Helen Stewart. World record progression 100 metres butterfly Mary Stewart at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Canadian Olympic Committee at the Wayback Machine BC Sports Hall of Fame at the Wayback Machine
The Walls of Hell known as Intramuros is a 1964 Philippine-American film directed by Eddie Romero and Gerardo de Leon and starring Jock Mahoney. The film was made back-to-back with Moro Witch Doctor, it was produced by Hemisphere Pictures. In World War II during the Battle of Manila, fanatical Japanese soldiers fighting for their lives barricade themselves inside the walls of "Intramuros", the ancient Spanish walled city of Manila; the United States artillery is bombing them continuously, the Japanese are holding thousands of innocent Filipino citizens hostage. An American reporter named Murray arrives at the front where a guerrilla unit led by a Lt. Sorenson makes contact with a young Filipino guerilla named Nardo who had escaped from Intramuros through a sewer tunnel. Nardo tells Sorenson that his wife is among the prisoners and that the sewer system can be used to rescue the hostages; as shells rain down on the walled city, the American forces invade the area. Sorenson is reunited with his wife, the military forces its way into the burning city.
Jock Mahoney as Lt. Jim Sorenson Fernando Poe Jr. as Sgt. Nardo Maglaya Michael Parsons as Papa Oscar Roncal as Joker Paul Edwards Jr. as Murray Ely Ramos Jr. as Jose Fred Galang as Pedring Vance Skarstedt as Maj. Briggs Cecilia Lopez as Tina Arsenio Alonzo Claude Wilson as Major Pedro Navarro Carpi Asturias Andres Centenera Paquito Salcedo Alex Swanbeck Tommy Romulo Willie Salcedo Angel Buenaventura George Kramer The Ravagers Moro Witch Doctor Santiago! Manila, Open City Aguila The Walls of Hell on IMDb The Walls of Hell at Rotten Tomatoes The Walls of Hell at TCMDB
Dally Castle is a ruined 13th-century stone motte-and-bailey fortress in Northumberland, one of the first hall houses in Northumberland. It lies 5 miles west of Bellingham Castle, 4 miles west of Bellingham on the Chirdon Burn, a tributary of the North Tyne. Dally Castle House was built in the 18th century next to the castle. Across the road lies a small flour mill used to grind wheat during the Napoleonic War. Dally Castle was built in 1237. On Speed's map of 1611 it is called Dala, earlier in his Britannia, Camden called it Delaley, its history is obscure: it was an oblong building of two storeys, with two turrets added to the north corners and a south wing constructed. The stones were used to build Dally Mill and only the foundations can be traced. DaIly Castle has its tragic legend: the owner's sister fell in love with her brother's enemy, Gilbert of Tarset. During one of their meetings, the couple were surprised by her brother, who pursued Gilbert to the summit of Hareshaw Common. A fight took Gilbert was slain.
The spot where he felI is known today as Gib's Cross. The castle has been identified with the'house in the form of a tower' that either David de Lindsay, justiciar of Lothian, or his young namesake, the ward of Alexander of Scotland, was building in Tynedale in 1237, to the alarm of the sheriff Hugh of Bolbec; the castle was at first a simple oblong building, defended at ground floor level by loopholes for bowmen, having an upper floor entered by an outside wooden stair. Its date might have been either in the reign of John or in that of his successor, Henry III. In the thirteenth century, the building was completed with the addition of a north-west corner turret and south wing, its defence was moved from the ground floor to crenellated parapets at roof level. A north-east turret was added, the south-west corner was strengthened, an enclosure made on the south scarp of the castle hill; the building continued in habitation till the sixteenth century or as is proved by the helmet, sword point, and'fairy' tobacco pipes found under the debris of the north-west turret in 1888.
The Armstrongs' map shows it as a ruin, during the eighteenth century the roofless walls collapsed and all visible and accessible stones were removed to help build Dally Mill. At any rate, when John Hodgson visited Dally he could see no masonry above the turf. In 1888, Mr. W. L. Charleton removed enough of the debris to reveal the remains hereafter described, but most no proper record was kept of his funds and the owner allowed a set of'fine columns' the supports of the hall roof, to be taken away to build a piggery; the plan published seventeen years in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne was neither complete nor accurate. An interesting Early English pierced chimney head, one of the few of that period in existence, was found and removed by Mr. Charleton; the upper and lower halves of the valley watered by the Chirdon are separated by a natural barrier in the shape of a high steep-sided ridge or "kaim" pierced at east end by the stream. The eastern part this ridge has been isolated by cutting a gap through it, as in the similar case of Wark on Tweed.
A smaller notch cuts off the extreme eastern point of the ridge, Dally castle stands along the narrow top of the ridge with its west end overlooking the larger ditch. There are traces of masonry on the low mound east of the eastern ditch; the castle proper was in two portions, the first a building about 30 by 15 feet east of the main building and not on the same orientation. It is not now possible to state its period or use: it may have been a barn, or a chapel; the second was an oblong block 56' 6" by 26' 8" internally, with attached turrets at the two northern corners and a larger turret or wing on the south. The south wing has disappeared except for short lengths of its walls, these are additions to the main south wall, to which they have been bonded; the walls of the main block are from 5 3⁄4 to 6 feet thick and contain 2-inch fish-tailed loopholes as shown on the plan and detail drawings. The loopholes have been neatly built up with masonry, faced with the same kind of ashlar as that in the rest of the interior.
The embrasure of the loophole in the east gable was not blocked. This window was surrounded by quarter-round moulding of 2 1⁄4-inch radius and the edges of the loopholes are neatly rounded; the west end of the building has marked resemblance in plan to the east end of Haughton Castle. At its north corner there is a turret 9' 7" by I3' 10" internally with walls 4 feet 6 inches thick, having an external base course which butts irregularly against the double chamfered base of the main building. At the south corner, a narrow door with chamfered jambs and sill gives entrance to what must h
K. P. Nambiathiri is an Indian cinematographer who has worked in a number of 3-D films. Nambiathiri was born in Kerala, he completed a three-year course in film technology at the Film and Television Institute of Tamil Nadu, Chennai. He worked for a brief period at Doordarshan Kendra, Chennai as a film processor, he joined the film industry and worked as assistant director, still photographer, art director before joining StereoVision LA to learn stereography. He worked as an independent 3D consultant for a 3D film in Telugu in the year 1986. Nambiathiri began his feature film career as a director of photography, with Lal Salam, directed by Venu Nagavally, he had worked as Director of Photography on the Tamil film Eeramana Rojave in 1985. He has worked in over 65 feature films across Malayalam, Telugu and Hindi, he is the Head Stereographer for Chhota Chetan, Magic Magic 3D,Katari Veera Surasundarangi,Kurukshetra etc. He was a jury member for the Kerala State Television Award committee in the year 2004 and has worked in addition on television commercials and documentary films.
Mason McDonald is a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender, playing with the Utah Grizzlies in the ECHL while under contract to the Colorado Eagles of the American Hockey League. He was selected by 34th overall, in the 2014 NHL Entry Draft, he was selected 20th overall in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League Entry Draft for 2012 to play for Acadie–Bathurst Titan. In the midst of his second season with the Titans in 2013–14, McDonald was traded to the Charlottetown Islanders on December 28, 2013. After his first two seasons in the QMJHL, McDonald was the first goalie drafted, in the 2014 NHL Entry Draft, 34th overall by the Calgary Flames. On July 2, 2015, McDonald was signed to a three-year entry-level contract with the Calgary Flames. At the conclusion of his entry-level contract with the Flames, having been unable to make progression within the organization, McDonald was released as a free agent after he was not tendered a qualifying offer on June 25, 2019. Unable to secure another NHL contract, McDonald agreed to a one-year AHL deal with the Colorado Eagles, affiliate to the Colorado Avalanche on July 25, 2019.
McDonald was one of three goaltenders who represented Canada at the 2016 World Junior Hockey Championships. Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or The Internet Hockey Database