National anthem

A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are hymns in style; the countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them; the custom of an adopted national anthem became popular in the 19th century. They are patriotic songs that may have been in existence long before their designation as national anthem; the national anthem of the Netherlands, "Wilhelmus", adopted as national anthem in 1932, originates in the 16th century: It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt and its current melody variant was composed shortly before 1626, was a popular orangist march during the 17th century.

The Japanese national anthem, "Kimigayo", was composed in 1880, but its lyrics are taken from a Heian period poem. In the early modern period, some European monarchies adopted royal anthems; some of these anthems have survived into current use. "God Save the King/Queen", first performed in 1619, remains the royal anthem of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth realms. La Marcha Real, adopted as the royal anthem of the Spanish monarchy in 1770, was adopted as the national anthem of Spain in 1939. Denmark retains its royal anthem, Kong Christian stod ved højen mast alongside its national anthem. In 1802, Gia Long commissioned a royal anthem in the European fashion for the Kingdom of Vietnam; the first national anthem to be adopted was La Marseillaise, for the First French Republic. Composed in 1792, it was adopted by the French National Convention in 1796, it was retired in favour of Chant du départ under the First French Empire, was re-instated in 1830, in the wake of the July Revolution. From this time, it became common for newly formed nations to define national anthems, notably as a result of the Latin American wars of independence, for Argentina, Brazil but Belgium.

Adoption of national anthems prior to the 1930s was by newly formed or newly independent states, such as the First Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Greece, the First Philippine Republic, Weimar Germany, Republic of Ireland or Greater Lebanon. The Olympic Charter of 1920 introduced the ritual of playing the national anthems of the gold medal winners. From this time, the playing of national anthems became popular at international sporting events, creating an incentive for such nations that did not yet have an defined national anthem to introduce one; the United States introduced the patriotic song The Star-Spangled Banner as national anthem in 1931. Following this, several nations moved to adopt as official national anthem patriotic songs, in de facto use at official functions, such as Mexico, Switzerland. By the period of decolonisation in the 1960s, it had become common practice for newly independent nations to adopt an official national anthem; some of these anthems were commissioned, such as the anthem of Kenya, Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu, produced by a dedicated "Kenyan Anthem Commission" in 1963.

A number of nations remain without official national anthem. In these cases, there are established de facto anthems played at sporting events or diplomatic receptions; these include the United Kingdom and Norway. Countries that have moved to adopt their long-standing de facto anthems since the 1990s include: Luxembourg, South Africa, Italy. National anthems are used in a wide array of contexts. Certain etiquette may be involved in the playing of a country's anthem; these involve military honours, standing up/rising, removing headwear etc. In diplomatic situations the rules may be formal. There may be royal anthems, presidential anthems, state anthems etc. for special occasions. They are played on national holidays and festivals, have come to be connected with sporting events. Wales was the first country to adopt this, during a rugby game against New Zealand in 1905. Since during sporting competitions, such as the Olympic Games, the national anthem of the gold medal winner is played at each medal ceremony.

When teams from two different nations play each other, the anthems of both nations are played, the host nation's anthem being played last. In some countries, the national anthem is played to students each day at the start of school as an exercise in patriotism, such as in Tanzania. In other countries t


Grechetto or Grechetto bianco is a white Italian wine grape variety of Greek origins. The grape is planted throughout central Italy in the Umbria region where it is used in the Denominazione di origine controllata wine Orvieto and Denominazione di origine controllata wine Valdichiana Toscana, it is a blending grape, though some varietal wine is produced. Grechetto is blended with Chardonnay, Malvasia and Verdello; the grape's thick skin provides good resistance to downy mildew which can attack the grape late in the harvest season. This makes Grechetto a suitable blending grape in the production of Vin Santo. In Italy, the Grechetto grape is found in DOCs of the central region-most notably Umbria's Orvieto and Tuscany Foiano region as well as the DOCs Valdichiana Toscana, DOCs of Torgiano and Colli Martani; the grape has been developing more of a presence in the area as winemakers are finding more potential in the grape than in the other main Umbria white grape varieties-Drupeggio and Trebbiano.

In Lazio, the grape is found in the Cervaro region where the Antinori family has promoted its Cervaro blend of Grechetto and Chardonnay. The thick skin of Grechetto grapes allows the grape to be harvested late with high sugar levels; this works well in the production of dessert wines. There are at least two sub-varieties of Grechetto-Grechetto di Todi and Grechetto Spoletino with the former being more planted in the area; the Grechetto vine is low able to produce concentrated flavors. The grape is used as a blending grape where it adds richness and structure to the wines, it is most blended with Chardonnay, Trebbiano and Verdello. In Umbria, Grechetto can add nutty flavors to the wine. Grechetto is known under the synonyms Greca del Piemonte, Grechetto bianco, Grechetto di Todi, Grechetto Nostrale, Greco bianco di Perugia, Greco Gentile, Greco Spoletino, Montanarino Bianco, Occhietto, Pistillo, Pocinculo, Pulcincolo, Pulcinculo bianco, Pulcinella, Stroppa Volpe, Strozza Volpe and Uva di San Marino.

Despite having a synonym with a similar name, the grape is of no relation to the Greco bianco grape of the Calabria region

Cleveland Street, London

Cleveland Street in central London runs north to south from Euston Road to the junction of Mortimer Street and Goodge Street. It lies in the W1 post code area. Cleveland Street runs along part of the border between Bloomsbury, located in London Borough of Camden, West End and Marylebone High Street in the City of Westminster. In the 17th century, the way was known as the Green Lane, when the area was still rural, or Wrastling Lane, after a nearby amphitheatre for boxing and wrestling. Cleveland Street marks the border between the City of Westminster to its west and the London Borough of Camden to the east; this border is ancient following the old divide between the western parish of Saint Marylebone and the parish of Saint Pancras to the east and can be traced back as far as 1792. The street was a boundary between large estates, such as the Bedford Estate and the Berners Estate. Maps show that the southern end of modern Cleveland Street, beyond Riding House Street, was known as Upper Newman Street and Norfolk Street.

The northern section was once known as Upper Cleveland Buckingham Place. It became Cleveland Street for its full length after a renumbering was ordered by the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1867; the name comes from the Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland whose estate was connected in the 19th century with the Southampton property via Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton. The Southampton property became the Bedford Estate. Cleveland Street is renowned for several historical events and buildings, the most notable recent one being the BT Tower; the Cleveland Street Scandal happened in 1889 at 19 Cleveland Street which at the time housed a male brothel in which teenage telegraph boys served as prostitutes. The scandal was rumoured to involve Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, an heir to the throne of England, though this allegation has never been substantiated. A show inspired by the Cleveland Street scandal and titled Cleveland Street The Musical - with book and lyrics by Glenn Chandler - ran in London between April and May 2011.

In his book Jack the Ripper: The Final Solution, Stephen Knight mentions Cleveland Street in conjunction with two houses in the street. According to Knight's theory, the royal family was connected with the Jack The Ripper murders from 1888, via the same Prince Albert Victor who he claims met his wife, Catholic prostitute Annie Elizabeth Crook, at the studio of the painter Walter Sickert at 15 Cleveland Street. After their secret wedding, Annie Elizabeth Crook was settled in a flat at 6 Cleveland Street; the conspiracy theory behind the murders described in Knight's book has been loosely adapted into From Hell, a graphic novel by Alan Moore from which a movie with the same title was adapted in 2001. Several scenes in the movie take place in Cleveland Street; the Grade II listed buildings are numbers: 16-22. No 22, was twice the home of Charles Dickens. 54 was Cleveland Hall, constructed as a radical meeting place as a bequest from William Devonshire Saull. Secularists and anarchists met there until the hall was converted into a mission hall for the West London Methodist Mission in 1890.

68 106 45-49 139,141 The latter has a blue plaque signifying that Samuel Morse, inventor of the Morse Code once lived there. 143-149 151 The BT Tower complex. The tower was London tallest building when it was completed in 1960 and it remains a major London landmark, being the 8th tallest building in London at 177 metres plus a 12-metre antenna; the frontage building of the former Cleveland Street workhouse Middlesex Hospital annexe and outpatient department on the eastern side of the street at 44 c.1776. Over the years from 1778 until 2005 the building operated as a workhouse a workhouse infirmary and more as a hospital. UCLH NHS Foundation Trust in 2010 proposed the building's demolition in a planning application submitted to Camden London Borough Council to replace it with a large building mixing private accommodation with commercial space; however adjoining Westminster City Council objected on three grounds on 2 December 2010. The Cleveland Street Workhouse is of particular importance in light of the fact that Charles Dickens is known to have lived nearby in what is now 22 Cleveland Street.

Dickens lived there as a young child between 1815–1816 and again as a teenager between 1828-1831. His residence in the street has led to the suggestion that the nearby workhouse was the inspiration for Oliver Twist. Cleveland Street closed in 2005 and since demolished; the hospital occupied an entire block on the western side of the southern section of the street. The future of this site is uncertain, despite its sale by nationalised Icelandic Kaupthing Bank to Aviva Investors and Exemplar Properties. Cleveland Street was described as an area of special architectural and historic interest when it was designated a Conservation Area on 20 November 1990. Anomalously on its Camden side Cleveland Street is part of two conservation areas: the Fitzroy Square conservation area, the Charlotte Street conservation area; this double designation is rare a