National dish

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A Sunday roast—in this example, consisting of roast beef, mashed potatoes, vegetables and mini Yorkshire puddings—is a national dish of England.
Pilaf (O'sh), a national dish in the cuisines of Central Asia
Hainanese chicken rice, a national dish of Singapore
Khichdi, a national dish of India
Tumpeng, a national dish of Indonesia
Nasi lemak is a national dish of Malaysia, served with anchovies, peanuts, boiled egg, lamb curry, cucumber, vegetables, and "sambal tumis" (hot spicy sauce).
Pierogi ruskie ("Ruthenian dumplings"), the most enduring of Polish culinary traditions, recall the Ruthenian culinary traditions of the former Polish eastern territories (Kresy),[1] a national dish of Poland.
Chelo kabab, a national dish of Iran
Cepelinai, Lithuanian potato dumplings
Biryani, a spicy national dish of Pakistan
Philippine adobo, a national dish of the Philippines
Sarmale with mămăligă, national dishes of Romania and Moldova
Amok trey, a national dish of Cambodia
Swedish crayfish called Kräftskiva
Dal bhat, Nepal
Polenta, Italy
Couscous, Morocco and Algeria
Ndolé from Cameroon
Ukrainian borscht

A national dish is a culinary dish that is strongly associated with a particular country.[2] A dish can be considered a national dish for a variety of reasons:

National dishes are part of a nation's identity and self-image.[3] During the age of European empire-building, nations would develop a national cuisine to distinguish themselves from their rivals.[4]

According to Zilkia Janer, a lecturer on Latin American culture at Hofstra University, it is impossible to choose a single national dish, even unofficially, for countries such as Mexico or India because of their diverse ethnic populations and cultures.[3] The cuisine of such countries simply cannot be represented by any single national dish. Furthermore, because national dishes are so interwoven into a nation's sense of identity, strong emotions and conflicts can arise when trying to choose a country's national dish.

Latin American dishes[edit]

In Latin America, dishes may be claimed or designated as a "plato nacional", although in many cases, recipes transcend national borders with only minor variations.[citation needed] Both Peru and Ecuador claim ceviche as their national dish. Stews of meat, plantains, and root vegetables are the platos nacionales of several countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean: Colombian ajiaco, as well as the sancocho of the Dominican Republic, Colombia, and Panama, are examples of platos nacionales. Janer (2008) observes that this sharing of the same plato nacional by different countries calls into question the idea that every country has a unique national dish that is special to that country; she states that cuisine does not respect national and geopolitical borders.[3]

The identification of Latin American national dishes is stronger among expatriate communities in North America.[3] In Latin American countries, the plato nacional is usually part of the cuisine of rural and peasant communities, and not necessarily part of the everyday cuisine of city dwellers. In expatriate communities, the dish is strongly reclaimed in order to retain the sense of national identity and ties to one's homeland, and is proudly served in homes and restaurants. By this show of national identity, the community can resist social pressures that push for homogenization of many ethnically and culturally diverse communities into a single all-encompassing group identity, such as Latino or Hispanic American.[3]

By country[edit]

This is not a definitive list of national dishes, but rather a list of some foods that have been suggested to be national dishes.

Drink[edit]

National liquors[edit]

A national liquor is an alcoholic drink considered a standard and respected adult beverage in a given country. While the status of such drinks may be informal, there is usually a general consensus in a given country that a specific drink is the national beverage or "most popular liquor".[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Helena Szymanderska. Polska wigilia. 2000
  2. ^ a b c d "Top Ten National Dishes". National Geographic Magazine (Travel section). Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Zilkia Janer (2008). Latino food culture. Food cultures in America. ABC-CLIO. pp. 71–73. ISBN 9780313340277. 
  4. ^ Howes, David; Lalonde, Marc (June 1991). "The history of sensibilities: Of the standard of taste in mid-eighteenth century England and the circulation of smells in post-revolutionary France". Dialectical Anthropology. 16 (2): 125–135. doi:10.1007/BF00250241. ISSN 0304-4092. 
  5. ^ "Kabuli Pulao With Raisins And Carrots". Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  6. ^ "Food in Algeria: Algerian Food, Algerian Cuisine". Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  7. ^ Hamilton, Cherie. Cuisines of Portuguese Encounters New York: Hippocrene Books, 2001. p. 219
  8. ^ "El asado". Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  9. ^ "Argentina: Gastronomia". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2012.  (in Spanish)
  10. ^ "Our greatest Aussie recipes". Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  11. ^ News Limited http://www.news.com.au/national/roast-lamb-rules-as-australias-national-dish/story-e6frfkvr-1225825752497
  12. ^ "National Dishes & Local Favorites from the Islands of the Caribbean". Caribbeanamericanfoods.com. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  13. ^ Bahrain's National Dish
  14. ^ "A Bengali bounty". Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  15. ^ Barbados National Dish: Coucou & Flying Fish. Epicurian Tourist. 25 December 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  16. ^ Tom Masters (1 October 2009). Europe on a Shoestring. Lonely planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-855-1. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ "National Dish - Hispanic Food throughout the World". Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "Bosanksi Lonac – Bosnia & Herzegovina National Dish". Retrieved 18 September 2010. 
  20. ^ "Feijoada recipe, Eat brazilian!". Copacabana Info. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  21. ^ Bahrum Ali (21 February 2009). "Fostering family ties with ambuyat feasts". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  22. ^ Jessica Tiah (8 January 2011). "Ambuyat - Our iconic heritage". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  23. ^ "Amok trey". [unreliable source?]
  24. ^ "Khmer Foods". Tourism of Cambodia. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  25. ^ "Cambodia Food and Drink". Asiaview. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  26. ^ O'Neil, Lauren (28 June 2012). "The CBC Community chooses Canada's most iconic food". CBC 
  27. ^ Trillin, Calvin (23 November 2009). "Canadian Journal, "Funny Food,"". The New Yorker: 68–70 
  28. ^ Wong, Grace (2 October 2010). "Canada's national dish: 740 calories -- and worth every bite?". CNN 
  29. ^ Sufrin, Jon (22 April 2010). "Is poutine Canada's national food? Two arguments for, two against". Toronto Life 
  30. ^ Baird, Elizabeth (30 June 2009). "Does Canada Have a National Dish?". Canadian Living 
  31. ^ DeMONTIS, RITA (21 June 2010). "Canadians butter up to this tart". Toronto Sun , Nanaimo Bar, Peameal Bacon, Tourtiere
  32. ^ Chapman, Sasha (September 2012). "Manufacturing taste: the (un)natural history of Kraft Dinner". The Walrus. The Walrus Foundation. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  33. ^ Florence Fabricant (14 April 2009). "For Chileans, Passion Translates to Empanadas". New York Times. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  34. ^ The South American Table by Maria Baez Kijac (ISBN 978-1-55832-249-3), page 208
  35. ^ Rick Lundstrom (31 December 2013). "Classic duck dish now on Air China". 
  36. ^ Mary Bai (27 September 2011). "Peking Roast Duck, China's National Food". 
  37. ^ "Top 10 Hong Kong Dishes". Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. 
  38. ^ Roberts, Geneviã¿Ve (19 April 2005). "Hong Kong warns citizens off 'unhealthy' dim sum". The Independent. London. 
  39. ^ "Top Five Macanese Dihes". 
  40. ^ "POBREZA, DESARROLLO Y SALUD|1999-12-01". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  41. ^ a b "The Independent - 404". The Independent. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  42. ^ "Official results page of the Danish national dish competition". The Danish ministry of food. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  43. ^ "El Encebollado | Montañita - Ecuador". Montanita.com. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  44. ^ Publicado por Belénchis. "Ruta De La Fritada: Historia De La Fritada". Rutadelafritada.blogspot.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  45. ^ "la guatita ecuatoriana". 19 December 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  46. ^ "Food in Egypt". Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  47. ^ Orson, Lucy (2 July 2000). "192-Part Guide To The World: Eritrea". The Independent. London. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  48. ^ "Food in Ethiopia". Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  49. ^ "National dish of Finland". National-food.info. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  50. ^ "Famous French Food". Classic French Food. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  51. ^ "Four Nations Where Forks Do Knives' Work". New York Times. 18 February 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "Food Journeys of a Lifetime: Top Ten Great National Dishes". Away.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  53. ^ "Oiling the Wheels of the Economy." Gabon. Winter 2007. p. 19. Retrieved 10 March 2009 Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  54. ^ "The Currywurst has its own museum!". Currywurst Museum. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  55. ^ "What's On The Menu?: Germany's Favorite Dishes". German Foods. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  56. ^ Eleanor B. Pierce (1968). Menu Translator: Pan Am's Guide to Food and Drink Specialties Abroad and at Home. p. 76. 
  57. ^ Fodor's 89 Germany. 1989. p. 70. 
  58. ^ Charles Sinclair. Dictionary of Food: International Food and Cooking Terms from A to Z. A & C Black. p. 324. 
  59. ^ Λεξικό της κοινής Νεοελληνικής, 1998
  60. ^ "Moussaka: The National Dish of Greece". Greecelogue. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  61. ^ "Top 10 National Dishes". Terrific Top 10. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  62. ^ "Oil down: National Dish of Grenada". Gov.gd. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  63. ^ Nadya Natahadibrata (10 February 2014). "Celebratory rice cone dish to represent the archipelago". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  64. ^ a b Sara Schonhardt and Melanie Wood (15 August 2011). "40 of Indonesia's best dishes". CNN Travel. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  65. ^ Chef Daeng. "Satay Washington DC". satay.com. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  66. ^ "A Soto Crawl". Eating Asia. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  67. ^ "Chelo Kebab Recipe, Middle Eastern food". About.com. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  68. ^ Beeston, Richard (27 June 2007). "Imams put fatwa on carp caught in Tigris". London: The Times. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  69. ^ accessdate=2010-07-15 Archived 31 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  70. ^ The Ethnic Food Lover's Companion by Eve Zibart (ISBN 978-0-89732-372-7), page 181
  71. ^ Israel Handbook: The Travel Guide by David Winter (ISBN 978-1-900949-48-4), page 52
  72. ^ From Tapas to Meze: Small Plates from the Mediterranean by Joanne Weir (ISBN 978-1-58008-586-1), page 187
  73. ^ "Italy urged to go on pasta strike". BBC. 13 September 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  74. ^ "Polenta". Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  75. ^ a b "Food Journeys of a Lifetime: Top Ten Great National Dishes". Away.com. 9 October 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  76. ^ "Traditional Dishes of Japan". Japan National Tourism Organization. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  77. ^ 『カレーライス』に関するアンケート (in Japanese). ネットリサーチ ディムスドライブ. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  78. ^ McCurry, Justin (18 June 2010). "Ramen: Japan's super slurpy noodles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  79. ^ "Jordan National Dish, Mansaf: Waleg Kitchen". Waleg.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  80. ^ Business Optimization Consultants B.O.C. "Jordan: Jordanian Cuisine". Kinghussein.gov.jo. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  81. ^ Parkinson, Tom; Phillips, Matt; Gourlay, Will (2006). "Kenya". ISBN 9781740597432. 
  82. ^ "Thailand". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  83. ^ Stokes, Daniel. 2003. Low language in high places: social and political perspectives on grammar in the prose of 'Rong Wongsawan'. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 2003. P.38
  84. ^ Burke, Andrew, and Austin Bush. "Eating." Bangkok: city guide. 9th ed. Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet, 2010. 157. Print
  85. ^ "About Thai food". tourismthailand.org. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  86. ^ Clements, Miles (28 October 2010). "The Find: Tom Yum Koong". Los Angeles Times. 
  87. ^ "A Taste of Sticky Rice, Laos' National Dish | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  88. ^ "The national dish of Lebanon". Sourat.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  89. ^ "Judd mat Gaardebounen", Mycitycuisine.org. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  90. ^ Boissard, Pierre (1997). Cuisine Malgache, Cuisine Creole. Antananarivo: Librairie de Tananarive. pp. 36–40. 
  91. ^ Dwayne A. Rules (7 April 2011). "Nasi lemak, our 'national dish'". The Star. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  92. ^ Michael Specter (2 December 1984). "IN MALAYSIA, SPICY SATAY". New York Times. 
  93. ^ "Irresistible laksa at Teh Tarik Place". 9 September 2014. 
  94. ^ "Langkawi to lure tourists with 'Laksa'". 31 May 2013. 
  95. ^ Robyn Eckhardt (12 September 2005). "Reason Enough to Catch the Next Flight to Kuching". 
  96. ^ "Nation's favourite flat bread". The Star. 21 June 2014. 
  97. ^ "About Indian Malaysian Food". 
  98. ^ "Mole Poblano: Mexico's National Food Dish". Mexonline. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  99. ^ Nina Terrero (11 September 2012). "How to make: Traditional Mexican favorites". NBC Latino. 
  100. ^ "Montenegro Crna Gora Montenegro". Montenegro.org.au. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  101. ^ "Food in Morocco - Moroccan Food, Moroccan Cuisine - popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, staple, rice, famous, main, people, favorite, make, customs, fruits, country, bread, vegetables, bread". foodbycountry.com. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  102. ^ "DAL BHAT". Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  103. ^ "Bacon & Egg Pie". Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  104. ^ "Tender, loving care for lamb". Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  105. ^ "How to make Egusi soup". Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  106. ^ "Beef Nihari". Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  107. ^ "Ceviche – the Peruvian national dish". Peru Travel Guide. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  108. ^ DeWitt, Dave (2010). 1,001 Best Hot and Spicy Recipes. Agate Publishing. p. 428. ISBN 9781572841130. 
  109. ^ Sifton, Sam (5 January 2011). "The Cheat: The Adobo Experiment". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  110. ^ "Kapusta kiszona (sauerkraut) is the basis for Poland's national dish bigos (sauerkraut with a variety of meats), kapuśniak (sauerkraut soup)" [in:] Polish Holiday Cookery by Robert Strybel, 2003, p. 14; "Bigos, the national dish of Poland — a hunter's stew of mixed meats and vegetables" [in:] The food lover's companion to Portland by Lisa Shara Hall, Roger J. Porter, 1996
  111. ^ "Two national specialities you'll find everywhere are bigos (cabbage stewed with meat and spices) and pierogi" [in:] Poland: the rough guide, 1991 and kotlet schabowy is a close cousin of the Teutonic Wiener Schnitzel" [in:] Joey Porcelli, Clay Fong . The Gyros Journey: Affordable Ethnic Eateries Along the Front Range, 2006
  112. ^ Alison Mutler (17 February 2014). "EU agrees to open its grills to Romania's national sausage". Vancouver Sun. 
  113. ^ Food in Motion: The Migration of Foodstuffs and Cookery Techniques : Proceedings : Oxford Symposium 1983. Oxford Symposium. 1983. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-907325-16-1. 
  114. ^ Леонид Беловинский. Энциклопедический словарь российской жизни и истории: XVIII-начало XX в., стр. 557, Пирог (Leonid Belovinskiy. The encyclopedic dictionary of Russian life and history: from the 18th to the beginning of the 20th centurym p. 557, "Pirog"; in Russian)
  115. ^ Вильям Похлебкин. Большая энциклопедия кулинарного искусства, Пироги русские. Москва: Центрполиграф, 2010, ISBN 978-5-9524-4620-5 (William Pokhlyobkin. The Great Encyclopedia of Culinary Art, "Russian pirogi". Moscow: Centrpoligraph, 2010; in Russian)
  116. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (2002). The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 1. Encyclopedia Britannica. ISBN 978-0-85229-787-2. 
  117. ^ Countries and Their Cultures: Saint Kitts and Nevis to Zimbabwe. p. 68. 
  118. ^ "Serbian cuisine". TravelSerbia. Retrieved 9 August 2010. 
  119. ^ a b c Laurence Mitchell (2010). Serbia. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-84162-326-9. 
  120. ^ Pamela Goyan Kittler; Kathryn P. Sucher; Marcia Nahikian-Nelms (August 2011). Food and Culture, 6th ed. Cengage Learning. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-538-73497-4. Large, thin meat patties made from lamb and beef, known as pljeskavica, are considered a national dish of Serbia but are also a favorite with Bosnians and Croatians 
  121. ^ "Gibanica, a pie like no other". serbia.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  122. ^ "Fall Brings Red Peppers and Ajvar, 'Serbian Salsa'". NPR. 8 November 2006. 
  123. ^ Peta Lyn Farwagi (August 1978). Full of beans. Harper & Row. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-06-090601-6. 
  124. ^ "The quest for Singapore's next national dish". CNN. 26 January 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  125. ^ Kugiya, Hugo (18 March 2010). "Singapore's national dish: Hainan chicken rice". Crosscut.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  126. ^ "National Food". Slovak Republic. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  127. ^ Crais, C.; McClendon, T.V. (2013). The South Africa Reader: History, Culture, Politics. The World Readers. Duke University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8223-7745-0. 
  128. ^ Williamson, Lucy (4 February 2014). "Kimchi: South Korea's efforts to boost its national dish". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  129. ^ Govender, Serusha (6 May 2014). "10 National Dishes Around the World". The Daily Meal. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  130. ^ Jeffery, Nicole (20 May 2017). "Pyeongchang Winter Olympics: the next cool spot". The Australian. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  131. ^ Web Desk (7 February 2017). "National Dishes of the World". PKKH. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  132. ^ Kronenthal, Melissa (1 May 2010). "Spain's tortilla de patatas is simply satisfying". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  133. ^ "Sri Lanka Food Rice & Curry". Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  134. ^ a b "Food and Drink in Sweden: Sweden Travel Guide". Swedentravelnet.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  135. ^ "The crayfish party". Sweden.Se. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  136. ^ BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4867024.stm
  137. ^ Cederling: Surströmming (Rotten or more like sour herring) Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  138. ^ "Motion 2004/05:K378 Ostkaka som Sveriges nationalrätt" (in Northern Sami). riksdagen.se. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  139. ^ John Tagliabue (3 February 2008). "Swiss Sausage Fans Fret Over How to Save Their Skin". The New York Times. 
  140. ^ "Tanzania: 3 FOODS OF THE TANZANIANS". Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  141. ^ "Typical Thai Meals & Eating Habits". Bangkok.com. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  142. ^ "National Dishes & Local Favorites from the Islands of the Caribbean". Caribbeanamericanfoods.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  143. ^ "NATIONAL DISHES OF THE WORLD - GUTSY GOURMET". thegutsygourmet.net. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  144. ^ Elizabeth Taviloglu. "Navy Bean Stew Is Turkey's National Dish". turkishfood.about.com. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  145. ^ Л. М. Безусенко (ред.) (2002), "Борщ", Українська нацiональна кухня, Сталкер, p. 31  (L. M. Bezussenko, ed. (2002), "Borscht", Ukrainian Ethnic Cuisine (in Ukrainian), Stalker Publishers, p. 31 )
  146. ^ В. В. Похлёбкин (2000), "Борщ", Кулинарный словарь от А до Я, Центрполиграф  External link in |contribution= (help) (William Pokhlyobkin (2000), "Borscht", The Culinary Dictionary from A to Z (in Russian), Centrpoligraf )
  147. ^ Л. М. Безусенко (ред.) (2002), "Вареники", Українська нацiональна кухня, Сталкер  (L. M. Bezussenko, ed. (2002), "Varenyky", Ukrainian Ethnic Cuisine (in Ukrainian), Stalker Publishers, p. 181 )
  148. ^ В. В. Похлёбкин (2000), "Вареники", Кулинарный словарь от А до Я, Центрполиграф, p. 181  External link in |contribution= (help) (William Pokhlyobkin (2000), "Varenyky", The Culinary Dictionary from A to Z (in Russian), Centrpoligraf )
  149. ^ "Fish and Chips," in Fast Food and Junk Food: An Encyclopedia of What We Love to Eat (2011). Ed. Andrew F. Smith. ABC-CLIO p. 258 .
  150. ^ Darwin Porter and Danforth Prince, Frommer's England 2011: With Wales (2010). John Wiley & Sons: p. 163.
  151. ^ Heston Blumenthal, In Search of Total Perfection (2010). Bloomsbury: p. 205.
  152. ^ Fish and Chips, Historic UK.
  153. ^ Heston Blumenthal, Further Adventures in Search of Perfectionp. 100
  154. ^ Roy, Parama (2010). Alimentary Tracts: Appetites, Aversions, and the Postcolonial. Durham N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822347880.  p. 3
  155. ^ Spencer, Colin (2003). British Food: An Extraordinary Thousand Years of History. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13110-0. 
  156. ^ Robert Appelbaum, Aguecheek's Beef, Belch's Hiccup, and Other Gastronomic Interjections: Literature, Culture, and Food Among the Early Moderns (2006). University of Chicago Press, p. 214
  157. ^ Yee Chiang, The Silent Traveller in London (1939). Interlink: p. 157.
  158. ^ Peter Earle. The Making of the English Middle Class: Business, Society and Family Life in London 1660-1730 (1989). University of California Press: p. 279.
  159. ^ Cassell's Dictionary of Cookery (1883), p. 137.
  160. ^ About Plum Pudding, Everyday Housekeeping: A Magazine for Practical Housekeepers and Mothers (Vol. 13-14), p. 97.
  161. ^ "Ireland: Ulster Fry (March 10, 2008)". European Cuisines. 10 March 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  162. ^ Sari Edelstein. Food, Cuisine, and Cultural Competency for Culinary, Hospitality, and Nutrition Professionals (2010). Jones & Bartlett : p. 118.
  163. ^ Lesley Anne Rose, Michael Macaroon, and Vivienne Crow. Frommer's Scotland (2012). John Wiley & Sons: p. 28.
  164. ^ "Welsh national dish". Foodmuseum.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  165. ^ "Cuisine of Uzbekistan. Uzbek national dish :: Plov". Orexca.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  166. ^ "Welcome to Uzbek National Cuisine!". Uzbekcuisine.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  167. ^ "Venezuelan Cuisine: Vanezuelan National Dish (Pabellon Criollo Con Barandas)". Chowtimes.com. 22 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  168. ^ "Pho: national dish, international obsession". Vietnews Online. 14 February 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.