Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of living Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously overwhelmingly due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, including biological warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After its creation, the United States, as part of its policy of settler colonialism, waged war and perpetrated massacres against many Native American peoples, removed them from their ancestral lands, subjected them to one-sided treaties and to discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law.
This law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty. For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law; the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M. Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estima
Reggae Gold 1998 is a compilation album of reggae artists released in 1998. The album spent 82 weeks on Billboard's Reggae Album chart after debuting at #1. Reggae Gold spent 8 weeks on the Billboard 200. "She Nuh Ready Yet" - Spragga Benz "Gal Pon de Side" - Frisco Kid "Tell Me" - Beenie Man "Infiltrate" - Sean Paul "Cry for Die For" - Bounty Killer "Heads High" - Mr. Vegas "Babylon Ah Listen" - Sizzla "Destiny" - Buju Banton "Sweep over My Soul" - Luciano "Boom Boom" - Degree "We Nuh Like" - Spragga Benz "Tight up Skirt" - Red Rat "Bad Man Nuh Dress Like Girl" - Harry Toddler "Hold On" - Beres Hammond "Going Away" - Beenie Man, Sanchez "Don't Follow Rumours" - Carlton Livingston, Shabba Ranks
José Rodrigues Miguéis was a Portuguese translator and writer. Born to a middle-class family in the Alfama neighborhood of Lisbon, he was expected to have a career in law, he never practiced, having decided to pursue literary studies and pedagogy instead. In pursuit of these new interests, he attended the Université libre de Bruxelles and graduated in 1933 with a degree in Pedagogical Science. While there, he married a Russian-born educator named Pecia Cogan Portnoi. Together with Raul Brandão, he created a set of new primary readers, but these were never approved for use by the Portuguese government. In fact, having inherited a progressive outlook from his father, a native of Galicia, he came into conflict with the Estado Novo and left Portugal for a self-imposed exile in the United States. From 1935 until his death, he would pay only short visits to his homeland, his literary activities were supported by working as a translator and as an editor for Reader's Digest. He remarried in 1940 and acquired U.
S. citizenship in 1942. Following the war, he fell ill and died. From that point on, he gave up his revolutionary activities and devoted himself to writing. In 1961, he was elected a member of the Hispanic Society of America and, in 1976, was given a membership at the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. Just one year before his death, he was awarded the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, his biography was written by Mário Neves and published in 1990. Happy Easter, translated by John Byrne ISBN 1-85754-204-5 A Man Smiles at Death with Half a Face, translated by George Monteiro ISBN 0-8745-1503-3 Steerage and Ten Other Stories, various translators ISBN 0-943722-06-3