Natural theology

Natural theology, once termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature. This distinguishes it from revealed theology, based on scripture and/or religious experiences from transcendental theology, based on a priori reasoning, it is thus a type of philosophy, with the aim of explaining the nature of the gods, or of one supreme God. For monotheistic religions, this principally involves arguments about the attributes or non-attributes of God, the existence of God, using arguments that do not involve recourse to supernatural revelation. Marcus Terentius Varro established a distinction between political theology, natural theology and mythical theology, his terminology became part of the Stoic tradition and Christianity through Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas. Besides Hesiod's Works and Days and Zarathushtra's Gathas, Plato gives the earliest surviving account of a natural theology. In the Timaeus, written c. 360 BC, we read: "We must first investigate concerning that primary question which has to be investigated at the outset in every case, — namely, whether it has always existed, having no beginning or generation, or whether it has come into existence, having begun from some beginning."

In the Laws, in answer to the question as to what arguments justify faith in the gods, Plato affirms: "One is our dogma about the soul...the other is our dogma concerning the ordering of the motion of the stars". Varro in his Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum established a distinction between three kinds of theology: civil and mythical; the theologians of civil theology are "the people", asking how the gods relate to daily life and the state. The theologians of natural theology are the philosophers, asking about the nature of the gods, the theologians of mythical theology are the poets, crafting mythology. From the 8th century AD, the Mutazilite school of Islam, compelled to defend their principles against the orthodox Islam of their day, used philosophy for support, were among the first to pursue a rational Islamic theology, termed Ilm-al-Kalam; the teleological argument was presented by the early Islamic philosophers Alkindus and Averroes, while Avicenna presented both the cosmological argument and the ontological argument in The Book of Healing.

Thomas Aquinas presented several versions of the cosmological argument in his Summa Theologica, of the teleological argument in his Summa contra Gentiles. He presented the ontological argument, but rejected it in favor of proofs that invoke cause and effect alone, his quinque viae in those books attempted to prove the existence of God in different ways, including the goal-directed actions seen in nature. Raymond of Sabunde's Liber Naturae Sive Creaturarum, Etc. written 1434–1436, marks an important stage in the history of natural theology. John Ray known as John Wray, was an English naturalist, sometimes referred to as the father of English natural history, he published important works on plants and natural theology, with the objective "to illustrate the glory of God in the knowledge of the works of nature or creation". William Derham continued Ray's tradition of natural theology in two of his own works, Physico-Theology, published during 1713, Astro-Theology, 1714; these influenced the work of William Paley.

In An Essay on the Principle of Population, published during 1798, Thomas Malthus ended with two chapters on natural theology and population. Malthus—a devout Christian—argued that revelation would "damp the soaring wings of intellect", thus never let "the difficulties and doubts of parts of the scripture" interfere with his work. William Paley, an important influence on Charles Darwin, who studied theology at Christ College in Cambridge, gave a well-known rendition of the teleological argument for God. During 1802 he published Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity collected from the Appearances of Nature. In this he described the Watchmaker analogy, for which he is best known. However, his book, one of the most published books of the 19th and 20th century, presents a number of teleological and cosmological arguments for the existence of God; the book served as a template for many subsequent natural theologies during the 19th century. Professor of chemistry and natural history, Edward Hitchcock studied and wrote on natural theology.

He attempted emphasizing geology. His major work of this type was The Religion of its Connected Sciences; the Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford to "promote and diffuse the study of Natural Theology in the widest sense of the term—in other words, the knowledge of God." The term natural theology as used by Gifford means theology supported by science and not dependent on the miraculous. Debates over the applicability of teleology to scientific questions continued during the nineteenth century, as Paley's argument about design conflicted with radical new theories on the transmutation of species. In order to support the scientific ideas of the time, which explored the natural world within Paley's framework of a divine designer, Francis Henry Egerton, 8th Earl of Bridgewater, a gentleman naturalist, commissioned eight Bridgewater Treatises upon his deathbed to explore "the Power and Goo


Daytrana is a transdermal patch developed and marketed by Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc., approved in the US by the Food and Drug Administration in April 2006. In the literature, Daytrana is most referred to as methylphenidate transdermal system. Daytrana is approved by the FDA as a once daily treatment in children — ages 6 to 17 — with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it is prescribed as a second-line treatment for ADHD when traditional oral forms are not well tolerated or if patients have difficulty with compliance. Noven's original FDA submission indicated; when the FDA rejected the submission they requested evidence that a shorter time period was safe and effective, Noven provided such evidence and Daytrana was approved for the aforementioned indication over a 9-hour period. Orally administered methylphenidate is subject to first-pass metabolism, by which the levo-isomer is extensively metabolized. By circumventing this first-pass metabolism, the relative concentrations of l-threo-methylphenidate are much higher with transdermal administration.

In patients using Daytrana, a 39 nanograms/mL peak serum concentration of methylphenidate be has been found to occur between 7.5 and 10.5 hours after administration. However the onset to peak effect is 2 hours and the clinical effects remain up to 2 hours after patch has been removed; the absorption of Daytrana is increased when the transdermal patch is applied onto inflamed skin or skin, exposed to heat. The absorption lasts for 9 hours after application. 90 % of the medication is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug. The FDA has labeled Daytrana as a Category C medication in pregnancy

Joe Twomey

Joseph "Joe" Twomey is an Irish retired hurler who played as a midfielder for the Cork senior team. Born in Blackpool, Twomey was introduced to hurling in his youth, he developed his skills at the North Monastery, his tenure at the school coincided with a fallow period in terms of success. Twomey came to prominence at underage levels with Glen Rovers before making his senior debut in 1950, he won six championship medals over a decade-long club career. Twomey made his debut on the inter-county scene when he first linked up with the Cork senior team for the 1952 championship, he went on to play a key role at midfield during a hugely successful era for Cork, won two All-Ireland medals, two Munster medals and one National Hurling League medal. Throughout his career Twomey made 10 championship appearances, he retired from inter-county hurling following the conclusion of 1960 championship. Twomey was added to the Glen Rovers senior panel in 1950 as the club were attempting to secure a third successive championship.

Southside rivals St. Finbarr's were the opponents in the final and mounted attack after attack on the Glen goal but failed to raise the green flag; the Glen backs gave one of the finest displays of defensive hurling seen in the championship and kept the southsiders tally for the first half to 0-4. "The Barr's" added just one further point to their tally after the interval. The 2-8 to 0-5 victory secured a third successive championship title for the club and a first winners' medal for Twomey, introduced as a substitute. Sarsfields ended the Glen's hopes of four-in-a-row in 1951, while defeat in the first round of 1952 looked like heralding a fallow period; the club returned stronger than when they qualified for the 1953 championship final where they faced Sarsfields once again. After a slow start Glen Rovers gave an exhibition of hurling all over the field; the 8-5 to 4-3 victory secured a second championship medal for Twomey. In 1954 Glen Rovers reached their 17th championship final in twenty years.

Blackrock fielded a young team, Glen Rovers had eight inter-county players on their team. In spite of this, Blackrock stood up to the champions and the result remained in doubt to the end. A 3-7 to 3-2 victory secured a third championship medal for Twomey. Glen Rovers lost the next two championship deciders, while Twomey was ruled out of the Glen's 1958 championship triumph after being sent off in the semi-final. In spite of watching the game from the stands he still collected a fourth championship medal having played in the earlier rounds, he was back on the starting fifteen. Once again the game went to the wire and it was Christy Ring who scored the winning goal with four minutes remaining, his tally of 1-6 was vital in securing the 3-11 to 3-5 victory and a fifth championship medal for Twomey. Twomey was appointed captain in 1960 as a third successive championship beckoned. University College Cork were the opponents in the championship decider; the game was regarded as one of the most thrill-packed and nerve-shattering games in the history of the championship.

With time running out the Glen were behind, Christy Ring pointed a free from the sideline to level the game. Johnny Clifford secured the lead, he gave the Glen a two-point lead straight from the puck-out when his shot sailed over the bar again. The 3-8 to 1-12 victory gave Twomey his sixth championship medal, while he had the honour of lifting the Seán Óg Murphy Cup. Twomey made his senior championship debut on 22 June 1952 in a 6-6 to 2-4 Munster semi-final defeat of Limerick; this victory qualified Cork for a Munster final showdown with four-in-a-row hopefuls Tipperary. Trailing by 2-5 to 0-5 at the break, Liam Dowling scored a vital second-half goal to leave Cork just a point in arrears. Cork held out for the lead and won the game by 1-11 to 2-6, it was Twomey's first Munster medal. For the first time in eight years, Cork subsequently faced Dublin in the All-Ireland final on 7 September 1952; the Munster champions took a narrow 1-5 to 0-5 half-time lead after a Liam Dowling goal, Cork took complete control after the interval, with Dowling netting a second goal.

A 2-14 to 0-7 victory gave Twomey his first All-Ireland medal. Cork and Tipperary renewed their rivalry in 1953, when a record crowd of over 38,000 saw them contest the final of the league. Paddy Barry and Jimmy Lynam gave Cork a comfortable lead after scoring two goals as Tipperary missed several scoring chances. Paddy Kennedy responded with two goals at the end to narrow Cork's margin of victory to 2-10 to 2-7, with Twomey collecting a National Hurling League medal. Having met in the league decider and Tipperary qualified to meet in the Munster final as well. Tipperary were now a team in decline, Twomey collected a second successive Munster medal after a 3-10 to 1-11 victory; this victory qualified Cork for the All-Ireland final against Galway. After a slow start, which allowed Galway take an early lead, Cork regrouped and were 2-1 to 0-3 ahead at half-time after goals from Josie Hartnett and Christy Ring. Galway remained close to Cork throughout the second half, however, a third goal from Tom O'Sullivan put the result beyond doubt and secured a 3-3 to 0-8 victory for Cork.

It was Twomey's second All-Ireland medal. Twomey was dropped from the Cork team for the 1954 championship campaign, however, he returned at midfield the following year. Twomey played in Cork's opening championship campaign in 1956 before being dropped from the panel once again, he remained on and off the panel over the next few years before being appointed captain in 1960 as Cork faced Tipperary in the Munster final. Described as the toughest game of hurling played, Cork enjoyed most of t