This is achieved by casting surface points of the sphere onto a tangent plane, each landing where a ray from the center of the sphere passes through the point on the surface and on to the plane. No distortion occurs at the tangent point, but distortion increases rapidly away from it, less than half of the sphere can be projected onto a finite map. Consequently, a photographic lens, which is based on the gnomonic principle. The gnomonic projection is said to be the oldest map projection, the path of the shadow-tip or light-spot in a nodus-based sundial traces out the same hyperbolae formed by parallels on a gnomonic map. Since meridians and the equator are great circles, they are shown as straight lines on a gnomonic map. If the tangent point is one of the the meridians are radial. The equator is at infinity in all directions, other parallels are depicted as concentric circles. If the tangent point is not on a pole or the equator, the meridians are radially outward straight lines from a Pole, the equator is a straight line that is perpendicular to only one meridian, indicating that the projection is not conformal.
Other parallels are depicted as conic sections, if the tangent point is on the equator the meridians are parallel but not equally spaced. The equator is a line perpendicular to the meridians. Other parallels are depicted as hyperbolae, as with all azimuthal projections, angles from the tangent point are preserved. The map distance from that point is an r of the true distance d. The radial scale is r ′ =1 cos 2 d R and the transverse scale 1 cos d R so the scale increases outwardly. Gnomonic projections are used in work because seismic waves tend to travel along great circles. They are used by navies in plotting direction finding bearings, meteors travel along great circles, with the Gnomonic Atlas Brno 2000.0 being the IMOs recommended set of star charts for visual meteor observations. Aircraft and ship pilots use the projection to find the shortest route between start and destination, the gnomonic projection is used extensively in photography, where it is called rectilinear projection. The gnomonic projection is used in astronomy where the tangent point is centered on the object of interest, the sphere being projected in this case is the celestial sphere, R =1, and not the surface of the Earth.
List of map projections Beltrami–Klein model, the mapping of the hyperbolic plane Snyder
Cunard Line is an British-American cruise line based at Carnival House at Southampton, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc. It has been an operator of passenger ships on the North Atlantic. For most of the next 30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage, however, in the 1870s Cunard fell behind its rivals, the White Star Line and the Inman Line. To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganised as the Cunard Steamship Company, Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her running mate Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States entering the First World War, in the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the Germans and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to suspend construction on its own new superliner because of the Great Depression, Cunard owned two-thirds of the new company. Cunard purchased White Stars share in 1947, the name reverted to the Cunard Line in 1950, upon the end of the Second World War, Cunard regained its position as the largest Atlantic passenger line.
By the mid-1950s, it operated 12 ships to the United States, after 1958, transatlantic passenger ships became increasingly unprofitable because of the introduction of jet airliners. Cunard withdrew from its service in 1968 to concentrate on cruising. The Queens were replaced by Queen Elizabeth 2, which was designed for the dual role, in 1998 Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation, and accounted for 8. 7% of that companys revenue in 2012. Five years later, QE2 was replaced on the transatlantic runs by Queen Mary 2, the line operates Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth. At the moment, Cunard is the shipping company to operate a scheduled passenger service between Europe and North America. The British Government started operating monthly mail brigs from Falmouth and these ships carried few non-governmental passengers and no cargo. A Committee of Parliament decided in 1836 that to more competitive. The Admiralty assumed responsibility for managing the contracts, the famed Arctic explorer Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was appointed as Comptroller of Steam Machinery and Packet Service in April 1837.
Nova Scotians led by their young Assembly Speaker, Joseph Howe, on his arrival in London in May 1838, Howe discussed the enterprise with his fellow Nova Scotian Samuel Cunard, a shipowner who was visiting London on business. Cunard and Howe were associates and Howe owed Cunard £300, Cunard returned to Halifax to raise capital, and Howe continued to lobby the British government. The Rebellions of 1837 were ongoing and London realized that the proposed Halifax service was important for the military and that November, Parry released a tender for North Atlantic monthly mail service to Halifax beginning in April 1839 using steamships with 300 horsepower
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals, Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire gauges come in standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term wire is used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in multistranded wire. Wire comes in solid core, stranded, or braided forms, edge-wound coil springs, such as the Slinky toy, are made of special flattened wire. In some cases, strips cut from metal sheet were made into wire by pulling them through perforations in stone beads and this causes the strips to fold round on themselves to form thin tubes. This strip drawing technique was in use in Egypt by the 2nd Dynasty, from the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE most of the gold wires in jewellery are characterised by seam lines that follow a spiral path along the wire. Such twisted strips can be converted into solid round wires by rolling them between flat surfaces or the wire drawing method.
The strip twist wire manufacturing method was superseded by drawing in the ancient Old World sometime between about the 8th and 10th centuries AD, there is some evidence for the use of drawing further East prior to this period. Square and hexagonal wires were made using a swaging technique. In this method a metal rod was struck between grooved metal blocks, or between a punch and a grooved metal anvil. Swaging is of great antiquity, possibly dating to the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE in Egypt and in the Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe for torcs, twisted square-section wires are a very common filigree decoration in early Etruscan jewelry. In about the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE, a new category of decorative tube was introduced which imitated a line of granules. True beaded wire, produced by mechanically distorting a round-section wire, appeared in the Eastern Mediterranean and Italy in the seventh century BCE, a forerunner to beaded wire may be the notched strips and wires which first occur from around 2000 BCE in Anatolia.
Wire was drawn in England from the medieval period, the wire was used to make wool cards and pins, manufactured goods whose import was prohibited by Edward IV in 1463. The first wire mill in Great Britain was established at Tintern in about 1568 by the founders of the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, apart from their second wire mill at nearby Whitebrook, there were no other wire mills before the second half of the 17th century. Despite the existence of mills, the drawing of wire down to fine sizes continued to be done manually. Wire is usually drawn of cylindrical form, but it may be made of any desired section by varying the outline of the holes in the draw-plate through which it is passed in the process of manufacture
A semi-submersible is a specialised marine vessel used in a number of specific offshore roles such as offshore drilling rigs, safety vessels, oil production platforms, and heavy lift cranes. They are designed with good stability and seakeeping characteristics, other terms include semisubmersible, semi-sub, or simply semi. Offshore drilling in water greater than around 520 meters requires that operations be carried out from a floating vessel. A semi-submersible obtains most of its buoyancy from ballasted, watertight pontoons located below the ocean surface, structural columns connect the pontoons and operating deck. The operating deck can be located high above the sea owing to the good stability of the design. With its hull structure submerged at a draft, the semi-submersible is less affected by wave loadings than a normal ship. With a small area, the semi-submersible is sensitive to load changes. Unlike a submersible, a vessel is not supported by resting on the seabed. Semi-submersible vessels are able to transform from a deep to a draft by deballasting.
Usually they are moved from location to location in this configuration, the heavy lift vessels use this capability to submerge the majority of their structure, locate beneath another floating vessel, and deballast to pick up the other vessel as a cargo. The semi-submersible design was first developed for offshore drilling activities, bruce Collipp of Shell is regarded as the inventor. When oil drilling moved into offshore waters, fixed platform rigs and submersible rigs were built, when demands for drilling equipment was needed in water depths greater than 100 feet in the Gulf of Mexico, the first jackup rigs were built. The first semisubmersible arrived by accident in 1961, Blue Water Drilling Company owned and operated the four column submersible drilling rig Blue Water Rig No.1 in the Gulf of Mexico for Shell Oil Company. It was observed that the motions at this draught were very small, the first purpose built drilling semi-submersible Ocean Driller was launched in 1963. Since then, many semi-submersibles have been purpose-designed for the drilling industry mobile offshore fleet, the industry quickly accepted the semi-submersible concept and the fleet increased rapidly to 30 units by 1972.
Drilling rig construction has occurred in boom periods and therefore batches of drilling rigs have been built. They can be towed into position by a tugboat and anchored, or moved by, the IMO MODU Code is an accredited design and operational guideline for mobile offshore drilling units of the semi-submersible type. These semi-submersible crane vessels consist of two hulls, three columns on each pontoon and an upper hull
Earth's magnetic field
Its magnitude at the Earths surface ranges from 25 to 65 microteslas. The North geomagnetic pole, located near Greenland in the hemisphere, is actually the south pole of the Earths magnetic field. Unlike a bar magnet, Earths magnetic field changes over time because it is generated by a geodynamo, however, at irregular intervals averaging several hundred thousand years, the Earths field reverses and the North and South Magnetic Poles relatively abruptly switch places. These reversals of the geomagnetic poles leave a record in rocks that are of value to paleomagnetists in calculating geomagnetic fields in the past, such information in turn is helpful in studying the motions of continents and ocean floors in the process of plate tectonics. The magnetosphere is the region above the ionosphere that is defined by the extent of the Earths magnetic field in space. The Earths magnetic field serves to deflect most of the solar wind, one stripping mechanism is for gas to be caught in bubbles of magnetic field, which are ripped off by solar winds.
The study of past magnetic field of the Earth is known as paleomagnetism, reversals provide the basis for magnetostratigraphy, a way of dating rocks and sediments. The field magnetizes the crust, and magnetic anomalies can be used to search for deposits of metal ores, humans have used compasses for direction finding since the 11th century A. D. and for navigation since the 12th century. Although the magnetic declination does shift with time, this wandering is slow enough that a simple compass remains useful for navigation, using magnetoception various other organisms, ranging from some types of bacteria to pigeons, use the Earths magnetic field for orientation and navigation. At any location, the Earths magnetic field can be represented by a three-dimensional vector, a typical procedure for measuring its direction is to use a compass to determine the direction of magnetic North. Its angle relative to true North is the declination or variation, facing magnetic North, the angle the field makes with the horizontal is the inclination or magnetic dip.
The intensity of the field is proportional to the force it exerts on a magnet, another common representation is in X, Y and Z coordinates. The intensity of the field is measured in gauss, but is generally reported in nanoteslas. A nanotesla is referred to as a gamma, the tesla is the SI unit of the Magnetic field, B. The Earths field ranges between approximately 25,000 and 65,000 nT, by comparison, a strong refrigerator magnet has a field of about 10,000,000 nanoteslas. A map of intensity contours is called an isodynamic chart, as the World Magnetic Model shows, the intensity tends to decrease from the poles to the equator. A minimum intensity occurs in the South Atlantic Anomaly over South America while there are maxima over northern Canada, the inclination is given by an angle that can assume values between -90° to 90°. In the northern hemisphere, the field points downwards and it is straight down at the North Magnetic Pole and rotates upwards as the latitude decreases until it is horizontal at the magnetic equator
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying sail and derricks, and giving necessary height to a light, look-out position, signal yard, control position. Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship, nearly all sailing masts are guyed. Until the mid-19th century all vessels masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which typically consisted of the trunk of a conifer tree. From the 16th century, vessels were built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the height, the masts were built from up to four sections, known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, topgallant. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up separate pieces of wood. Such a section was known as a made mast, as opposed to sections formed from pieces of timber.
Jigger-mast, where it is the shortest, the aftmost mast on vessels with more than three masts. On a two-masted vessel with the main-mast forward and a smaller second mast, such as a ketch, or particularly a yawl. Although two-masted schooners may be provided with masts of identical size, the aftmost is still referred to as the main-mast, schooners have been built with up to seven masts in all, with several six-masted examples. On square-rigged vessels, each mast carries several horizontal yards from which the sails are rigged. A two-masted merchant vessel with a sizable foresail rigged on a slightly inclined foremast is depicted in an Etruscan tomb painting from 475–450 BC. While most of the ancient evidence is iconographic, the existence of foremasts can be deduced archaeologically from slots in foremast-feets located too close to the prow for a mainsail. Artemon, along with mainsail and topsail, developed into the rig of seagoing vessels in imperial times. The imperial grain freighters travelling the routes between Alexandria and Rome included three-masted vessels, a mosaic in Ostia depicts a freighter with a three-masted rig entering Romes harbour.
Special craft could carry many more masts, Theophrastus records how the Romans imported Corsican timber by way of a raft propelled by as many as fifty masts. Throughout antiquity, both foresail and mizzen remained secondary in terms of size, although large enough to require full running rigging
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water. Shipwrecking may be deliberate or accidental, UNESCO estimates that worldwide over 3 million shipwrecks, some thousands of years old, lie on seabeds. Military wrecks, caused by a skirmish at sea, are studied to find details about the historic event, they reveal much about the battle that occurred. Discoveries of treasure ships, often from the period of European colonisation, some contemporary wrecks, such as the oil tankers Prestige or Erika, are of interest primarily because of their potential harm to the environment. Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur growth, such as Adolphus Busch. Well known shipwrecks include the catastrophic Titanic, Lusitania, Empress of Ireland, Andrea Doria, there are thousands of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk. These abandoned, or derelict ships are smaller craft, such as fishing vessels.
They may pose a hazard to navigation and may be removed by port authorities, poor design, improperly stowed cargo and other human errors leading to collisions, bad weather and other causes can lead to accidental sinkings. Intentional reasons for sinking a ship include forming a reef, due to warfare, mutiny or sabotage, as part of target practice. A ship can be used as breakwater structure. The stratification not only creates another challenge for marine archaeology but a challenge to its primary state, stratification includes several different types of sand and/or silt, as well as tumulus and encrustations. These sediments are tightly linked to the type of currents and the type of water, besides this geological phenomenon, wrecks face the damage of marine creatures that create a home out of them, primarily being octopuses and crustaceans. All the above offers great challenges to the marine archaeologist when attempting to bind the pieces of a certain shipwreck together, despite these challenges, if the information retrieved does not appear to be sufficient, or a poor preservation is achieved, authors like J. A.
Parker claim that it is the value of the shipwreck that counts. Often the only parts of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is the Mary Rose and iron, depending on their thickness, may retain the ships structure for decades. As corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by tides and weather, thick ferrous objects such as cannons, steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine often survive well underwater in spite of corrosion. Propellers, condensers and port holes were made from non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa.
The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific.
Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. The field of navigation includes four categories, land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation. It is the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks, all navigational techniques involve locating the navigators position compared to known locations or patterns. Navigation, in a sense, can refer to any skill or study that involves the determination of position and direction. In this sense, navigation includes orienteering and pedestrian navigation, for information about different navigation strategies that people use, visit human navigation. In the European medieval period, navigation was considered part of the set of seven mechanical arts, early Pacific Polynesians used the motion of stars, the position of certain wildlife species, or the size of waves to find the path from one island to another.
Maritime navigation using scientific instruments such as the mariners astrolabe first occurred in the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages, the perfecting of this navigation instrument is attributed to Portuguese navigators during early Portuguese discoveries in the Age of Discovery. Open-seas navigation using the astrolabe and the compass started during the Age of Discovery in the 15th century, the Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route, in 1492 the Spanish monarchs funded Christopher Columbuss expedition to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic, which resulted in the Discovery of America. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later. The fleet of seven ships sailed from Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Southern Spain in 1519, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, some ships were lost, but the remaining fleet continued across the Pacific making a number of discoveries including Guam and the Philippines.
By then, only two galleons were left from the original seven, the Victoria led by Elcano sailed across the Indian Ocean and north along the coast of Africa, to finally arrive in Spain in 1522, three years after its departure. The Trinidad sailed east from the Philippines, trying to find a path back to the Americas. He arrived in Acapulco on October 8,1565, the term stems from 1530s, from Latin navigationem, from navigatus, pp. of navigare to sail, sail over, go by sea, steer a ship, from navis ship and the root of agere to drive. Roughly, the latitude of a place on Earth is its angular distance north or south of the equator, latitude is usually expressed in degrees ranging from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the North and South poles. The height of Polaris in degrees above the horizon is the latitude of the observer, similar to latitude, the longitude of a place on Earth is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian or Greenwich meridian. Longitude is usually expressed in degrees ranging from 0° at the Greenwich meridian to 180° east and west, for example, has a longitude of about 151° east.
New York City has a longitude of 74° west, for most of history, mariners struggled to determine longitude
The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. So, for example, landmasses such as Greenland and Antarctica appear much larger than they actually are relative to land masses near the equator, Mercators 1569 edition was a large planisphere measuring 202 by 124 cm, printed in eighteen separate sheets. As in all cylindrical projections and meridians are straight, being a conformal projection, angles are preserved around all locations. At latitudes greater than 70° north or south the Mercator projection is practically unusable, a Mercator map can therefore never fully show the polar areas. All lines of constant bearing are represented by segments on a Mercator map. The name and explanations given by Mercator to his world map show that it was conceived for the use of marine navigation. The development of the Mercator projection represented a breakthrough in the nautical cartography of the 16th century. However, it was ahead of its time, since the old navigational.
If these sheets were brought to the scale and assembled an approximation of the Mercator projection would be obtained. English mathematician Edward Wright, who published accurate tables for its construction, english mathematicians Thomas Harriot and Henry Bond who, associated the Mercator projection with its modern logarithmic formula, deduced by calculus. As on all map projections, shapes or sizes are distortions of the layout of the Earths surface. The Mercator projection exaggerates areas far from the equator, for example, Greenland appears larger than Africa, when in reality Africas area is 14 times greater and Greenlands is comparable to Algerias alone. Africa appears to be roughly the size as Europe. Alaska takes as much area on the map as Brazil, when Brazils area is nearly five times that of Alaska, finland appears with a greater north-south extent than India, although Indias is greater. Antarctica appears as the biggest continent, although it is actually the fifth in area, the Mercator projection is still used commonly for navigation.
On the other hand, because of land area distortions. Therefore, Mercator himself used the equal-area sinusoidal projection to show relative areas, the Mercator projection is still commonly used for areas near the equator, where distortion is minimal. Arno Peters stirred controversy when he proposed what is now called the Gall–Peters projection as the alternative to the Mercator
USS San Francisco (SSN-711)
USS San Francisco, a Los Angeles-class nuclear submarine, is the third ship or boat of the United States Navy to be named for San Francisco, California. The boat has a projected date of 9 January 2017. The contract to build her was awarded to Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company in Newport News, Virginia, on 1 August 1975 and she was launched on 27 October 1979 sponsored by Mrs. Robert Y. Kaufman, and commissioned on 24 April 1981, with Commander J. Allen Marshall in command, following an initial shakedown cruise, San Francisco joined Submarine Force, US Pacific Fleet and moved to her homeport at Pearl Harbor. San Francisco completed deployments in 1982,1983,1985, and 1986 with the U. S, seventh Fleet and various independent operations in the Pacific in 1986 earning the Battle Efficiency E for Submarine Squadron Seven in 1985. She earned a Navy Unit Commendation, a second Battle Efficiency E for Submarine Squadron Seven, San Francisco entered a Depot Modernization Period at Pearl Harbor from 1989 to 1990 and went on to conduct deployments to the Western Pacific in 1992 and 1994.
The submarine was awarded the 1994 Commander Submarine Squadron Seven T for excellence in tactical operations, on 18 December 2002 San Francisco arrived at her new homeport at Apra Harbor, Guam. The submarine is homeported at Naval Base Point Loma, San Diego, on 8 January 2005 at 02,43 GMT, San Francisco collided with an undersea mountain about 675 kilometers southeast of Guam while operating at flank speed at a depth of 525 feet. The collision was so serious that the vessel was almost lost—accounts detail a desperate struggle for positive buoyancy to surface after the forward ballast tanks were ruptured. Ninety-eight crewmen were injured, and Machinists Mate Second Class Joseph Allen Ashley,24, of Akron, other injuries to the crew included broken bones, and a back injury. San Francisco’s forward ballast tanks and her sonar dome were severely damaged, but her hull was not breached. The Navy stated that there was no reason to believe that it struck another submarine or vessel. Later, an examination in drydock showed unmistakably that she had struck a mountain which had only vague references on available charts.
Commander Kevin Mooney, San Francisco’s captain, was reassigned to a unit in Guam during the investigation of this collision. Consequently, the Navy relieved Mooney of his command, and issued a letter of reprimand to him, six crew members received non-judicial punishment hearings for hazarding a vessel and dereliction of duty, and they were reduced in rank and given letters of reprimand. Since San Francisco had recently had her nuclear fuel replaced, and thus she was expected to remain in-service until 2017, temporary repairs were made in Guam to provide water-tight integrity and forward buoyancy, so that the boat could safely transit to another location for more extensive repairs. San Francisco steamed to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in the Washington via Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in June 2006, it was announced that San Francisco’s bow section would need to be replaced with that of the soon-to-be-retired USS Honolulu at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Though San Francisco is four years older than Honolulu, she had refueled and upgraded in 2000–2002
Orkney /ˈɔːrkni/, known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain. Orkney is 16 kilometres north of the coast of Caithness and comprises approximately 70 islands, the largest island Mainland is often referred to as the Mainland. It has an area of 523 square kilometres, making it the sixth-largest Scottish island, the largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall. A form of the dates to the pre-Roman era and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8500 years, originally occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes. Orkney was invaded and forcibly annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse, the Scottish Parliament re-annexed the earldom to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James IIIs bride Margaret of Denmark. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a lieutenancy area, and a historic county.
The local council is Orkney Islands Council, one of only three Councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents. In addition to the Mainland, most of the islands are in two groups, the North and South Isles, all of which have a geological base of Old Red Sandstone. The climate is mild and the soils are fertile, most of the land being farmed. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, the significant wind and marine energy resources are of growing importance, and the island generates more than its total yearly electricity demand using renewables. The local people are known as Orcadians and have a distinctive Orcadian dialect of Scots, there is an abundance of marine and avian wildlife. Pytheas of Massilia visited Britain – probably sometime between 322 and 285 BC – and described it as triangular in shape, with a northern tip called Orcas and this may have referred to Dunnet Head, from which Orkney is visible. Speakers of Old Irish referred to the islands as Insi Orc island of the pigs, the archipelago is known as Ynysoedd Erch in modern Welsh and Arcaibh in modern Scottish Gaelic, the -aibh representing a fossilized prepositional case ending.
The Anglo-Saxon monk Bede refers to the islands as Orcades insulae in his seminal work Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Norwegian settlers arriving from the ninth century reinterpreted orc as the Old Norse orkn seal. The plural suffix -jar was removed in English leaving the modern name Orkney, according to the Historia Norwegiæ, Orkney was named after an earl called Orkan. The Norse knew Mainland Orkney as Megenland Mainland or as Hrossey Horse Island, the island is sometimes referred to as Pomona, a name that stems from a sixteenth-century mistranslation by George Buchanan, which has rarely been used locally. A charred hazelnut shell, recovered in 2007 during excavations in Tankerness on the Mainland has been dated to 6820–6660 BC indicating the presence of Mesolithic nomadic tribes