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Nautilus

The nautilus is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina. It comprises six living species in two genera, the type of, the genus Nautilus. Though it more refers to species Nautilus pompilius, the name chambered nautilus is used for any of the Nautilidae. All are protected under CITES Appendix II. Nautilidae, both extant and extinct, are characterized by involute or more or less convolute shells that are smooth, with compressed or depressed whorl sections, straight to sinuous sutures, a tubular central siphuncle. Having survived unchanged for hundreds of millions of years, nautiluses represent the only living members of the subclass nautiloidea, are considered "living fossils"; the word nautilus is derived from the Greek ναυτίλος nautílos and referred to the paper nautiluses of the genus Argonauta, which are octopuses. The word nautílos means "sailor", as paper nautiluses were thought to use two of their arms as sails.

The "tentacles" of the nautiluses are cirri, composed of long, flexible appendages which are retractable into corresponding hardened sheaths. Unlike the 8–10 head appendages of coleoid cephalopods, nautiluses have many cirri. In the early embryonic stages of nautilus development a single molluscan foot differentiates into a total of 60–90 cirri, varying within a species. Nautilus cirri differ from the tentacles of some coleoids in that they are non-elastic and lack pads or suckers. Instead, nautilus cirri adhere to prey by means of their ridged surface. Nautiluses have a powerful grip, attempts to take an object grasped by a nautilus may tear away the animal's cirri, which will remain attached to the surface of the object; the main cirri emerge from sheaths. The pair of cirri before the eye and the pair of cirri behind the eye are separate from the others; these are more evidently grooved, with more pronounced ridges. They are believed to serve an olfactory purpose; the radula is wide and distinctively has nine teeth.

The mouth consists of a parrot-like beak made up of two interlocking jaws capable of ripping the animal's food— crustaceans— from the rocks to which they are attached. Males can be superficially differentiated from females by examining the arrangement of tentacles around the buccal cone: males have a spadix organ located on the left side of the cone making the cone look irregular, whereas the buccal cone of the female is bilaterally symmetrical; the crop is the largest portion of the digestive tract, is extensible. From the crop, food passes to the small muscular stomach for crushing, goes past a digestive caecum before entering the brief intestine. Like all cephalopods, the blood of the nautilus contains hemocyanin, blue in its oxygenated state. There are two pairs of gills which are the only remnants of the ancestral metamerism to be visible in extant cephalopods. Oxygenated blood arrives at the heart through four ventricles and flows out to the animal's organs through distinct aortas but returns through veins which are too small and varied to be described.

The one exception to this is the vena cava, a single large vein running along the underside of the crop into which nearly all other vessels containing deoxygenated blood empty. All blood passes through one of the four sets of filtering organs upon leaving the vena cava and before arriving at the gills for re-oxygenation. Blood waste is emptied through a series of corresponding pores into the pallial cavity; the central component of the nautilus nervous system is the oesophageal nerve ring, a collection of ganglia and connectives that together form a ring around the animal's oesophagus. From this ring extend all of the nerves forward to the mouth and funnel; the nerve ring does not constitute what is considered a cephalopod "brain": the upper portion of the nerve ring lacks differentiated lobes, most of the nervous tissue appears to focus on finding and consuming food. Nautiluses tend to have rather short memory spans, the nerve ring is not protected by any form of brain case. Nautiluses are the sole living cephalopods whose bony body structure is externalized as a planispiral shell.

The animal can withdraw into its shell and close the opening with a leathery hood formed from two specially folded tentacles. The shell is coiled, aragonitic and pressure-resistant, imploding at a depth of about 800 m; the nautilus shell is composed of two layers: a matte white outer layer, a striking white iridescent inner layer. The innermost portion of the shell is a pearlescent blue-gray; the osmeña pearl, contrarily to its name, is not a pearl, but a jewellery product derived from this part of the shell. Internally, the shell divides into the chambered section being called the phragmocone; the divisions are defined by septa, each of, pierced in the middle by a duct, the siphuncle. As the nautilus matures, it creates new, larger camerae and moves its growing body into the larger space, sealing the vacated chamber with a new septum; the camerae increase in number from around 4 at the moment of hatching to 30 or more in adults. The shell coloration keeps the animal

1906 United States House of Representatives elections in South Carolina

The 1906 South Carolina United States House of Representatives elections were held on November 6, 1906, to select seven Representatives for two-year terms from the state of South Carolina. All seven incumbents were re-elected and the composition of the state delegation remained Democratic. Incumbent Democratic Congressman George Swinton Legaré of the 1st congressional district, in office since 1903, defeated Republican challenger Aaron P. Prioleau. Incumbent Democratic Congressman James O'H. Patterson of the 2nd congressional district, in office since 1905, won the Democratic primary and defeated Republican Isaac Myers in the general election. Incumbent Democratic Congressman Wyatt Aiken of the 3rd congressional district, in office since 1903, defeated Julius E. Boggs in the Democratic primary and was unopposed in the general election. Incumbent Democratic Congressman Joseph T. Johnson of the 4th congressional district, in office since 1901, won the Democratic primary and defeated Republican David C.

Gist in the general election. Incumbent Democratic Congressman David E. Finley of the 5th congressional district, in office since 1899, defeated Thomas J. Strait in the Democratic primary and was unopposed in the general election. Incumbent Democratic Congressman J. Edwin Ellerbe of the 6th congressional district, in office since 1905, was unopposed in his bid for re-election. Incumbent Democratic Congressman Asbury Francis Lever of the 7th congressional district, in office since 1901, defeated Republican challenger Aaron D. Dantzler. United States House of Representatives elections, 1906 South Carolina gubernatorial election, 1906 South Carolina's congressional districts Jordan, Frank E; the Primary State: A History of the Democratic Party in South Carolina, 1876-1962. Pp. 101, 104, 109, 114. "Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina. Part II." Reports and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume II. Columbia, SC: 1907, p. 199

Leslie Gifford Kilborn

Leslie Gifford Kilborn, the son of Omar L. Kilborn and Retta Kilborn, was born in Sichuan, China. Kilborn advanced missionary work in west China, he was the author of multiple texts, translator of many textbooks, served as director of the College of Medicine of West China Union University and dean of the Faculty of the College of Medicine. Kilborn married Dr. Janet R. McClure, the daughter of missionaries in the Canadian Presbyterian Mission in north China. Therefore, she was well acquainted with Mandarin Chinese, both began working for missionaries in Sichuan, they had three children. Janet passed away in 1945, Kilborn married Jean Ewart Millar, an anesthetic specialist, they lived under the Communist regime in China, helped refugees who sought shelter and accommodation. Millar was born in Guelph, Ontario, in 1906, she served as a missionary for the Woman's Missionary Society in Chinese hospitals between 1932 and 1946, taught at the University of Hong Kong, where Leslie worked after 1952. She returned with her husband to Canada in 1963, died in 1982.

Kilborn was born in China, moved back to Canada to pursue an education. Kilborn enrolled at the University of Toronto in 1913, took honors classes in physiology and biochemistry. Graduating with first-class honors in 1917, he obtained his M. A. in physiology and obtained his M. D. in 1921. He received the Victoria Silver Medal in Science, he co-wrote the book Observations on the Glycogen Content of Certain Invertebrates and Fishes with John James Rickard Macleod. He wrote a number of other books about the effects of adrenaline in vascular changes, notably in animals or vertebrates. To advance his academic career further, Kilborn moved from Sichuan to Chengdu, he worked at the West China Union University as a physiology professor. At the university, he collaborated with other faculty to translate many medical textbooks into Chinese. In collaboration with another author, he translated Halliburton’s Physiology. In the late 1920s, Kilborn earned his Ph. D. degree in physiology in Canada before continuing his career at the university.

Kilborn became the director of the College of Medicine and Dentistry, which his father Omar had pioneered, until 1950. He earned the deanship of the Faculty of Medicine. Kilborn and his wife Janet set out for west China in the autumn of 1921. After arriving at Chengdu, he started medical work in Pengxian county and took Mandarin lessons simultaneously. About a year and a half he moved from Pengxian county back to Chengdu where he began his teaching career as a physiology lecturer. Rising through the ranks of the academic world, Leslie became the dean of the Department of Physiology and deputy section head of the medical division. In 1925, Kilborn was injured by a dum-dum bullet, he needed four months to recover and his wounds left him with a permanently disabled shoulder. His new disability hindered his penchant for missionary work, making it difficult for him to move around and carry out daily activities. In 1936 he became dean of the College of Medicine and three years he was elected the director of the College of Dentistry in 1939.

He held the position for eight years. Not only ensuring their accommodation, but ensuring the continuation of their education, Kilborn allowed the displaced students to use the amenities of his university, his dedication to house refugees manifested ostensibly when he welcomed them to the comforts of his own home. In 1952, he became the professor of physiology at the University of Hong Kong; as an academic force, Kilborn pursued research with a fervor. He was involved with research on the tribal people of the west China borderland, made trips to the countryside, he continued to remain in Hong Kong as vice-president of Chung Chi College, an institution that contributed to missionary work. The center where Kilborn conducted research promoted the rapid development of regional health care, his mastery of Mandarin allowed him to interact with the Chinese native to the region, eradicating suspicion or mistrust because he spoke their native tongue. Morse called him "a specialist with the highest professional training we have never seen before.

He was able to lead the development of physiology. He was born in China, no other foreign teachers could speak decent Chinese like him." "His laboratory was the best of its kind in W. C. U. U."Kilborn's service was not limited to the academic world. He was involved in politics and strengthening international relations; when Canada and China first established diplomatic relations, the Canadian government asked Kilborn to assist the newly appointed minister in establishing a legation in Chongqing. He travelled between Canada and Chengdu despite the arduous travel involved