President of the Navajo Nation
The office of President of the Navajo Nation was created in 1991 following restructuring of the national government. The president and vice president are elected every four years, as outlined in the Navajo Nation Code §1001-1006, office holders have to be fluent in the Navajo language among other declared qualifications. The Navajo Nation Code defines who may become or act as President upon the absence of a president or a president-elect. The Speaker does not relinquish his Speaker duties whilst acting as interim President
Flag of the Navajo Nation
The flag of the Navajo Nation is the official flag of the Navajo Nation, a Native American Governed Nation in the Four Corners states of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. On May 21,1968, the flag was adopted for the Navajo Nation and this flag was designed by Jay R. Degroat, a student from Mariano Lake, New Mexico and was initially selected from 140 entries for the Navajo Flag Competition. It incorporates elements of the seal designed by John Claw, Jr. adopted earlier. The overall flag recalls sand painting, an art form used by the Navajos, a rainbow symbolizing Navajo sovereignty appears over the main design. In 1995 the Navajo flag became the first Native American tribal flag in space when Bernard Harris carried it aboard the space shuttle Discovery
This is the largest land area retained by a U. S. tribe, with a total population of 173,667. The original territory has expanded several times since the 1800s. In 2016 under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program, some 149,524 acres of land were returned by the Department of Interior to the Navajo Nation for tribal communal use, the program is intended to help restore the land bases of reservations. The executive system manages a large law enforcement and social services apparatus, health services, Diné College, the population continues to disproportionately struggle with health problems and the effects of past uranium mining accidents. In English, the name for the area was Navajo Indian Reservation. On April 15,1969, the changed its official name to the Navajo Nation. This was a period of Native American activism and assertion of sovereignty, in 1994, the Tribal Council rejected a proposal to change the official designation from Navajo to Diné. It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, in Navajo, the geographic entity with its legally defined borders is known as Naabeehó Bináhásdzo.
This contrasts with Diné Bikéyah and Naabeehó Bikéyah for the idea of Navajoland. Neither of these terms should be confused with Dinétah, the used for the traditional homeland of the Navajo. It is situated in the area among the four sacred Navajo mountains of Dookʼoʼoosłííd, Dibé Ntsaa, Sisnaajiní, the Navajo peoples tradition of governance is rooted in their clans and oral history. The clan system of the Diné is integral to their society, singer argues in 2007s Government Reform Project. In the mid-19th century, the Navajo were forced from their lands by the US Army following defeat, after they were allowed to return, the Navajo Indian Reservation was established according to the Treaty of 1868 with the United States. Though the treaty had provided for one hundred miles in the New Mexico Territory. This initial piece of land is represented in the design of the Navajo Nations flag by a dark-brown rectangle, as no physical boundaries or signposts were set in place, many Navajo ignored these formal boundaries and returned to where they had been living prior to captivity.
A significant population of Navajo still resided along the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers and they had never lived in the Hwéeldi near. The first expansion of the territory occurred on October 28,1878, further additions followed throughout the late 19th and early 20th century. The eastern border was shaped primarily as a result of allotments of land to individual households under the Dawes Act of 1887, the government determined that land left over after all members had received allotments was to be considered surplus and available for sale to non-Native Americans
Navajo music is music made by Navajos, mostly hailing from the Four Corners region of the Southwestern United States and the territory of the Navajo Nation. The popular side is characterized by public performance while the songs are preserved of their sacredness by reserving it only for ceremonies. The longest ceremonies may last up to ten days and nights while performing rituals that restore the balance between good and evil, or positive and negative forces. The lyrics, which may last over an hour and are sung in groups, contain narrative epics including the beginning of the world, morality. Her sons, the Hero Twins, Monster Slayer and Born-for-the-Water, are sung about, for they rid the world of giants. Stories such as these are spoken of during these sacred ceremonies, the popular music resembles the highly active melodic motion of the choruses, featuring wide intervallic leaps and melodic range usually an octave to octave and a half. Their lyrics are mostly vocables, with certain vocables specific to genres, long ago when the animals roamed the earth they came together to play Késhjééʼ, or the Navajo moccasin game.
Yéʼiitsoh and Owl discussed putting a game together and they came up with the Navajo Shoegame, there is a story that goes with this, however it remains only to be heard orally by a Diné. Today throughout the Navajo Nation, many families play the Navajo Shoegame, at times, local communities play against each other during the winter season. There are many prominent Navajo Shoegame singers throughout the Navajo Nation, notably the Nez Family of Hunters Point and Pinedale, New Mexico, who are very well known for their singing and playing of the game. Leo Nez Sr. and his son Titus Jay Nez who come from the Nez family are well known for their singing of Shoegame songs. Other notable members include Jimmy Cody, and Sammie Largo, Navajo childrens songs are usually about animals, such as pets and livestock. Some songs are about family members, and about chores, games and it usually includes anything in a childs daily life. A child may learn songs from an age from the mother. As a baby, if the child cries, the mother will sing to it while its tied in the cradleboard, Navajo songs are rhythmic, and therefore soothing to a baby.
Thus, songs are a part of Navajo culture. It may have been a kind of course in learning the songs and prayers for self-protection from bad things, skinwalkers. Blessings, such as one does with corn pollen in the early morning
The term Navajo Pueblitos, known as Dinétah Pueblitos, refers to a class of archaeological sites that are found in the northwestern corner of the American state of New Mexico. The sites generally consist of small stone and timber structures which are believed to have been built by the Navajo people in the late 17th. The sites are located within the area known as the Dinétah. Pueblitos are generally found in locations along mesa rims and on isolated outcrops. The structures themselves can consist of one to six rooms, and take the form of multi-storied towers, cliff dwellings. The majority of sites are located on lands administered by the United States Bureau of Land Management in Rio Arriba and San Juan counties. Pueblitos, as well as a number of other early Navajo sites are clustered in the Largo and Gobernador canyons. The sites, now in ruins, date to what archaeologists have named the Gobernador phase of Navajo history, the Spaniards returned in 1692, and it appears that some Pueblo people fled to the mesas and canyons of the Navajo.
A large Puebloan influx to the Dinétah region was seen by archaeologists as the impetus for a mixing of Puebloan. The presence of Pueblo refugees has generally credited as an important driving force behind the construction of the pueblitos. There is, some debate over the evidence that any number of Pueblo people lived with the Navajos in this period. Spanish reports seem to indicate that portions of several Tewa and two Jemez communities may have sought refuge with the Navajos, whether constructed by Navajos, Puebloans, or a combination of both, most scholars agree that the Pueblitos are highly defensive in nature. Dinétah was an area at the beginning of the 18th century, held by Navajos and possibly Pueblo refugees against retaliatory Spanish expeditions. The defensive strategies employed at Pueblito sites consist of two elements, advance warning, and regulation of access. The location of sites allowed for views of approach routes. Pueblitos are generally constructed as two-story masonry structures situated on rock outcroppings or cliff edges, the shape of the structures generally follows the contour of the outcrop on which it rests.
The interior space is partitioned by abutting cross walls to the outer walls, in most cases the structures and rooms tend to have rounded corners. The masonry is usually of readily available unshaped sandstone blocks and slabs which are set in mud mortar, room interiors are often covered with hand pressed adobe mortar
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Miss Navajo Nation is a pageant that has been held annually on the Navajo Nation, United States, since 1952. The first Miss Navajo was Dr. Beulah Melvin Allen, in 1952 and she was crowned at the Navajo Nation Fair, the largest fair held on the Navajo Nation, which had been established three years earlier. Pageant contestants must be unmarried, over 18 years of age, be a school graduate. The current Miss Navajo Nation is Ronda Joe of Rock Point, a documentary film called Miss Navajo, directed by Billy Luther, was filmed in 2005 and 2006, released in 2006, and shown on the Independent Lens documentary series on PBS in 2007. Miss Navajo is a tradition that still continues today. Miss Navajos duties as a leader are to guide and be a model of the Navajo Nation. Miss Navajo Council, Inc official site Miss Navajo film MISS NAVAJO site for Independent Lens on PBS
Window Rock, Arizona
Window Rock is a small city that serves as the seat of government and capital of the Navajo Nation, the largest territory of a sovereign Native American nation in North America. It lies within the boundaries of the St. Michaels Chapter, adjacent to the Arizona, Window Rocks population was 2,712 at the 2010 census. But is estimated to reach around 20,000 during weekdays when tribal offices are open, Window Rocks main attraction is the window formation of sandstone the community is named after. The Navajo Nation Museum, the Navajo Nation Zoological and Botanical Park, until 1936, the area was sparsely populated and known only by its ceremonial name Niʼ Ałníiʼgi. John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, chose the site to establish the seat of the Navajo Central Agency and his proposal to make the ceremonial name the official name met with resistance and Navajos soon ridiculed it as ni ałnííʼgóó. Due to this, the name of the local landmark. Tségháhoodzání, which is north of the Navajo governmental administration buildings, is important in the traditional Navajo Water Way Ceremony.
It was one of the four places where Navajo medicine men go with their traditional woven water jugs to get water for the ceremony that is held for the abundance of rainfall. As a district within the St. Michaels Chapter, Window Rock is served by a Navajo Council Delegate and Chapter President, although Window Rock is within St. Window Rock is located at 35°40′22″N 109°3′44″W. The Arizona/New Mexico state line marks the eastern edge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Window Rock CDP has an area of 5.3 square miles. The area is atop the Defiance Plateau which encompasses the area, the greater Window Rock area comprises the Fort Defiance and St. Michaels chapters, the hamlets of Hunters Point and the Summit, and Tse Bonito on the New Mexico side of the border with Arizona. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,059 people,876 households, the population density was 589.3 people per square mile. There were 998 housing units at a density of 192. 3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.
46% Native American,3. 17% White,0. 42% Asian,0. 16% African American,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 07% from other races, and 0. 69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 44% of the population,15. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.42 and the family size was 3.81. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 36. 3% under the age of 18,10. 9% from 18 to 24,28. 7% from 25 to 44,19. 6% from 45 to 64, the median age was 27 years
The breed is renowned for its hardiness and adaptability to extremes of climate. Its wool consists of a topcoat and soft undercoat. Some rams have four fully developed horns, a trait shared with few other breeds in the world, the Navajo-Churro has gained popularity for its low-maintenance reputation, resistance to disease, and lean meat. Some say they are very personable and this breed is raised primarily for wool. Navajo-Churro are descended from a cross between the Churra and the Jacob Sheep, the Churra was first imported to North America in the 16th century and used to feed Spanish armies and settlers. By the 17th century Churros were popular with the Spanish settlers in the upper Rio Grande Valley, flocks of Churros were acquired by the Navajo through trading. The Churro soon became an important part of the Navajo economy, a series of United States government-sponsored flock reductions and cross-breedings decimated the Navajo flocks until the Churro sheep nearly disappeared. Restoration of the began in the 1970s when breeders began acquiring Churro phenotypes with the purpose of preserving the breed and revitalizing Navajo.
While the Navajo-Churro breed is no longer in danger of extinction, the Navajo-Churro breed rams can have two, six, or more horns. This is because they possess the gene, which is found in old heritage breeds like the Jacob Sheep. They have the ability to have fused horns, ewes can have horns, or nubs called scurrs. The color can be black, white, or striped, the growth of rams’ horns is slow. A full rack takes at least four to five years to grow out, a ewes horns can grow large, but not to the extent of the rams. The horns often curl around to the front, and should be away, the horn quality is essential to getting good genetics in a flock, bad horns in the sire will continue down through his offspring. Horns can break, and as they are living at the base, Churros come in a variety of colors, including reds, black and mixes, and color may change with age. The color is separated into fleece color, and the points color, the sheep may have different color patterns, such as eye patches and hip spots.
The Navajo-Churros possess a coat, which has an inner. The fleece is composed of a coat, and outer coat that is hair fibers
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
The New Deal was a series of programs, most notably, Social Security, that were enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as executive orders during the first term of the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Republicans were split, with opposing the entire New Deal as an enemy of business and growth. By 1936 the term liberal typically was used for supporters of the New Deal, from 1934 to 1938, Roosevelt was assisted in his endeavours by a pro-spender majority in Congress. In the 1938 midterm elections, however and his supporters lost control of Congress to the bipartisan conservative coalition. Many historians distinguish between a First New Deal and a Second New Deal, with the one more liberal. The First New Deal dealt with the banking crises through the Emergency Banking Act. The Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to prevent a repeated stock market crash, the controversial work of the National Recovery Administration was part of the First New Deal.
The economic downturn of 1937–38, and the split between the AFL and CIO labor unions led to major Republican gains in Congress in 1938. Conservative Republicans and Democrats in Congress joined in the informal Conservative Coalition, by 1942–43 they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and Civilian Conservation Corps and blocked major liberal proposals. Roosevelt himself turned his attention to the war effort, and won reelection in 1940 and 1944, the Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Administration and the first version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional, however the AAA was rewritten and upheld. As the first Republican president elected after Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower left the New Deal largely intact, Johnsons Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard M. Nixon generally retained. After 1974, the call for deregulation of the economy gained bipartisan support, the New Deal regulation of banking was suspended in the 1990s.
The largest programs still in existence today are the Social Security System, the phrase New Deal was coined by an adviser to Roosevelt, Stuart Chase. Although the term was used by Mark Twain in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court. From 1929 to 1933 manufacturing output decreased by one third, prices fell by 20%, causing deflation that made repaying debts much harder. Unemployment in the U. S. increased from 4% to 25%, one-third of all employed persons were downgraded to working part-time on much smaller paychecks. In the aggregate, almost 50% of the nations human work-power was going unused, before the New Deal, there was no insurance on deposits at banks
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate