Bataan is a province situated in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the City of Balanga. Occupying the entire Bataan Peninsula on Luzon, Bataan is bordered by the provinces of Zambales and Pampanga to the north; the peninsula faces the South China Sea to the west and Subic Bay to the north-west, encloses Manila Bay to the east. The Battle of Bataan is famous in history as one of the last stands of American and Filipino soldiers before they were overwhelmed by the Japanese forces in World War II; the Bataan Death March was named after the province. The first inhabitants of the Bataan peninsula are the Ayta Magbeken people, who are one of the first Negrito ancestors of present-day Filipinos. On, Tagalog communities from southern Luzon migrated to parts of Bataan and the Ayta Magbeken migrated towards the mountain areas of Bataan by the end of the 16th century. In 1647, Dutch naval forces landed in country in an attempt to seize the islands from Spain; the Dutch massacred the people of Abucay in Bataan.
Historian Cornelio Bascara documents that the province of Bataan was established on January 11, 1757 by Governor-General Pedro Manuel Arandia out of territories belonging to Pampanga and the corregimiento of Mariveles which, at the time, included Maragondon, Cavite across the Manila Bay. Bataan featured prominently during World War II. Prior to the 1941 Japanese invasion, the US Army stored nearly 1,000,000 US gallons of gasoline there. Shortly after the Japanese Army invaded the country in December 1941, the combined US and Filipino forces were being overrun and General Douglas MacArthur moved his troops to the Bataan Peninsula in an attempt to hold out until a relief force could be sent from the US. Japanese forces started a siege of the peninsula on January 7, 1942, launched an all-out assault on April 3, a few months after the Battle of the Points; the majority of the American and Filipino forces surrendered on April 9 and were forced to march more than a 100 kilometres from Bataan to Capas, which became known as the Bataan Death March.
The province has an area of 1,372.98 square kilometres, covers the entire Bataan Peninsula, a rocky extension of the Zambales Mountains jutting out into the South China Sea, enclosing the Manila Bay. At the northern portion of the peninsula is Mount Natib and its surrounding mountains, separated from Mount Samat and the Mariveles Mountains in the south by a pass. A narrow coastline plain characterizes the eastern portion of the province, while the western coast features many ridges and headlands. Bataan is politically subdivided into one component city; the population of Bataan in the 2015 census was 760,650 people, with a density of 550 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,400 inhabitants per square mile. The three most prominent ethnic groups in Bataan are the Tagalogs, the Kapampangans and the Ayta Magbeken, though the third group has a lower population despite being the province's first inhabitants; the second group is present at the northeast of the province, as well as in the provincial capital to a lesser extent.
Various religious groups are subscribed to by the people but Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, comprising 85% of the Bataan population. Aglipayan, several other Christian faiths, Anitists and atheists are the minority. Nuestra Señora del Pilar Church – Morong Nuestra Señora del Pilar Church – Pilar Nuestra Señora, Virgen Milagrosa del Rosario Church – Orani, declared as a diocesan-shrine by the Diocese of Balanga, it is home to the miraculous image of the Our Lady of Orani, canonically crowned 18 April 1959. San Francisco de Asis Church – Limay Diocesan Shrine and Cathedral-Parish of Saint Joseph – Balanga City, was declared as a diocesan-shrine and is the seat of the Diocese of Balanga San Juan Bautista Church – Dinalupihan San Miguel Arcangel Church – Orion San Nicolas de Tolentino Church – Mariveles San Pedro Martir de Verona Church – Hermosa Santa Catalina de Alexandria Church – Bagac Santa Catalina de Siena Church – Samal Santo Domingo de Guzman Church – Abucay, the oldest church in Bataan Bataan Tourism Center – Balanga Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar – Bagac Philippine Refugee Processing Center – Morong Ocean Adventure – Mabayo, Morong Zoobic Safari – Mabayo, Morong Major General Edward P. King – Lamao Sinagtala Farm Resort & Adventure Park – Orani Vista Tala Resort & Recreational Park – Orani Camaya Coast – Mariveles Montemar Beach Club – Bagac Duhat Bike Trail – Orion Bataan is a location of bulk power generation, where most of the power generated is sent to the Luzon Grid.
Most power plants in Bataan rely on fossil fuels, like oil and coal, but renewable energy sources solar power, form part of the total generation. The total output of existing power plants equals to 2068.1 MW, new power plants to start operation will increase the output to 4224.1 MW. Fossil fuel-fired plants account for 2020 MW, are concentrated in Limay and Mariveles; these include the GN Power Mariveles Coal Power Plant, with 660 MW, SMC Limay Greenfield Power Plant, Petron Cogeneration Power Plant, Panasia Bataan Combined Cycle Power Plant. Two plants under construction, the Dinginin Power Station and SMC Mariveles Coal Power Plant will increase the capacity by 1936 MW. Renewable energy solar power, accounts for 48.1 MW, is concentrated on the northern part of the province. Existing renewable energy power plants include the Bataan 2020 Cogen Power Plant, YH Green Energy Solar Power Plant
Military history of the Philippines
The military history of the Philippines is characterized by wars between Philippine kingdoms and its neighbors in the precolonial era and a period of struggle against colonial powers such as Spain and the United States, occupation by the Empire of Japan during World War II and participation in Asian conflicts post-World War II such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War. The Philippines has battled a communist insurgency and a secessionist movement by Muslims in the southern portion of the country. Archaeological findings dating from prehistoric eras have discovered a variety of stone and metal weaponry, such as axes and spearheads. Used for hunting, they allowed tribes to battle with each other; some more elaborate bronze pieces, such as axes, Swords were part of the native weaponry. Making of swords involved elaborate rituals that were based on the auspicious conjunctions of planets; the passage of the sword from the maker entailed a mystical ceremony, coupled with superstitious beliefs. The lowlanders of Luzon use the kampilan and panabas, while the Moros and animists of the South still continue the tradition of making kris.
For example, of tribal wars are can be found at the Igorot Society, it was unified after the long clan wars between the Clans and tribes of Ifugao and Kalinga Headhunting warlords because of land resources. This unification established the culturally homogeneous society which led to the building of the Banaue Rice Terraces; the Chams who migrated to Sulu were called Orang Dampuan. The Champa Civilization and the port-kingdom of Sulu engaged in commerce with each other which resulted in merchant Chams settling in Sulu where they were known as Orang Dampuan from the 10th-13th centuries; the Orang Dampuan were slaughtered by envious native Sulu Buranuns due to the wealth of the Orang Dampuan. The Buranun were subjected to retaliatory slaughter by the Orang Dampuan. Harmonious commerce between Sulu and the Orang Dampuan was restored; the Yakans were descendants of the Taguima-based Orang Dampuan. Sulu received civilization in its Indic form from the Orang Dampuan. Antecedent to this raids, sometime between A.
D. 1174 and 1190, a traveling Chinese government bureaucrat Chau Ju-Kua reported that a certain group of "ferocious raiders of China's Fukien coast" which he called the "Pi-sho-ye", believed to have lived on the southern part of Formosa. In A. D. 1273, another work written by Ma Tuan Lin, which came to the knowledge of non-Chinese readers through a translation made by the Marquis D’Hervey de Saint-Denys, gave reference to the Pi-sho-ye raiders, thought to have originated from the southern portion of Formosa. However, the author observed that these raiders spoke a different language and had an different appearance; some scholars have put forth the theory that the Pi-sho-ye were people from the Visayas islands. Furthermore, Boholano oral legends say that people from the Kedatuan of Dapitan were the ones that lead the raids on China. According to legend, the Kedatuan of Madja-as was founded following a civil war in collapsing Srivijaya, wherein loyalists of the Malay datus of Srivijaya defied the invading Chola dynasty and its puppet-Rajah, called Makatunao, set up a remnant state in the islands of the Visayas.
Its founding datu, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal Ati hero, Marikudo. Madja-as was founded on Panay island; the people of Madja-as conducted resistance movements against the Hindu and Islamic invaders that arrived from the west. In the Battle of Manila in 1365 is an unspecified and disputed battle occurring somewhere in the vicinity of Manila between the forces of the Kingdoms in Luzon and the Hindu Empire of Majapahit. Though the exact dates and details of this battle remain in dispute, there are claims of the conquest of the area around Saludong according to the text Nagarakretagama Nevertheless, there may have been a battle for Manila that occurred during that time but it was a victory for Luzon's kingdoms considering that the Kingdom of Tondo had maintained its independence and was not enslaved under another ruler. Alternatively, Luzon may have been invaded but was able to regain its independence later. In the mid 14th century, the Majapahit empire mentioned in its manuscript Nagarakretagama Canto 14, written by Prapanca in 1365, that the of area Solot was part of the empire.
Nagarakretagama was composed as a eulogy for their emperor Hayam Wuruk. However, Chinese sources report that in 1369, the Sulus regained independence and in vengeance, assaulted Majapahit and its province, Po-ni, looting it of treasure and gold. A fleet from the Majapahit capital succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack; the Majapahit Empire, attempted to reconquer the kingdoms of Sulu and Manila but they were permanently repulsed. During the early 1400s, Rajamuda Sri Lumay, a Chola dynasty prince who rebelled against the Cholas and established an independent Tamil-Malay Indianized kingdom in Cebu called the Rajahnate of Cebu, established his country by waging scorched earth tactics against raiders from Mindanao against the Sultanate of Maguindanao. War between Maguindanao and Cebu lasted until the Spanish era; the Battle of Manila in 1405 is a battle for the whole Luzon island including Manila, attacked by Ming-dynasty Admiral, Zheng He who wanted to incorporate Luzon into the Ming Empire.
The Chinese attacked Manila but they were repulsed there by the local kingdoms. They were forced to s
Military history of the United States
The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. During those years, the United States evolved from a new nation fighting Great Britain for independence, through the monumental American Civil War and, after collaborating in triumph during World War II, to the world's sole remaining superpower from the late 20th century to present; the Continental Congress in 1775 established the Continental Army, Continental Navy, Continental Marines and named General George Washington its commander. This newly formed military, along with state militia forces, the French Army and Navy, the Spanish Navy defeated the British in 1781; the new Constitution in 1789 made the president the commander in chief, with authority for the Congress to levy taxes, make the laws, declare war. As of 2017, the U. S. Armed Forces consists of the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force, all under the command of the United States Department of Defense. There is the United States Coast Guard, controlled by the Department of Homeland Security.
The President of the United States is the commander-in-chief, exercises the authority through the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which supervises combat operations. Governors have control of each state's Air National Guard units for limited purposes; the president has the ability to federalize National Guard units, bringing them under the sole control of the Department of Defense. The beginning of the United States military lies in civilian frontier settlers, armed for hunting and basic survival in the wilderness; these were organized into local militias for small military operations against Native American tribes but to resist possible raids by the small military forces of neighboring European colonies. They relied on the British regular Navy for any serious military operation. In major operations outside the locality involved, the militia was not employed as a fighting force. Instead the colony asked for volunteers, many of whom were militia members. In the early years of the British colonization of North America, military action in the thirteen colonies that would become the United States were the result of conflicts with Native Americans, such as in the Pequot War of 1637, King Philip's War in 1675, the Yamasee War in 1715 and Father Rale's War in 1722.
Beginning in 1689, the colonies became involved in a series of wars between Great Britain and France for control of North America, the most important of which were Queen Anne's War, in which the British conquered French colony Acadia, the final French and Indian War when Britain was victorious over all the French colonies in North America. This final war was to give thousands of colonists, including Virginia colonel George Washington, military experience which they put to use during the American Revolutionary War. In the struggle for control of North America, the contest between Great Britain and France was the vital one, the conflict with Spain, a declining power, important but secondary; this latter conflict reached its height in the "War of Jenkins Ear," a prelude to the War of Austrian Succession, which began in 1739 and pitted the British and their American colonists against the Spanish. In the colonies the war involved a seesaw struggle between the Spanish in Florida and the West Indies and the English colonists in South Carolina and Georgia.
Its most notable episode, was a British expedition mounted in Jamaica against Cartagena, the main port of the Spanish colony in Colombia. The mainland colonies furnished a regiment to participate in the assault as British Regulars under British command; the expedition ended in disaster, resulting from climate and the bungling of British commanders, only about 600 of over 3,000 Americans who participated returned to their homes. Ongoing political tensions between Great Britain and the thirteen colonies reached a crisis in 1774 when the British placed the province of Massachusetts under martial law after the Patriots protested taxes they regarded as a violation of their constitutional rights as Englishmen; when shooting began at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, militia units from across New England rushed to Boston and bottled up the British in the city. The Continental Congress appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief of the newly created Continental Army, augmented throughout the war by colonial militia.
In addition to the Army, Congress created the Continental Navy and Continental Marines. He drove the British out of Boston but in late summer 1776 they returned to New York and nearly captured Washington's army. Meanwhile, the revolutionaries expelled British officials from the 13 states, declared themselves an independent nation on 4 July 1776; the British, for their part, lacked both a clear strategy for winning. With the use of the Royal Navy, the British were able to capture coastal cities, but control of the countryside eluded them. A British sortie from Canada in 1777 ended with the disastrous surrender of a British army at Saratoga. With the coming in 1777 of General von Steuben, the training and discipline along Prussian lines began, the Continental Army began to evolve into a modern force. France and Spain entered the war against Great Britain as Allies of the US, ending its naval advantage and escalating the conflict into a world war; the Netherlands joined France, the British were outnumbered on land and sea in a world war, as they had no major allies apart from Indian tribes and Hessians.
A shift in focus to the southern American states in 1779 resulted in a string of victories for the British, but General Nathanael Greene engaged in guerrilla warfare and prevented them from making stra
Olongapo the City of Olongapo or as Olongapo City, is a 1st class urbanized city in Central Luzon, Philippines. Located in the province of Zambales but governed independently from the province, it has a population of 233,040 people according to the 2015 census. Along with the municipality of Subic, it comprises Metro Olongapo, one of the twelve metropolitan areas in the Philippines. According to popular legend, there once was a group of warring tribes who lived in the area in and around what is now the modern city. A wise old man, seeing the perils of disunity, exerted great effort toward uniting the warring tribes. There were, some who bitterly opposed his idea, one day the old man just disappeared without a trace. After a long search, the old man's body was with the head missing, it is said. These efforts proved to be futile, the search was called off. A young boy however, vowed to himself that he'll never stop searching until he found the elder's head, he found nothing. One day, he chanced upon what appeared to be the old man's head, resting on top of a bamboo pole.
The boy, while holding the decapitated head, ran back to his people crying, "Olo nin apo! Olo nin apo!", running hysterically from house to house and village to village. The phrase stuck, that, according to legend, is how the area got its name, Olongapo. To this day, the old man's head acts as a symbol of the people's unity in. Britain ruled the Philippines for a short time, from 1762 to 1764; the British invasion of the Philippines was the first challenge to Spain's control of the archipelago after 191 years of rule. The Royal Navy and British Army joined with the East India Company in Madras to capture Spain's Asian colony. In conjunction with the attack against Spain's key possession in the Americas, both settlements were seized. However, in the Philippines, whilst the expedition was launched as part of a plan to harass the Spaniards in their possessions, as well as for commercial gain and new territories, the military campaign led by General William Draper and Admiral Samuel Cornish, may have been launched under the guise of an invasion in order to gain prize money.
The publication "When Britain Ruled the Philippines 1762–1764" describes the events as they unfolded at the Admiralty in London and at the East India Company in Madras, leading to the invasion and occupation of the capital city of Manila and the port city of Cavite. The capital was looted, a galleon was seized, the British commanders imposed a ransom of four million dollars upon the Spaniards; the enormous sums in prize money and valuables seized benefited the commanders. In 1868, a Spanish military expedition was dispatched to study the possibility of relocating the Cavite Naval Station in Subic Bay due to its unhealthy condition. Spanish King Alfonso XII through a Royal Decree made Subic Bay as Spain's stronghold in the Far East in 1884. Vice Admiral Juan Bautista de Antiquiera made Olongapo a settlement for the Spanish Navy. On March 8, 1885, the Spanish Naval commission authorized construction of the Arsenal in Olongapo; the Spanish planned to make their naval station, the village of Olongapo an island, protected against attack by rebels.
The Spanish Navy Yard occupied the entire area east of the Spanish Gate. Employing Filipino labor, they did extensive dredging of the harbor and the inner basin and built a drainage canal; the canal served both to drain the swampy area around the yard and to form a line of defense. Within ten years, the Spaniards had erected markers to fence off the arsenal, they had buildings erected. The Spanish government spent three decades developing the naval station. From higher naval commands, the order was sent to fortify Grande Island at the mouth of Subic Bay with mines and cannons, but this project was hardly begun before it was overtaken by the rout of the Spanish Navy in Manila Bay by US Admiral George Dewey. On May 1, 1898, the construction of the Spanish Administration Building was hardly completed when Admiral Dewey's flagship, USS Olympia, led the Asiatic Fleet into Manila Bay. A detachment of Admiral Dewey's fleet bombarded the navy yard. After the surrender, Spain relinquished all her rights in the Philippines to the United States.
This marked the end of more than three hundred years of Spanish rule over the islands. Realizing the tremendous importance of Olongapo as a naval facility, the U. S. Navy decided to keep the base in functioning order; the naval station was with the establishment of the American rule in the Philippines. American defenses in the islands were facilities left by the Spanish Navy which were taken over by the United States. Olongapo grew in direct proportion to the growth of the naval station. More people came to live in Olongapo since the Navy offered employment. To most Filipinos during that time, it was a welcome change; the promise of a different kind of experience as shop workers and office help induced many young men to leave their farms and fishing
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines, about 100 kilometres northwest of Manila Bay. An extension of the South China Sea, its shores were the site of a major United States Navy facility named U. S. Naval Base Subic Bay, now the location of an industrial and commercial area known as the Subic Bay Freeport Zone under the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority. Today, water as well as the towns and establishments surrounding the bay are collectively referred to as Subic Bay; this includes the former US naval base at SBMA, Hanjin shipyard, Olongapo city, the town of Barrio Baretto, the Municipality of Subic, the erstwhile US defence housing areas of Binictican and Kalayan housing, up to Morong in Bataan Province. The bay was long recognized for its deep and protected waters, but development was slow due to lack of level terrain around the bay. In 1542, Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo sailed into Subic Bay but no port developed there because the main Spanish naval base would be established in the nearby Manila Bay.
When the British captured this base in 1762, the Spanish were forced to find an alternate location and Subic Bay was found to be a strategic and superb port location. In 1884, King Alfonso XII of Spain decreed that Subic was to become "a naval port and the property appertaining thereto set aside for naval purposes." The Americans captured the Spanish base in 1899 during the Philippine–American War, controlled the bay until 1991. During this period, the naval facilities were built up and expanded, including a new naval air station, built in the early 1950s by slicing the top half from a mountain and moving the soil to reclaim a part of Subic Bay. In 1979, the area under American control was reduced from 24,000 hectares to 6,300 hectares when the Philippines claimed sovereign rule over the base. Following the destruction of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, the Americans closed the base, the area was transformed into the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. In 2012, controversy arose when a contracted shipping firm was accused of dumping toxic waste into Subic Bay.
MT Glenn Guardian, one of the vessels owned by a Malaysian firm, had collected some 189,500 litres of domestic waste and about 760 litres of bilge water from USS Emory S. Land, a US Navy ship. Since the Malaysian firm was contracted by the US Navy, albeit under Philippine approval, this incident ignited anti-American sentiments in the Philippines from a single militant group; the Pamulaklakin Nature Park is a reserve area of Binictican. Part of the 11 thousand hectares of forest is found at Subic Bay; the park was created by the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority to supplement the income of the indigenous people. The term Pamulaklakin was derived from the native Ambala language; the majority of the wrecks in Subic Bay are a result of either the Spanish–American War in 1898 or of World War II, where a number of Japanese vessels were sunk by American aircraft. El Capitan was a freighter of nearly 3,000 tons just under 130 meters long, she sank in Subic Bay. Hell ship Oryoku Maru: On 15 December 1944, she had 1,619 American and Czech prisoners of war on board when she was sunk, under heavy bombardment by American fighters while on her way from Subic Bay to Japan.
She was less than half a kilometer off the Alava Pier. About 300 prisoners died during the short voyage during the attack. Seian Maru: During an air raid on Subic Bay, the 3,712-ton freighter Seian Maru was bombed and sunk; this was only four days after the sinking of Oryoku Maru on 19 December 1944. LST: This is one of the large LSTs that litter the floor of Subic Bay, she was scuttled in 1946 in the middle of Subic Bay between the southern tip of the runway and Grande Island. The old USS New York, renamed USS Rochester in 1917. At the onset of the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, this ship was acting as a floating workshop and storehouse. Decommissioned, the armored hull of the old cruiser was considered too valuable to allow Japanese forces to capture it, so the ship was scuttled in December 1941 by American forces. San Quentin: During the Spanish–American War in 1898, the Spanish scuttled their San Quintín in the hope of blocking the passage between Grande Island and Chiquita Islands near the mouth of Subic Bay.
Port of Subic Subic Bay International Airport Subic, Zambales The Official Tourism Website for Subic Bay, contains visitor and accommodation information Official website of Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority News Source
A swamp is a wetland, forested. Many swamps occur along large rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations. Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes; some swamps have hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation or soil saturation. The two main types of swamp swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more termed a bog, fen, or muskeg; the water of a swamp may be brackish water or seawater. Some of the world's largest swamps are found along major rivers such as the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Congo. A marsh is a wetland composed of grasses and reeds found near the fringes of lakes and streams, serving as a transitional area between land and aquatic ecosystems. A swamp is a wetland composed of shrubs found along large rivers and lake shores. Swamps are characterized by slow-moving to stagnant waters.
Many adjoin rivers or lakes. Swamps are features of areas with low topographic relief. Humans have drained swamps to provide additional land for agriculture and to reduce the threat of diseases borne by swamp insects and similar animals. Many swamps have undergone intensive logging, requiring the construction of drainage ditches and canals; these ditches and canals contributed to drainage and, along the coast, allowed salt water to intrude, converting swamps to marsh or to open water. Large areas of swamp were therefore degraded. Louisiana provides a classic example of wetland loss from these combined factors. Europe has lost nearly half its wetlands. New Zealand lost 90 percent of its wetlands over a period of 150 years. Ecologists recognise that swamps provide valuable ecological services including flood control, fish production, water purification, carbon storage, wildlife habitat. In many parts of the world authorities protect swamps. In parts of Europe and North America, swamp restoration projects are becoming widespread.
The simplest steps to restoring swamps involve plugging drainage ditches and removing levees. Swamps and other wetlands have traditionally held a low property value compared to fields, prairies, or woodlands, they have a reputation for being unproductive land that cannot be utilized for human activities, other than hunting and trapping. Farmers, for example drained swamps next to their fields so as to gain more land usable for planting crops. Many societies now realize that swamps are critically important to providing fresh water and oxygen to all life, that they are breeding grounds for a wide variety of species. Indeed, floodplain swamps are important in fish production. Government environmental agencies are taking steps to protect and preserve swamps and other wetlands. In Europe, major effort is being invested in the restoration of swamp forests along rivers. Conservationists work to preserve swamps such as those in northwest Indiana in the United States Midwest that were preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes.
The problem of invasive species has been put into greater light such as in places like the Everglades. Swamps can be found on all continents except Antarctica; the largest swamp in the world is the Amazon River floodplain, significant for its large number of fish and tree species. The Sudd and the Okavango Delta are Africa's best known marshland areas; the Bangweulu Floodplains make up Africa's largest swamp. The Tigris-Euphrates river system is a large swamp and river system in southern Iraq, traditionally inhabited in part by the Marsh Arabs. In Asia, tropical peat swamps are located in mainland East Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia, peatlands are found in low altitude coastal and sub-coastal areas and extend inland for distance more than 100 km along river valleys and across watersheds, they are to be found on the coasts of East Sumatra, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Peninsular Malaya, Sarawak, Southeast Thailand, the Philippines. Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatland. Of the total 440,000 km2 tropical peat swamp, about 210,000 km2 are located in Indonesia.
The Vasyugan Swamp is a large swamp in the western Siberia area of the Russian Federation. This is one of the largest swamps in the world; the Atchafalaya Swamp at the lower end of the Mississippi River is the largest swamp in the United States. It is an important example of southern cypress swamp but it has been altered by logging and levee construction. Other famous swamps in the United States are the forested portions of the Everglades, Okefenokee Swamp, Barley Barber Swamp, Great Cypress Swamp and the Great Dismal Swamp; the Okefenokee is located in extreme southeastern Georgia and extends into northeastern Florida. The Great Cypress Swamp is in Delaware but extends into Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Point Lookout State Park on the southern tip of Maryland contains a large amount of swamps and marshes; the Great Dismal Swamp lies in extreme southeastern Virginia and extreme northeastern North Carolina. Both are National Wildlife Refuges. Another swamp area, Reelfoot Lake of extreme western Tennessee and Kentucky, was created by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes.
Caddo Lake, the Great Dismal and Reelfoot are swamps. Swamps are called bayous in the southeastern United States in the Gulf Coast region; the worl