Strike Fighter Squadron 41 known as the "Black Aces", is a United States Navy strike fighter squadron based at Naval Air Station Lemoore, flying the F/A-18F Super Hornet. They are attached to Carrier Air Wing 9, their radio callsign is "Fast Eagle" and their tailcode is NG. VF-41 was established on 1 September 1950 at NAS Oceana, it is the fourth US Navy squadron to be designated VF-41; the Black Aces began flying the F2H-3 Banshee in 1953, deploying to the Mediterranean and Far East aboard USS Independence. On January 24, 1956, VF-41 embarked with ATG-181 for the shakedown cruise of USS Forrestal near Guantanamo Bay Cuba, returning to NAS Oceana on March 31, 1956. VF-41 again attached to ATG-181 embarked aboard USS Bennington on October 3, 1956 for a Western Pacific deployment; the crew observed the 15th anniversary of "Battle of the Coral Sea" with ceremony at location of the battle conducted by veterans of the battle. ATG-181 returned to NAS Oceana on May 23, 1957. In 1959, the Banshee was replaced by the F3H-2 Demon.
In February 1962, VF-41 transitioned to the F-4B Phantom II and made a special deployment to NAS Key West, Florida during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In May 1965, the squadron deployed to the western Pacific for seven months of combat operations during the Vietnam War, they flew a wide range of missions: fighter cover, reconnaissance escort, flak suppression and day/night interdiction. The next five deployments were on USS Franklin D. Roosevelt with CVW-6 tail code AE. VF-41 transitioned from the F-4J to the F-4B in 1973 and was on USS Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Yom Kippur War providing escorts for Operation Nickel Grass and were part of the peacekeeping force that helped keep the truce after the war. In 1974, VF-41 transitioned from the F-4B to the F-4N and conducted their last cruise with the Phantom aboard Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1975. During that year VF-41 was awarded the COMNAVAIRLANT Safety "S", which they would receive in 1981, 1989 and 1992. In April 1976 VF-41 transitioned to the F-14A Tomcat and their first cruise began in September 1977 as part of CVW-8 on USS Nimitz.
Another cruise followed in 1980 to the Mediterranean. In 1980, Nimitz and VF-41 took part in a round the Horn cruise. While on this cruise, the carrier served as the seaborne base in response to the Iran hostage crisis and the subsequent attempted rescue of the U. S. Embassy hostages from Iran. VF-41 spent 144 continuous days at sea, the longest period the squadron had spent at sea without break since World War II. During workups for the 1981–1982 Mediterranean cruise, an EA-6B Prowler piloted by Marine Lieut. Steven E. White, crashed on the deck of Nimitz. Upon crashing onto the deck, the Prowler rammed broadside into six fueled F-14 Tomcats causing a fuel fire and ordnance to explode, including an AIM-7 Sparrow missile; the incident, which caused only superficial damage to Nimitz, resulted in three F-14s destroyed, 45 injured sailors and fourteen casualties with VF-41 losing three shipmates. While on deployment in the Mediterranean on August 19, 1981, during a routine combat air patrol mission over the Gulf of Sidra, two Libyan Su-22 "Fitter" aircraft were shot down by squadron aircraft.
The incident marked the first Navy air combat confrontation since the Vietnam War and the first for the F-14A Tomcat. It was the first time a variable wing geometry aircraft shot down another variable wing geometry aircraft. 1981 was the first year in which the squadron won the COMNAVAIRLANT Battle Efficiency "E", signifying them as the most efficient squadron in the Atlantic Fleet. VF-41 was awarded the Battle "E" in 1985 and 1989. In November 1982, the squadron embarked on an extended deployment off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon, in support of the Multinational Force in Lebanon. During 1985, VF-41 spent 68 days off the coast of Lebanon in response to the hijacking of TWA Flight 847; the 1986 cruise was the last with Nimitz. In October that year, CVW-8 was deployed with USS Theodore Roosevelt and the first cruise was in the North Atlantic for Exercise Teamwork ’88 which involved operations with the Royal Norwegian Air Force and the first Mediterranean deployment was in December. On December 28, 1990, VF-41 embarked on USS Theodore Roosevelt to support Operation Desert Shield, arriving in the Persian Gulf shortly after hostilities with Iraq began.
By the end of the war, the squadron had amassed over 1,500 combat flight hours. After the war, the squadron remained in the Persian Gulf and Red Sea as part of a military presence enforcing the ceasefire until late April 1991, when the squadron was tasked with providing air support for ground forces assisting Kurdish refugees in Northern Iraq during Operation Provide Comfort. VF-41 was soon training for the F-14's new role: air-to-ground bombing. In late 1991, VF-41 had flown over 46,500 hours without an accident over a period of 11 years. In 1995 VF-84 was disestablished and VF-41 picked up the TARPS mission; the disestablishment of VF-84 was the only occasion in which a TARPS capable unit was disestablished instead of a non-TARPS capable unit. In early 1995 VF-41 deployed on a six-month deployment to the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and the Adriatic Sea. During this cruise VF-41 conducted combat operations in support of Operation Deliberate Force and Operation Deny Flight over Bosnia and Herzegovina and Operation Southern Watch over Iraq.
On September 5, 1995, two VF-41 F-14As dropped laser-guided bombs for the first time in combat during Operation Deliberate Force. The target was an ammunition dump in eastern Bo
Carrier air wing
A carrier air wing is an operational naval aviation organization composed of several aircraft squadrons and detachments of various types of fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. Organized and trained to conduct modern US Navy carrier air operations while embarked aboard aircraft carriers, the various squadrons in an air wing have different but complementary missions, provide most of the striking power and electronic warfare capabilities of a carrier battle group. While the CVBG term is still used by other nations, the CVBG in US parlance is now known as a carrier strike group; until 1963, Carrier Air Wings were known as Carrier Air Groups. Carrier Air Wings are what the United States Air Force would call "composite" wings, should not be confused with U. S. Navy Type Wings, which are administrative and training commands composed of squadrons of the same type of carrier-based aircraft when not deployed; the United States Marine Corps equivalent command-level organization to a CVW is the Marine Aircraft Group.
However, MAGs are shore-based and may contain any combination of aircraft squadrons and aviation support units. Carrier Air Wings integrate with their assigned aircraft carriers, forming a "carrier/air wing team" that trains and deploys together. There are nine U. S. Navy Carrier Air Wings, four based at Naval Air Station Oceana, four based at Naval Air Station Lemoore and one forward deployed to Naval Air Facility Atsugi, Japan. In 2017, the air wing at NAF Atsugi began a phased move of its fixed wing squadrons to Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni; the move is expected to take place over three years. The air wing's helicopter squadrons will remain at NAF Atsugi. In addition to aviation squadrons collocated at NAS Oceana and NAS Lemoore, the CONUS-based air wings will draw additional squadrons from NAS Whidbey Island, Washington; these air wings are reassigned to different aircraft carriers based on carrier maintenance schedules. A modern air wing consists of 1,500 personnel and 74–78 aircraft; the first Carrier Air Groups were activated in 1937.
From July 1937 to mid-1942, Carrier Air Groups were permanently assigned to and identified by their parent aircraft carrier, group squadrons were numbered according to the carrier's hull number. For example, the Enterprise Air Group, assigned to USS Enterprise, were all numbered "6": Fighting Squadron 6, Bombing Squadron 6, etc. From 1942, numerical designation of air groups began, the first being Carrier Air Group 9, established on 1 March 1942. For a while, they were given unique numbers according to their assigned carriers' hull number; this numbering scheme was soon scrapped as carrier groups moved from carrier to carrier. At this point, the carrier groups retained their number designation regardless of the carrier assigned; the first formal system for air group identification was established in January 1945. This consisted of geometric symbols; as there were just too many carriers and the symbols were hard to remember or to describe over the radio, a single or double letter system was introduced in July 1945.
The letters, still identified the carrier, not the air group. The following identifications are known: USS Saratoga: CC USS Enterprise: M USS Yorktown: RR USS Hornet: S USS Ticonderoga: V USS Randolph: L USS Lexington: H USS Wasp: X USS Hancock: U USS Bennington: TT USS Monterey: C USS Shangri-La: ZShangri-La is known to have had her hull number "38" on the flight deck forward replaced by her air group identification letter "Z". Due to the ongoing combat and the end of the war, a mix of identification codes was used in late 1945. Starting in late 1946, the letters identified the carrier air group, not the carrier; the use of single letters was discontinued in 1957. On 15 November 1946, to correct the results of demobilization which had left squadron numbers all out of sequence, sweeping changes were made in air unit designations. Carrier Air Groups of four types were designated according to their assigned ship, as CVBG for Battle Carrier, CVG for Attack Carrier, CVLG for Light Carrier and CVEG for Escort Carrier.
Two years on 1 September 1948, all carrier air groups became CVG regardless of their carrier affiliation. On 20 December 1963, Carrier Air Groups were retitled Wings, the acronym CVG became CVW. Replacement Air Groups, which were set up in 1958, became Combat Readiness Air Groups on 1 April 1963. Known by the short titles RAG and CRAG in the respective periods, their designation throughout was RCVG; when Groups became Wings, CRAG became CRAW and RCVG became RCVW. From 1960 to 1974, the U. S. Navy operated Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Groups; these consisted of two fixed-wing anti-submarine squadrons, a helicopter anti-submarine squadron, two smaller squadrons or squadron detachments of 3–4 aircraft for airborne early warning and self-defense. And during WWII, the commander of the air group was the most senior officer of the embarked squadrons and was expected to lead all major strike operations, co-or
The Strike Fighter Squadron 87 is a United States Navy strike fighter squadron based at Naval Air Station Oceana. Nicknamed the Golden Warriors, its call sign is War Party, its tail code is AJ, it flies the Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornet; the squadron was established in 1968 and has seen combat during the Vietnam War, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Allied Force, Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation New Dawn and Operation Inherent Resolve. The squadron’s insignia and nickname were approved by CNO on 29 July 1968 and have remained unchanged. In June 1968, the squadron was established as VA-87, an attack aircraft squadron and the first fleet squadron to fly the LTV A-7 Corsair II, at NAS Cecil Field, Florida. In March 1969, the squadron flew its first combat missions from USS Ticonderoga, striking targets in South Vietnam. In April 1969 following the shoot down of a Navy EC-121 Constellation aircraft by the North Koreans, with VA-87 embarked, was ordered to the Sea of Japan.
In the 1970s, VA-87 made 12 deployments aboard three different carriers—USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, USS America and USS Independence. In 1973, the squadron protected U. S. interests during the Yom Kippur War. Transitioning to the improved A-7E Corsair II, the squadron returned in October 1976 to the Middle East following the assassination of the American ambassador to Lebanon Francis E. Meloy Jr, assisting in the evacuation of U. S. citizens, while embarked on America. During the Iran hostage crisis and the Israeli-Syrian disputes of 1981, VA-87 deployed to the region for 195 days aboard Independence. One year the squadron returned, supporting U. S. peacekeeping operations in Lebanon. In October 1983, the squadron participated in Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada. During the same deployment, VA-87 participated in strikes against Syria in response to hostile fire against U. S. reconnaissance aircraft from Syrian positions in Lebanon. On October 24, 1986, the squadron transitioned to the F/A-18A Hornet and was redesignated Strike Fighter Squadron 87.
On December 28, 1990, following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the squadron deployed for Operation Desert Storm, flying 629 sorties over 43 days of intense combat. The squadron, equipped with the newer F/A-18C, deployed to the Adriatic Sea and Red Sea from March to September 1993, flying hundreds of missions in support of United Nations Operation Deny Flight, Operation Provide Comfort and Operation Southern Watch. Embarked for the last time on Theodore Roosevelt, VFA-87 returned in March 1995 to Southwest Asia for a month to participate in Operation Southern Watch. Following a hasty transit to the Adriatic, the squadron spent four months flying combat sorties over the embattled former Yugoslavia. On August 30, 1995, squadron jets were the first to strike Bosnian Serb targets as the Operation Deliberate Force campaign commenced. VFA-87 again headed to the Adriatic to fly over Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operation Deliberate Guard and again in Operation Southern Watch before coming home in October 1997 to Naval Air Station Cecil Field for the last time in the squadron’s history.
The squadron was forced to relocate to NAS Oceana, in Virginia Beach, Virginia from NAS Cecil Field in Jacksonville, Florida due to a 1993 post-Cold War Base Realignment and Closure Commission decision mandating the closure of NAS Cecil Field by 1 Oct 1999. The Golden Warriors made history again by participating in combat operations in two different theaters during a single deployment, operating from USS Theodore Roosevelt. While en route to the Persian Gulf in April 1999, crisis erupted in the former Yugoslavian republic of Kosovo, prompting the largest aerial bombing campaign since the Vietnam War. In just 68 days, Golden Warrior FA-18s dropped 430,000 pounds of ordnance and flew 595 combat missions during Operation ALLIED FORCE, contributing to a NATO victory, expelling Serbian oppressors from the war-torn province of Kosovo. In July, VFA-87 returned to the Persian Gulf and flew 176 combat missions in support of Operation SOUTHERN WATCH; the Golden Warriors returned to their first new home in over thirty years, NAS Oceana in Virginia Beach, Virginia.
In April 2001, VFA-87 deployed on a Persian Gulf cruise enforcing the no fly zone over Southern Iraq aboard USS Enterprise until the September 11 attacks occurred. The squadron was held on station along with the entire Enterprise battle group, to conduct first strike combat missions over Afghanistan against embedded Taliban targets. VFA-87 returned to NAS Oceana in November 2001. In January 2003, USS Theodore Roosevelt battle group along with VFA-87 conducted combat operations over Iraq, initiating Operation Iraqi Freedom. VFA-87 deployed again in September 2005 aboard Theodore Roosevelt, returning on March 11, 2006, received the Atlantic Fleet "Battle E" award that year. In September 2006, the squadron transitioned from the F/A-18C to the F/A-18A+ and was again named the "Battle E" squadron for the Atlantic Fleet in March 2007, it deployed again in September 2008 to the North Arabian Sea, in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and returned home to NAS Oceana on April 18, 2009. 2010 was a year of significant accomplishment for the "War Party".
VFA-87 participated in three embarked periods in preparation for the maiden deployment of USS George H. W. Bush, including a deck qualification, Independent Steaming Exercise, Tailored Ship's Training Assessment. Additionally the "War Party" completed three command detachments. In May 2011 VFA-87 departed on its most recent deployment taking its F/A-18A+ Strike Fighters aboard the Navy's newest aircraft carrier Ge
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Carrier Air Wing Eleven
Carrier Air Wing Eleven is a United States Navy aircraft carrier air wing based at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. The air wing is attached to the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt. To conduct carrier air warfare operations and assist in the planning, control and integration of seven air wing squadrons in support of carrier air warfare including. All-weather offensive air-to-surface attacks, Detection and destruction of enemy ships and submarines to establish and maintain local sea control. Aerial photographic and electronic intelligence for naval and joint operations. Airborne early warning service to fleet shore warning nets. Airborne electronic countermeasures. In-flight refueling operations to extend the range and the endurance of air wing aircraft and Search and rescue operations. CVW-11 consists of nine squadrons Carrier Air Wing Eleven was designated Carrier Air Group Eleven and. On 10 October 1942 at Naval Air Station San Diego, four squadrons joined together to form Carrier Air Group Eleven.
Bombing Squadron Eleven, Fighting Squadron Eleven, Scouting Squadron Eleven and Torpedo Squadron Eleven. In late October the entire air group was sent to Hawaii. VB-11, VS-11 and VT-11 were stationed at NAS Barbers Point on Oahu and VF-11 was sent to NAS Maui. While at Maui, the pilots of VF-11 enjoyed the hospitality of the von Tempsky ranch. Boyd and Alexa von Tempsky made sure VF-11 had a place to relax when they were not flying. In February 1943 the Air Group embarked on USS Altamaha and USS Long Island en route to Nandi in the Fijian Islands. CVG-11 continued to fly simulated combat missions. By the time CVG-11 arrived in the Pacific combat zone only one aircraft carrier was operational; this meant. On 25 April 1943 CVG-11 arrived at Guadalcanal. VF-11 would fly from Lunga Point, known as "Fighter One." The pilots of VF-11 would set out on escort missions providing cover for the Bombing and Torpedo Squadrons. In addition, the "Sundowners" as VF-11 is known, searched for and destroyed Japanese aircraft operating in the region.
It was during this time that VS-11 was re-designated to VB-21. The remainder of the air group would fly from Henderson Field; the bomber and torpedo planes conducted patrol, spotting and night mine-laying operations. On 8 June 1943 the Air Group suffered a great loss; the men of VT-11 were granted a leave to Australia. While leaving New Caledonia, one of the three transport planes crashed killing all 24 men on board. Included in the casualties were Air Group Commander Weldon L. Hamilton and 16 pilots and aircrew from VT-11. On 16 June 1943 twenty eight pilots of VF-11 engaged an estimated 120 Japanese planes and shot down 31. On 1 August 1943 CVG-11 boarded USS Chenango, USS St. Louis and USS Honolulu, they arrived back at NAS Alameda two weeks later. Upon return to the US, CVG-11 trained for their next assignment: carrier operations. Three air groups flew into combat on board USS Hornet during World War II. Air Group Eleven replaced Air Group Two on 29 September 1944. While on board USS Hornet, CVG-11 attacked targets on Okinawa, the Philippines, French Indo China and Hong Kong.
The Air Group was tested daily by threat of kamikaze attacks against the ship, foul weather and intense anti-aircraft fire over the intended targets. The pilots of VF-11 were most proud of the fact that no VB-11 or VT-11 aircraft were lost to enemy fighter planes, their top ace was Charles R. Stimpson with 16 victories. By the end of January 1945 the pilots and aircrews of Air Group Eleven claimed the following: 105 enemy planes shot down, 272 planes destroyed on the ground, over 100,000 tons of enemy shipping sunk, over 100 Japanese ships damaged; these great accomplishments did not come without a price. In four months of flying. CVG-11 had more than 60 men killed, missing-in-action or wounded. Air Group Eleven was replaced by Air Group Seventeen on 1 February 1945, they arrived back in Alameda on 24 February 1945. For these operations, CVG-11 was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation. An exhibit honoring Carrier Air Group Eleven is on board the USS Hornet Museum in Alameda, California, its grand opening to the public was on Veterans Day of 11 November 2014.
After the war, the navy changed the designation scheme for its Carrier Air Groups designating Air Groups configured for the Essex-class carrier CVAGs, those configured for the larger Midway-class carrier CVBGs, those configured for the light carriers of the Independence and Saipan classes CVLGs and those configured for remaining World War II escort carriers CVEGs. CVG-11 became CVAG-11. On 1 September 1948 the designation scheme was again changed, all CVAGs and CVBGs reverted to CVGs and CVEGs and CVLGs were disestablished. CVAG-11 became CVG-11 for the second time. During the Korean War, CVG-11 was the first Air Wing to shoot down MiGs, was instrumental in keeping the Pusan Perimeter from collapsing during the early stages of the war, participated in various other significant operations such as the Inchon Invasion, the Wonsan landing and the successful movement from the Chosin Reservoir. CVG-11 deployed on board USS Kitty Hawk with the Seventh Fleet in October 1963 commanded by CDR Warren H. O'Neil, USN.
On 20 December 1963 the navy redesignated its Carrier Air Groups to Carrier Air Wings and CVG-11 became Carrier Air Wing Eleven. CVW-11 flew the first Offensive Missions against North Vietnam in the spring of 1964 experienc
VFA-14 (U.S. Navy)
The Strike Fighter Squadron 14 "Tophatters" are a United States Navy fighter attack squadron based at Naval Air Station Lemoore. They fly the F/A-18E Super Hornet, are the Navy's oldest active squadron, having formed in 1919, their callsign is Camelot, their tail code is NG. Since its inception the squadron has flown 23 different type aircraft, had its designation changed fourteen times, operated from 20 different aircraft carriers and had 81 commanding officers. Over the years the squadron has been assigned many different missions, including patrol and observation in its early years, scouting, fighter and forward air control missions when it became associated with carrier-based operations; the squadron adopted the classic Top Hat as its squadron patch and called themselves the "High Hats". The squadron began carrier operations on board the Navy's first aircraft carrier USS Langley in 1926; the squadron designated Fighter Plane Squadron One, set the record for carrier landings in a single day.
Flying the TS-1, they logged 127 traps by the end of flight operations. In 1929 the squadron was assigned to USS Saratoga, where it began as a fighter squadron and transitioned to a bomber squadron. Throughout the 1930s, it flew the Boeing FB-5, Boeing F2B, Boeing F4B, Curtiss F11C Goshawk, Curtiss SBC Helldiver and the SB2U-1 Vindicator. In 1939, while flying the Vindicator, the squadron was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet and USS Ranger. While on Ranger, the squadron provided air support for the Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942. During the four days of 8 November – November 11, the pilots destroyed 16 enemy aircraft. Flying the Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomber, the squadron participated in Operation Leader, the only American naval air strike against German forces in Norway. In November 1944, the squadron transferred to the Pacific Fleet, participated in the Leyte Campaign while attached to USS Bunker Hill. After transferring to USS Essex, the squadron bombed fortifications on Formosa in January 1945, supported the assault on Iwo Jima in February, participated in the first naval carrier strike on Tokyo, completed Pacific combat operations with strikes on Okinawa in early March 1945.
After the war's end VB-4 made four cruises aboard USS Tarawa, including a world cruise between 28 September 1948 and 21 February 1949, after which the squadron was based on the U. S. East Coast. On 15 November 1946 VB-4 became Attack Squadron 1A, in August 1948 the squadron was again redesignated Attack Squadron 14 and transitioned from the SB2C-5 Helldiver to the F4U-4 Corsair. In December 1949 VA-14 was redesignated Fighter Squadron 14. In 1951 and 1952 VF-14 made two deployments to the Mediterranean Sea aboard the modernized USS Wasp, still flying the F4U Corsair. In 1954 VF-14 took on the role of all-weather interceptor when they transitioned to the F3D-2 Skyknight, but only made a three-months deployment aboard USS Intrepid in late 1954; as the F3D proved unsuitable for carrier operations, the squadron transitioned to the F3H-2N Demon in 1955. VF-14 made two deployments aboard USS Forrestal in 1957; the squadron was re-equipped with F3H-2s. VF-14 and its parent CVG-1 were reassigned to USS Franklin D. Roosevelt and made eight deployments to the Mediterranean Sea up to 1969.
In May 1963, the squadron transitioned to the F-4B Phantom II and on 23 January 1964 they became the first Phantom squadron to operate on board Franklin D. Roosevelt. In June 1966, after moving to NAS Oceana, the squadron deployed to the South China Sea to conduct air strikes and support missions against military targets in North Vietnam. During this combat deployment, the squadron flew 1,688 hours on 967 combat sorties and delivered 651,624 pounds of ordnance, in addition to flying its traditional combat air patrol and fighter escort missions; when Franklin D. Roosevelt entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard for modernization, CVW-1 and VF-14 were reassigned to USS John F. Kennedy in 1969 and stayed with it for nine deployments until 1982. In January 1974, after four Mediterranean deployments, the squadron transitioned to the Navy's newest fighter, the F-14A Tomcat at NAS Miramar and was teamed with VF-32 as the first two Tomcat squadrons to arrive at NAS Oceana. In June 1975 they became the first Atlantic squadron to deploy with the F-14A alongside VF-32 aboard USS John F. Kennedy.
In October 1978, the squadron set an all-time F-14 flight hour record when they flew 977 hours in one month while deployed in the Mediterranean. In 1976, VF-14 launched the 100th AIM-54 Phoenix missile against a simulated cruise missile at a range of 32 miles, killing it at a range of 65 miles from John F. Kennedy. During the same cruise, VF-14 intercepted a Soviet Tu-95 on 21 July. VF-14 escorted the bomber for around 45 minutes, during which the Soviet bomber made two passes over John F. Kennedy. In August 1980, the squadron deployed to the Mediterranean Sea on John F Kennedy. During this deployment, VF-14 won the Silver Anchor Award and the Battle "E" Award for combat readiness, for the second year in a row; the achievements that contributed to the awards included 3 missile firing exercises with a 100% kill ratio, first East Coast TCS installations and 26,500 accident free flying hours over the space of 8 years. In June 1982 VF-14 was reassigned to Carrier Air Wing 6 aboard USS Independence, in July was named the "Best Fighter Squadron" for its performance in the Fleet Fighter Air Combat Readiness Program.
In October and early November 1983 the squadron supported the American-led Invasion of Grenada. Following this, VF-14 proceeded east to the Mediterranean to participate in contingency operations off the coast of Lebanon. In early December 1983, the Tophatters were again ca
Lemoore is a city in Kings County, United States. Lemoore is located 7.5 miles west-southwest of Hanford, at an elevation of 230 feet. It is part of the Hanford-Corcoran Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 24,531 at the 2010 Census. The California Department of Finance estimated that Lemoore's population was 25,892 on January 1, 2018. Lemoore is located at 36°18′03″N 119°46′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.5 square miles, all of it land. The maps published by Thos. H. Thompson in 1892, shows three high water levels of the giant Tulare Lake in different years; the highest lake level, the one Thompson labeled "original lake line" skirts or touches the 1892 town of Lemoore's south-west corner at the current intersection of State Route 41 and State Route 198. On Thompson's map, Lemoore is on the east bank, about five miles away Lemoore Naval Air Station would have been on the west bank of the pointy northern tip of Tulare Lake at its maximum size.
At the extreme northern point of Tulare Lake was its natural, occasional "flood year" spillway northbound into Bogg Slough, Fresno Slough, the San Joaquin River's watershed, onward to the sea at San Francisco Bay. The present remaining marshy remnants of Bogg Slough, with its unfarmed oxbow structures may be the last of their kind to avoid the plow in the Kings-San Joaquin river system; this "summit," or spillway is located just a few miles north-west of Lemoore, off Grangeville Blvd at elevation 210 feet. The spillway was wide and confusing, choked with tall tule rushes, without observable landmarks. Only one commercial boat is known to have sailed from Tulare Lake to the San Francisco delta. Tulare Lake had huge economic importance in the region, both for the large population of Indians, the white pioneers; the lake supported a large commercial fishery feeding San Francisco, a steam powered ferry servicing several towns and settlements. The receding lake continually opened up new agricultural lands for settlement.
Because of its source streams being diverted, the last time the lake overflowed was 1878, today it no longer exists. Because the natural summit or border between the Kings River basin and the San Joaquin River's watershed, the Kings River itself nearly intersect near Lemoore, a number of huge water works that control regional water flow are located nearby. For example, in flood years the Kings River is diverted west into the so-called "North Fork Kings River," to Crescent Weir and related major levees eastward to the north-flowing Fresno Slough and to the sea, preventing a resurgence of Tulare Lake to the south; this "switch point" is located just north of Lemoore right off of Highway 41 and Elgin Ave at the New Island Weirs. In many cases the prehistoric Kings River bed has been obliterated and new channels have been constructed. However, as of 2014, in satellite images the remains of many of the old channels can still be detected. Other towns built just above the Tulare Lake high-water shoreline include Kettleman City and Alpaugh.
Satellite maps indicate that highways and property lines are aligned with the historic lake shores. Many of the farms can be seen to be much larger within its various historic shore lines than in the surrounding areas; the city had a local paper called The Lemoore Advance and the Advance Extra, now defunct. KGAR, 93.3 FM, is a low-power FM radio station operated by Lemoore High School students on the campus of Lemoore High School. Dr. Lovern Lee Moore from France first made his home in what was western Tulare County, California—now the City of Lemoore—in April, 1871, it was on the northern shoreline of Tulare Lake potentially the largest freshwater body of water in the US, outside of the Great Lakes. The American pioneers from eastern states saw this as a stretch of vast virgin land on which sheep and wild animals had grazed but had never been cultivated. By the time Dr. Moore arrived, scores of individual farms dotted the landscape, but as Tulare Lake retreated, more became continually available.
The soil was rich and productive as it had been brought down and deposited for centuries from the high Sierras by the Kings River and the Los Gatos Creek alluvial fan from the Coast Range. Wells were easy to dig. So water was plentiful for irrigation from shallow wells farm families installed. Raising of sheep and grains were principal concerns of farmers in the area. However, the pioneers were somewhat isolated, since they had to drive by horse as far as 6 miles northeast to Grangeville settlement, to get mail or newspapers, it was farther to Kingston for other supplies. Hanford was not founded until in 1877; the area was called by various names, believed to be of Indian origin, such as Latache, Tailholt, or just, in English, the Lake District. Dr. Lee Moore proved to be a man of vision, he decided to knit together the scores of surrounding farm families, to secure a post office, some local center for conducting business which could be hastened by direct means of communicating with the outside world.
He must have had the hope of attracting the railroad, being planned but was not built until six years later. The first steps he took to organize a community began in early 1872, when he surveyed a 10-acre subdivision in what is now the land west of the present Lemoore High School. In August 1872 he had established the first real estate development in this district and had laid out and named the streets after other