Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
John D. Spreckels
John Diedrich Spreckels, the son of German-American industrialist Claus Spreckels, founded a transportation and real estate empire in San Diego, California, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The entrepreneur's many business ventures included the Hotel del Coronado and the San Diego and Arizona Railway, both of which are credited with helping San Diego develop into a major commercial center. Upon his death he was eulogized as "One of America's few great Empire Builders who invested millions to turn a struggling, bankrupt village into the beautiful and cosmopolitan city San Diego is today." The oldest of five children, Spreckels was born in Charleston, South Carolina, though the family soon moved to New York City. Spreckels attended Oakland College and the SDSU College in Hanover, where he studied military tactics and mechanical engineering until 1872, he returned to California and began working for his father, Claus Spreckels, who had grown wealthy in the sugar business. In 1876 he went to the Hawaiian Islands, where he worked for his father's sugar business, Spreckels Sugar Company.
In 1880, with $2 million in capital, he organized J. D. Spreckels and Brothers, a company to establish a trade between the mainland United States and the Hawaiian Islands; the company began with one sailing vessel, the Rosario, controlled two large fleets of sail and steam ships. The firm engaged extensively in sugar refining, became agents for leading sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Much of the development of commercial interests between the United States and Hawaii is due to this firm; the shipping and passenger line of this enterprise was the Oceanic Steamship Company, founded by J. D. Spreckels in 1881, its inaugural service was between California and Hawaii and also from California to Australia, New Zealand and Tahiti. The various of the lines’ ships transported passengers, sugar and/or other food cargoes and provided mail service. For decades, the company provided the only mail service between the U. S. and Australia and New Zealand. The Oceanic ships that transported mail to Australia and New Zealand were the Alameda, the steamer Zealandia, the Sierra, the Sonoma and the Ventura.
The Australia provided a 33-day direct mail service to Tahiti. In 1926 Oceanic became a subsidiary of Matson Navigation Company, a company which J. D.’s father—Claus Spreckels—had early financed. Prior to its becoming associated with Matson, Oceanic had under J. D.’s control owned a total 17 ships, which were the iron ship Alameda, the wood schooner Anna, the iron steamer Australia, the wood brigantine Claus Spreckels, the wood brigantine Consuelo, the wood brigantine Emma Augusta, the wood brigantine John D. Spreckels, the iron ship Mariposa, the two mast schooner Rosario, the wood brigantine Salina, the passenger ship Sierra, the passenger liner Sonoma, the Suez, the Ventura, the wood brigantine W. H. Dimond, the wood brigantine William G. Irwin, the Zealandia. In October 1877, John Diedrich Spreckels married Lillie Siebein in Hoboken, New Jersey, together they had four children: Grace, Lillie and Claus, they first lived in the Kingdom of Hawaii and in San Francisco. In 1887, Spreckels visited San Diego on his yacht Lurline to stock up on supplies.
Impressed by the real estate boom taking place, he invested in the construction of a wharf and coal bunkers at the foot of Broadway. That boom ended soon but Spreckels' interest in San Diego would last for the rest of his life, he acquired control of the Hotel del Coronado and Coronado Tent City. The Hotel del Coronado was owned by the Coronado Beach Company, capitalized with US$3 million. At the time of capitalization the original company directors were E. S. Babcock, John D. Spreckels, Captain Charles T. Hinde, H. W. Mallett, Giles Kellogg; the Coronado Beach Company was responsible for numerous other investments in the Coronado, area. Before investing in the Coronado Beach Company, Spreckels waited for his close friend—Captain Charles T. Hinde—to join him, they jointly managed new businesses. For a time, Spreckels was owner of the San Francisco Call a morning newspaper. While still living in San Francisco, he continued investing in San Diego newspapers, buying The San Diego Union in 1890 and the San Diego Evening Tribune in 1901.
He moved his family permanently to San Diego after the 1906 earthquake and moved into his new mansion on Glorietta Boulevard in Coronado in 1908. That structure survives today as the Glorietta Bay Inn. In the next decades, Spreckels became a millionaire many times over, the wealthiest man in San Diego. At various times he owned all of Coronado Island, the San Diego-Coronado Ferry System, the Union-Tribune Publishing Co. the San Diego Electric Railway, the San Diego & Arizona Railway, Belmont Park in Mission Beach. He built several downtown buildings, including the Union Building in 1908, the Spreckels Theater Building in 1912, the Hotel San Diego, the Golden West Hotel, he employed thousands of people and at one time he paid 10% of all the property taxes in San Diego County. He resided in the Spreckels Mansion located at 1043 Ocean Boulevard in Coronado, designed by architect Harrison Albright in 1907. Spreckels was president of several companies, including the Oceanic Steamship Company, operating a mail and passenger line to Hawa
San Diego County, California
San Diego County the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. Making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States, its county seat is the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the 17th most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 18th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas. San Diego County has more than 70 miles of coastline; this forms the most densely populated region of the county, which has a mild Mediterranean to semiarid climate and extensive chaparral vegetation, similar to the rest of the western portion of southern California.
Precipitation and temperature extremes increase to the east, with mountains that receive frost and snow in the winter. These lushly forested mountains receive more rainfall than average in southern California, while the desert region of the county lies in a rain shadow to the east, which extends into the Desert Southwest region of North America. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, the U. S. Coast Guard in San Diego County; these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Naval Air Station North Island. From north to south, San Diego County extends from the southern borders of Orange and Riverside Counties to the Mexico-U. S. Border and Baja California. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County; the area, now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians and their local predecessors.
In 1542, the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who may have been born in Portugal but sailed on behalf of Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and clerics in 1769; this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence. From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico. San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the Mexican–American War; this treaty designated the new border as terminating at a point on the Pacific Ocean coast which would result in the border passing one Spanish league south of the southernmost portion of San Diego Bay, thus ensuring that the United States received all of this natural harbor.
San Diego County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of California statehood in 1850. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was large, included all of southernmost California south and east of Los Angeles County, it included areas of what are now Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, as well as all of what are now Riverside and Imperial Counties. During the part of the 19th century, there were numerous changes in the boundaries of San Diego County, when various areas were separated to make up the counties mentioned above; the most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893 and Imperial County in 1907. Imperial County was the last county to be established in California, after this division, San Diego no longer extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River, it no longer covered the entire border between California and Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water.
The county is larger in area than the combined states of Rhode Delaware. San Diego County has a varied topography. On its western side is more than 70 miles of coastline. Most of San Diego between the coast and the Laguna Mountains consists of hills and small canyons. Snow-capped mountains rise with the Sonoran Desert farther to the east. Cleveland National Forest is spread across the central portion of the county, while the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park occupies most of the northeast. Although the county's western third is urban, the mountains and deserts in the eastern two-thirds are undeveloped backcountry. Most of these backcountry areas are home to a native plant community known as chaparral. San Diego County contains more than a million acres of chaparral, twice as much as any other California county. North San Diego County is known as North County; the eastern suburbs are collectively known as East County, though most still lie in the western third of the county. The southern suburbs and southern detached portion of the city of San Diego, extending to the Mexican border, are collectively referred to as South Bay.
Periodically the area has been subject to wildfires th
A vessel's home port is the port at which it is based, which may not be the same as its port of registry shown on its registration documents and lettered on the stern of the ship's hull. In the cruise industry the term "home port" is often used in reference to the port in which a ship will take on / change over the majority of its passengers while taking on stores and fuel. In a navy, a ship's home port is the port best suited to provide maintenance and restock weaponry particular to ships of that class and build. On conclusion of a tour of duty, a combat vessel returning to port will return to its home port. A single home port makes it easier for family to visit sailors on leave. Flag of convenience
Naval air station
A naval air station is a military air base, consists of a permanent land-based operations locations for the military aviation division of the relevant branch of a navy. These bases are populated by squadrons, groups or wings, their various support commands, other tenant commands; the term "Naval Air Station" is used by many countries' navies, such as the United States Navy, the Royal Australian Navy, the British Royal Navy, the Indian Navy. In the case of the U. S. Navy, similar facilities in the U. S. Marine Corps are known as Marine Corps Air Stations and facilities in the U. S. Coast Guard are known as Coast Guard Air Stations; the Argentine Naval Aviation operates four Base Aeronaval: from BAN Punta Indio in Buenos Aires Province through BAN Comandante Espora and BAN Almirante Zar in Patagonia to BAN Almirante Quijada at Tierra del Fuego. Runways serve domestic airlines at all Argentine military air bases; the Navy operates Estacion Aeronaval which have smaller crews and are not assigned aircraft.
These include Rio Gallegos and Ushuaia. The Argentine Naval Prefecture, serving as the Coast Guard operates air stations at Posadas, Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, Comodoro Rivadavia. Aircraft operating out of these bases are involved in air/sea rescues. In Australia, there is one Naval Air Station, "NAS Nowra", HMAS Albatross, the formal Naval Aircraft Repair Yard and apprentice training establishment at HMAS Nirimba in Schofields, Sydney. In 2017, the French Naval Aviation has four naval air stations, all located in metropolitan territory. BAN Lann-Bihoué BAN Lanvéoc-Poulmic BAN Landivisiau BAN Hyères Le Palyvestre, The BAN Tontouta was reassigned the French Air Force; the United Kingdom has RNAS Yeovilton and RNAS Culdrose. Until 2006, the former served as the main operating base for the Royal Navy's Sea Harriers, which were based upon the three Invincible class aircraft carriers. However, upon the withdrawal of the BAe Sea Harrier in that year, no strike aircraft have operated from there, it is believed.
The site contains the Fleet Air Arm Museum, that showcases a variety of aircraft from the Royal Naval Air Service until the present day. RNAS Yeovilton has RNAS Merryfield as its training and satellite station. RNAS Culdrose serves a variety of helicopter and fixed-wing squadrons, such as the Sea King and the Jetstream respectively. Among the features at RNAS Culdrose is the "Dummy deck", used to train pilots to land on ships, the Merlin training facility, the Fleet Requirements Air Direction Unit, its satellite airfield is RNAS Predannack. In the United States, a "Naval Air Station" is an air base of the United States Navy; when located in foreign countries, they are more named US Naval Air Stations, to avoid confusion with naval air stations used by the navies of the host countries. A lower level of air base in the U. S. Navy is the Naval Air Facility; these facilities support smaller numbers of naval aircraft. Permanently based naval aircraft are minimal, with the principal focus being on supporting naval aircraft deployed from other installations.
Examples are Japan. S. Air Force's Misawa AB in Japan. S. Air Force's RAF Mildenhall installation in the United Kingdom. Base Realigment and Closure actions have resulted in closure of Naval Air Facilities such as NAF Detroit at Selfridge ANGB, Michigan. S. Air Force's Lajes AB facility in the Azores. S. Air Force's Japan. There are a number of former Naval Air Stations that have been realiged as part of larger Naval Stations or redesignated to other functions in the Navy; this includes the former NAS Norfolk, the former NAF Mayport, the former NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. In the case of NAS Memphis, the airfield and flight line was turned over to local civilian authorities, while the Navy retained the remainder of the installation. There are larger facilities that are similar to Naval Air Stations and possess large airfield facilities, but were constructed as part of much larger facilities or were dedicated to research and development activities; this includes Spain. The first naval air station in the United States was located at Greenbury Point, at the mouth of the Severn River near Annapolis, Maryland.
The Navy operates a number of austere unmanned or minimally manned airfields known as Naval Auxiliary Landing Fields, Naval Outlying Landing Fields, or more Outlying Fields (OL
Naval Amphibious Base Coronado
Naval Amphibious Base Coronado is a naval installation located across the bay from San Diego, California. The base, situated on the Silver Strand, between San Diego Bay and the Pacific Ocean, is a major Navy shore command, supporting over 30 tenant commands, is the West Coast focal point for special and expeditionary warfare training and operations; the on‑base population is 7,000 students and reservists. The base is one of the eight components of Naval Base Coronado. Formally commissioned in January 1944, Naval Amphibious Base, Coronado provides a shore base for the operations and support of naval amphibious units on the West Coast, it is one of only two Navy amphibious training bases in the United States. NAB is 1,000 acres in size and is composed of the Main Base, training beaches, California least tern preserve, recreational marina, enlisted family housing, state park. State Highway 75 separates NAB into bayside sections; the majority of the bayside is composed of fill materials dredged from San Diego Bay in the early 1940s.
Amphibious training is conducted on both bayside beaches. To the south of the Main Base, the majority of amphibious training activities takes place on about 257 acres of ocean beachfront property, leased from the State of California. A least tern nesting preserve is located on North and South Delta Beach between the NAB Marina and Main Base. NAB is located within the city of Coronado, California, a community of 30,000; the city of Coronado covers nearly 9 square miles of land, NAB lies south of the main residential and commercial portions of the city. Another naval facility, Naval Air Station North Island, is located northwest of the city of Coronado. South of NAB is the Silver Strand. In June 1943, the Secretary of the Navy authorized the establishment of the Amphibious Training Base in the San Diego area to meet wartimes demands for trained landing craft crews; these crews were deployed to the South Pacific area of operations, where their successful and historical efforts were contributory to the conclusion of World War II.
Training for infantry coordination with naval artillery and attack aircraft was provided at the Naval Gunfire Liaison School and Support Air Control School. The streets of the base bear the names of those famous battles which led to the Empire of Japan's defeat: Guadalcanal, Tarawa and Bougainville, to name a few; the base has provided training for Underwater Demolition Teams, United States Navy SEALs, brown-water Navy personnel, Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps midshipmen. In 1946, the base was renamed Naval Amphibious Base Coronado and its primary mission was changed to that of providing major administrative and logistical support to the amphibious units which are located on the base; the base conducts research and tests of newly developed amphibious equipment. NAB Coronado is the home to over 30 tenant commands with a population of 5,000 personnel, including major commands such as Commander, Naval Surface Forces Pacific, Commander Naval Special Warfare Command and the Commander Expeditionary Warfare Training Group Pacific.
Amphibious Construction Battalion One Assault Craft Unit One Beachmaster Unit One Expeditionary Warfare Training Group Pacific Explosive Ordnance Disposal Group One Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit One Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit Three Explosive Ordnance Disposal Operational Support Unit Seven Naval Special Warfare Command Naval Special Warfare Center Commander, Naval Special Warfare Group One SEAL Team One SEAL Team Three SEAL Team Five SEAL Team Seven Commander, Naval Special Warfare Group 11 SEAL Team 17 SEAL Team 18 Naval Special Warfare Group Three Special Boat Team 12 Commander, Tactical Air Control Group One Tactical Air Control Squadron Eleven Tactical Air Control Squadron 1194 Tactical Air Control Squadron Twelve Tactical Air Control Squadron 1294 Buildings 320, 321, 322, 323, at 32.67657°N 117.15827°W / 32.67657. This went unnoticed by the public from its construction in the 1960s until 2007 when it was spotted in aerial views on Google Earth," Although landscaping and architectural modifications were to be made to obscure the shape, the June, 2017 imagery, the latest used by Google Earth, shows no substantive change.
Commander Navy Installations Command - Naval Base Coronado, Official Site Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, GlobalSecurity.org Vietnam Unit Monument Memorial Wall, www.vummf.org Link to Google Maps location A photograph of former staff is visible here
Hotel del Coronado
Hotel del Coronado is an historic beachfront hotel in the city of Coronado, just across the San Diego Bay from San Diego, California. It is one of the few surviving examples of an American architectural genre: the wooden Victorian beach resort, it is the second largest wooden structure in the United States and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1977 and a California Historical Landmark in 1970. When it opened in 1888, it was the single largest resort hotel in the world, it has hosted presidents and celebrities through the years. The hotel has been featured in numerous books; the hotel received a Four Diamond rating from the American Automobile Association and was once listed by USA Today as one of the top ten resorts in the world. In the mid-1880s, the San Diego region was in the midst of one of its first real estate booms. At that time, it was common for a developer to build a grand hotel as a draw for what would otherwise be a barren landscape; the Hollywood Hotel in Hollywood, the Raymond Hotel in Pasadena, the Hotel Del Monte in Monterey, the Hotel Redondo in Redondo Beach, were similar grand hotels built as development enticements during this era.
In November 1885, five investors went together to buy all of Coronado and North Island 4,000 acres, for $110,000. Those people were retired railroad executive from Evansville, Indiana. In April 1886, Babcock and Story created the Coronado Beach Company, after which they established a number of additional enterprises to support the development of Coronado; the Coronado Ferry Company built wharves and storage facilities and developed ferryboat service between Coronado and San Diego. Hotel del Coronado boasted one of the largest electrical power plants in the state, providing service to the entire community of Coronado until the 1920s; the men hired architect James W. Reid, a native of New Brunswick, who first practiced in Evansville and Terre Haute, his younger brother Merritt Reid, a partner in Reid Brothers, the Evansville firm, stayed in Indiana, but brother Watson Reid helped supervise the 2,000 laborers needed. Babcock's visions for the hotel were grand: "It would be built around a court... a garden of tropical trees and flowers...
From the south end, the foyer should open to Glorietta Bay with verandas for promenade. On the ocean corner, there should be a pavilion tower, northward along the ocean, a colonnade, terraced in grass to the beach; the dining wing should project at an angle from the southeast corner of the court and be detached, to give full value to the view of the ocean and city." Construction of the hotel began in March 1887, "on a sandspit populated by jack rabbits and coyotes". If the hotel were to be built, one of the numerous problems to overcome was the absence of lumber and labor in the San Diego area; the lumber problem was solved with contracts for exclusive rights to all raw lumber production of the Dolbeer & Carson Lumber Company of Eureka, one of the West's largest. Planing mills were built on site to finish raw lumber shipped directly from the Dolbeer & Carson lumber yards, located on the shores of Humboldt Bay. To obtain brick and concrete, Reid built his own kilns, he constructed a metal shop and iron works.
Labor was provided by Chinese immigrants from San Francisco and Oakland. The Crown Room was Reid's masterpiece, its wooden ceiling was installed with glue. Not a single nail was used. Landscaping for the hotel was completed by Kate Sessions. Reid's plans were being added to constantly. To deal with fire hazards, a freshwater pipeline was run under San Diego Bay. Water tanks and gravity flow sprinklers were installed, he built two giant cisterns with concrete walls a foot thick in the basement to store rainwater. Although these cisterns were never used for rainwater, they were reputedly handy for storing alcoholic beverages during Prohibition. Reid installed the world's first oil furnace in the new hotel, prompting a Los Angeles oil company to build tankers to carry the oil to Coronado. Electric lighting in a hotel was a world first; the electric wires were installed inside the gas lines, so if the "new-fangled" electricity didn't work, they could always pipe gas in to illuminate the rooms. Contrary to popular rumor, Thomas Edison was not involved in the installation of The Del's electrical system.
The electricity was installed by the Mather Electric Company out of Chicago. An early Del brochure touted its "Mather incandescent electric lamps, of which there are 2,500." Electricity was still new to San Diego, having been first introduced in 1886. In 1904, Hotel del Coronado introduced the world's first electrically lit, outdoor living Christmas tree. From the San Diego Union, December 25, 1904: "The tree selected for the honor is one of the three splendid Norfolk Island pines on the plaza, it has attained a height of fifty feet and its branches stand proudly forth. All day yesterday electricians were busy fitting it up and by night 250 lights of many colors gave beauty to the fine old pine. Lanterns and small, hung from its boughs, and now that an open-air Christmas tree had been introduced, it is that another Christma