Mountain Warfare Training Center
The Mountain Warfare Training Center is a United States Marine Corps installation located in Pickel Meadows on California State Route 108 at 6,800 feet above sea level in the Toiyabe National Forest, 21 miles northwest of Bridgeport, California. The training center exists to train units in complex compartmented terrain; the Marine Corps' Mountain Warfare Training Center, as a major subordinate element of Marine Air Ground Task Force Training Command, with support from Marine Corps Installations - West, conducts unit and individual training courses to prepare USMC, Allied Forces for operations in mountainous, high altitude, cold weather environments in support of the Regional Combatant Commanders. Additionally, MWTC provides support to Marine Corps Combat Development Command; the Mountain Warfare Training Center is one of the Corps' most isolated posts. The Center was established in 1951 as the Cold Weather Battalion with a mission of providing cold-weather training for replacement personnel bound for Korea.
After the Korean War, in 1963, the school was renamed the "Mountain Warfare Training Center" due to its expanded role. During the 1980s, the Training Center's focus was on training and preparing Marines and operational units for deployments on NATO's Northern flank Norway. With the Global War on Terrorism, the MWTC provided pre-deployment training in support of Operation Enduring Freedom—the war in Afghanistan. MWTC is located in Pickel Meadows of the Sierra Nevada mountains south of Lake Tahoe on 46,000 acres of mountainous terrain with elevations from 6,700 ft – 11,000 ft. Other areas utilized by MWTC: Sweetwater Airstrip 6,835 ft, Mt Shasta 14,179 ft, the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada and Hawthorne Army Depot for live fire exercises. 38°21′24″N 119°30′59″W Billeting facilities to support 1200+ training personnel Chowhall to support permanent and training personnel Naval Hospital Branch Clinic Fire Department/EMS ambulances Base Security Forces / PMO Classrooms and base theater 1007’ VSTOL-capable Expeditionary Airfield Fleet of BV 206 restricted terrain vehicles Bandvagn 206 Stables and pack animals Specialized technical mountaineering and ski equipment Modern Range Operations Center Multiple small arms ranges Multiple rock climbing training areas Multiple stream crossing sites Ski Lift Avalanche training site Unit/Combat Operations Center MCCS, Post Exchange, Single Marine Program, Fitness Center and Rock Training/Climbing wall The Pickel Post, Base Newsletter Family Housing for Permanent personnel Mountain Communications Course Mountain / Cold Weather Pre-Environmental Training Mountain Operations Staff Planning Course Summer and Winter Mountain Leader Courses Mountain / Cold Weather Scout Sniper Course Assault Climber Course Scout Skier Course Mountain / Cold Weather Survival Course Mountain / Cold Weather Medicine Course OSV / rough terrain driver training Animal Packing Course Special Operation Forces Horsemanship CourseMost courses require a first class Physical Fitness Test conducted on Training Day 1.
Mountain Exercise Training for all USMC MAGTF elements/units for OEF Mountain Warrior Training for USMC battalions headed to Afghanistan to participate in combat operations in support of OEF. Exercise Mountain Warrior was directed by the Commandant of the Marine Corps as an alternate training venue to Exercise Mojave Viper due to insufficient throughput capacity of EMV at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms. Mountain Viper Training for USMC Embedded Training Teams for OEF MLC or IQC Graduate, Seasonal BIC SAT and ORM Online Courses ORM RSO 225 score on the United States Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test unadjusted for age or altitude Recommendation from Course Chief Summer and Winter Mountain Leader Course Completed AIARE Level 1 Avalanche Course Qualify as a BSI Complete Snow II Clinic Complete Rock II Clinic Complete Alpine II Clinic Certified as a Wilderness First Responder or higher Completed 20 hours of platform Instruction Recommendation from OIC. Completed AIARE Avalanche Level 2 or Level 1 Instructor Course Qualify as a MSI.
Complete Snow III Clinic Complete Rock III Clinic Complete Alpine III Clinic Completed 40 hours of platform Instruction Recommendation from OIC. List of United States Marine Corps bases Ski warfare Winter warfare Mountain warfare Mountain Leader US Navy Mountain Warfare Training Camp Michael Monsoor US Army Mountain Warfare School US Army Northern Warfare Training Center British Army Mountain Leader Training Cadre Nepal Army High Altitude and Mountain Warfare School, Mustang Indian Army High Altitude Warfare School in Sonamarg Russian Hatsavita Mountain Warfare Training Centre French Army Chasseurs Alpins, High Mountain Military School Italian Alpini German Gebirgsjäger Polish Podhale rifles Romanian Vânători de Munte MWTC's official website A Training Complex for Complex Terrain Installation Overview Info on the installation MWTC facebook Page Small Wars Journal - Mountain Warfare - The need for specialized training, Sept 2004, Major Muhammad Asim Malik, Pakistan Army Our Troops in Afghanistan Need Mountain Warfare Training Underst
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy known as West Point, Army West Point, The Academy, or The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles north of New York City, it is one of the five U. S. service academies. The Academy traces its roots to 1801, when President Thomas Jefferson directed, shortly after his inauguration, that plans be set in motion to establish the United States Military Academy at West Point; the entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites and monuments. The majority of the campus's Norman-style buildings are constructed from black granite; the campus is a popular tourist destination, with a visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a member of Congress or Delegate/Resident Commissioner in the case of Washington, D.
C. Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands. Other nomination sources include the Vice President of the United States. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as "cadets" or collectively as the "United States Corps of Cadets". Tuition for cadets is funded by the Army in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July, with about 1,000 cadets graduating. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades cadets' performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Cadets are required to adhere to the Cadet Honor Code, which states that "a cadet will not lie, steal, or tolerate those who do." The academy bases a cadet's leadership experience as a development of all three pillars of performance: academics and military. Most graduates are commissioned as second lieutenants in the Army. Foreign cadets are commissioned into the armies of their home countries.
Since 1959, cadets have been eligible for an interservice commission, a commission in one of the other armed services, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Most years, a small number of cadets do this; the academy's traditions have influenced other institutions because of unique mission. It was the first American college to have an accredited civil-engineering program and the first to have class rings, its technical curriculum was a model for engineering schools. West Point's student body has lexicon. All cadets dine together en masse on weekdays for breakfast and lunch; the academy fields fifteen men's and nine women's National Collegiate Athletic Association sports teams. Cadets compete in one sport every fall and spring season at the intramural, club, or intercollegiate level, its football team was a national power in the early and mid-20th century, winning three national championships. Its alumni and students are collectively referred to as "The Long Gray Line" and its ranks include two Presidents of the United States, presidents of Costa Rica and the Philippines, numerous famous generals, seventy-six Medal of Honor recipients.
The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778, it is the oldest continuously operating Army post in the United States. Between 1778 and 1780, the Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kościuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison defenses; the Great Hudson River Chain and high ground above the narrow "S" curve in the river enabled the Continental Army to prevent British Royal Navy ships from sailing upriver and thus dividing the Colonies. While the fortifications at West Point were known as Fort Arnold during the war, as commander, Benedict Arnold committed his act of treason, attempting to sell the fort to the British. After Arnold betrayed the patriot cause, the Army changed the name of the fortifications at West Point, New York, to Fort Clinton. With the peace after the American Revolutionary War, various ordnance and military stores were left deposited at West Point. After the Continental Army was disbanded 1783, West Point was the only place in the newly formed United States to have active military personel, 80 in total, until Legion of the United States was established in 1792."Cadets" underwent training in artillery and engineering studies at the garrison since 1794.
In 1801, shortly after his inauguration as president, Thomas Jefferson directed that plans be set in motion to establish at West Point the United States Military Academy. He selected Jonathan Williams to serve as its first superintendent. Congress formally authorized the establishment and funding of the school with the Military Peace Establishment Act of 1802, which Jefferson signed on 16 March; the academy commenced operations on 4 July 1802. The academy graduated Joseph Gardner Swift, its first official graduate, in October 1802, he returned as Superintendent from 1812 to 1814. In its tumultuous early years, the academy featured few standards for length of study. Cadets attended between 6 months to 6 years; the impending War of 1812 caused the United States Congress to authorize a more formal system of education at the academy and increased the size of the Corps of Cadets to 250. In 1817, Colonel Sylvanus Thayer became the Superintendent and established the curriculum, elements of which are still in use as of 2015.
Thayer instilled strict disciplinary
Joint Forces Training Base - Los Alamitos
Joint Forces Training Base - Los Alamitos is a joint base in Los Alamitos, California. Operated as a Naval Air Station, the base contains the Los Alamitos Army Airfield and is sometimes called by that name; the base is known as JFTB - Los Al or just JFTB. The base is 1,319 acres and "supports 850 full-time employees and more than 6,000 National Guard and Reserve troops." JFTB has an MWR with billeting, a pub, a banquet hall. The pub, known as Fiddler's Green, is the last remaining military pub in Orange County. JFTB has significant training facilities, including an Engagement Skills Trainer, a Virtual Convoy Operations Trainer, a HMMWV Egress Assistance Trainer, a Laser Marksmanship Training System, a Close Combat Tactical Trainer; the airfield has two runways: Runway 4L/22R: 5,902 x 150 ft. Surface: PEM Runway 4R/22L: 8,001 x 200 ft. Surface: Asphalt/Concrete The JFTB Aquatics Training Center is an Olympic-size swimming pool 50m by 25m, which offers year-round lap swimming, swim lessons, fitness classes.
The women's national water polo team practices at the facility. In 1942, JFTB became a naval air base in to train fighter pilots during World War II. In 1973, JFTB was transferred to the U. S. Army. On 16 July 1957, then-Major John H. Glenn, Jr. USMC, set the Transcontinental air speed record, flying a F8U-1P Crusader from NAS Los Alamitos to NAS Floyd Bennett Field, New York, in 3 hours, 23 minutes, 8.4 seconds. Project Bullet, as the mission was called, provided both the first transcontinental flight to average supersonic speed, the first continuous transcontinental panoramic photograph of the United States. Glenn was awarded his fifth Distinguished Flying Cross for the mission; the senior command on post is the 40th Infantry Division, headquartered in the large, prominent building facing the flagpole and main entrance artery. The base served as the starting line for the 14th season of the hit CBS Reality TV Show The Amazing Race; the base's status as an alternate landing area for Air Force One was mentioned in a West Wing episode.
The base leases the airfield to the City of Los Alamitos's for the annual Southland Credit Union Los Alamitos "Race on the Base," a charity event including a 5K Run, 5K Walk, 10K Run, 10K Skate/ Handcycle / Wheelchair, Mission: 1K Kids Run, Jr. Reverse Triathlon and Reverse Triathlon; the Southland Credit Union Los Alamitos "Race on the Base" is the largest reverse triathlon event in the country. On the south edge of Runway 22L is the Navy Golf Course, where Tiger Woods honed his game as a youth; the 18-hole Destroyer Course opened in 1966 and an executive nine holes was added. The former military-only facility opened for public play in 2004. In 2014, President Barack Obama landed at JFTB in Air Force One in order to give the commencement speech at UC Irvine. In April 2015, Brig Gen Nathaniel S. Reddicks became the first installation commander from the California Air National Guard. After this command, Reddicks retired from federal service and joined the California State Military Reserve, "making him the first federally recognized general officer to join the CSMR since the Korean War."In October 2016, Brig. Gen. John W. Lathrop took command of the base.
FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this U. S. military airport: FAA airport information for SLI AirNav airport information for KSLI NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart for KSLI
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Millard Fillmore was the 13th president of the United States, the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House. A former U. S. Representative from New York, Fillmore was elected the nation's 12th vice president in 1848, succeeded to the presidency in July 1850 upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, he was instrumental in getting the Compromise of 1850 passed, a bargain that led to a brief truce in the battle over slavery. He failed to win the Whig nomination for president in 1852. Fillmore was born into poverty in the Finger Lakes area of New York state—his parents were tenant farmers during his formative years. Though he had little formal schooling, he rose from poverty through diligent study and became a successful attorney, he became prominent in the Buffalo area as an attorney and politician, was elected to the New York Assembly in 1828, to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1832, he belonged to the Anti-Masonic Party, but became a Whig as the party formed in the mid-1830s.
Through his career, Fillmore declared slavery an evil, but one beyond the powers of the federal government, whereas Seward was not only hostile to slavery, he argued that the federal government had a role to play in ending it. Fillmore was an unsuccessful candidate for Speaker of the House when the Whigs took control of the chamber in 1841, but was made Ways and Means Committee chairman. Defeated in bids for the Whig nomination for vice president in 1844, for New York governor the same year, Fillmore was elected Comptroller of New York in 1847, the first to hold that post by direct election; as vice president, Fillmore was ignored by Taylor in the dispensing of patronage in New York, on which Taylor consulted Weed and Seward. In his capacity as President of the Senate however, he presided over angry debates in the Senate as Congress decided whether to allow slavery in the Mexican Cession. Fillmore supported Henry Clay's Omnibus Bill. Upon becoming president in July 1850, Fillmore dismissed Taylor's cabinet and carried out his own policy priorities.
He began by exerting pressure on Congress to pass the Compromise, highlighting how it gave legislative victories to both North and South – the five-bill package was approved and enacted into law that September. The Fugitive Slave Act, expediting the return of escaped slaves to those who claimed ownership, was a controversial part of the Compromise, Fillmore felt himself duty-bound to enforce it, though it damaged his popularity and the Whig Party, torn North from South. In foreign policy, Fillmore supported U. S. Navy expeditions to open trade in Japan, opposed French designs on Hawaii, was embarrassed by Narciso López's filibuster expeditions to Cuba, he sought election to a full term in 1852, but was passed over by the Whigs in favor of Winfield Scott. As the Whig Party broke up after Fillmore's presidency, many in Fillmore's conservative wing joined the Know Nothings, forming the American Party. In his 1856 candidacy as that party's nominee, Fillmore had little to say about immigration, focusing instead on the preservation of the Union, won only Maryland.
In retirement, Fillmore was active in many civic endeavors—he helped in founding the University of Buffalo and served as its first chancellor. During the American Civil War, Fillmore denounced secession and agreed that the Union must be maintained by force if necessary, but was critical of the war policies of Abraham Lincoln. After peace was restored, he supported the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson. Though he is obscure today, Fillmore has been praised by some, for his foreign policy, criticized by others, for his enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act and his association with the Know Nothings. Historians and scholars have ranked Fillmore as one of the worst presidents, debate continues on to this day concerning whether Fillmore escalated the civil war by signing the Compromise of 1850. Millard Fillmore was born January 7, 1800 in a log cabin, on a farm in what is now Moravia, Cayuga County, in the Finger Lakes region of New York, his parents were Phoebe and Nathaniel Fillmore—he was the second of eight children and the oldest son.
Nathaniel Fillmore was the son of Nathaniel Fillmore Sr. a native of Franklin, Connecticut who became one of the earliest settlers of Bennington when it was founded in the territory called the New Hampshire Grants. Nathaniel Fillmore and Phoebe Millard moved from Vermont in 1799, seeking better opportunities than were available on Nathaniel's stony farm, but the title to their Cayuga County land proved defective, the Fillmore family moved to nearby Sempronius, where they leased land as tenant farmers, Nathaniel taught school. Historian Tyler Anbinder described Fillmore's childhood as, "...one of hard work, frequent privation, no formal schooling". Over time Nathaniel became more successful in Sempronius, though during Millard’s formative years the family endured severe poverty. Nathaniel became sufficiently regarded that he was chosen to serve in local offices including justice of the peace. In hopes his oldest son would learn a trade, he convinced Millard at age 14 not to enlist for the War of 1812 and apprenticed him to cloth maker Benjamin Hungerford in Sparta.
Fillmore was relegated to menial labor. His father placed him in the same trade at a mill in New Hope. Seeking to better him
Fort Hunter Liggett
Fort Hunter Liggett, named after General Hunter Liggett in 1941, is a United States Army fort in southern Monterey County, about 250 miles north of Los Angeles and 150 miles south of San Francisco. The fort is used as a training facility, where activities such as field maneuvers and live fire exercises are performed, it is 25 miles northwest of Camp Roberts, California. The Salinas Valley is the fort's northern border, the Santa Lucia Mountains bound it on the east, Los Padres National Forest on the west and the Monterey and San Luis Obispo County line on the south; the fort comprised 200,000 acres, but at its present size of 167,000 acres, it is the largest United States Army Reserve command post. Some of the land, 52 acres, was given to Mission San Antonio de Padua, bringing its size to 85 acres. Additionally, land has been traded between the United States Forest Service, which owns the adjacent Los Padres National Forest, the Army. Junipero Serra Peak is to Bald Mountain to the south; the fort contains the headwaters of the Nacimiento River and San Antonio River.
The opening helicopter scene of We Were Soldiers was filmed at the old Bailey Bridge spanning the San Antonio. There is an historic hotel on the Post known as The Hacienda which serves the general public and can be used as guest housing by military personnel, as available, to the public; the "west wing" of The Hacienda has served as the Installation Commander's Quarters during various periods. A short distance past the old main gate, there is a road to the southwest which goes to what is known as the "Primitive Campgrounds". There are some camper trailers there, some water spigots around the site. There is a central restroom on the site and a store. Near that area is a lot that has several used FEMA trailers stored. Under the Köppen Climate Classification, "dry-summer subtropical" climates are referred to as "Mediterranean"; this climate zone has an average temperature above 10 °C in their warmest months, an average in the coldest between 18 and -3 °C. Summers tend to be dry with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month, with less than 30mm of precipitation in a summer month There are only 250 permanent civil and military residents at the fort.
However, the population can swell up to 4,000. In 1925, William Randolph Hearst's Piedmont Land and Cattle Company bought Rancho Milpitas and neighboring Rancho Los Ojitos ) from the James Brown Cattle Company; the government purchased Hearst's properties plus Rancho El Piojo, Rancho San Miguelito de Trinidad, two-thirds of Rancho Pleyto. It added other private holdings as well; this surrounded the small unincorporated town of Jolon, which remains today in a diminished form from its heyday. The base is about 25 miles southwest of King City and about 86 miles south of old Fort Ord on the Monterey Peninsula. In general, the installation is bounded on the north by the Salinas Valley, on the east by the foothills of the Santa Lucia Mountains, on the south by the Monterey/San Luis Obispo county line and on the west by 55 miles of Los Padres National Forest; the highest mountain in the area is Junipero Serra Peak. At 5,862 feet, it is visible toward the north and has a good road leading to the summit.
The peak was known as Santa Lucia and local long-time residents still call it by that name. In winter it is sometimes cloaked with a white mantle of snow; the fort is named for Lt. Gen. Hunter Liggett, a commander and chief of staff under General John J. Pershing during World War l. Fort Hunter Liggett was under the authority of Camp Roberts, California, to the southeast, until 1952, when it became a sub-installation of Fort Ord. From the 1970s through the early 1990s, the base served two purposes — as a training area for the 7th Light Infantry Division, as the home for the Training and Experimentation Command; the mission of CDEC was to evaluate new Army and Marine Corps weapons systems by providing a simulated Soviet Mechanized Rifle Company to act as the "OPFOR", or opposing forces. By this method, the Sgt. York anti-aircraft gun was found to have serious flaws, while the Marine's Light Armored Vehicle was validated; as of October 2018, the command is designated as the U. S. Army Garrison Fort Hunter Liggett with Parks Reserve Forces Training Area located in Dublin, California as a sub-installation.
In its 2005 Base Realignment and Closure recommendations, the Department of Defense recommended relocating the 91st Division from Parks Reserve Forces Training Area to Hunter Liggett. In 2007, the Army created the Combat Support Training Center at Fort Hunter Liggett and ramped up training from 300,000 man-days per year, to over 850,000 per year, year-round. While training was centered around Army Reserve units preparing for deployment, such was provided to all Army components, to Air Force, Navy and foreign commands Exercises held that first year included Pacific Warrior and Global Medic, which involved over 6,000 troops at Hunter Liggett, connections to other units in locations across the nation; the Army installation's garrison commander relocated from Camp Parks to Hunter Liggett in early 2007, with oversight for Camp Parks and Army units and housing that remain at former NAS Moffett Field a