Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps

The Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps program is a college-based, commissioned officer training program of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. A pilot Naval Reserve unit was established in September 1924 at St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland, it let. In 1926, the U. S. Department of the Navy established the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps, its purpose was to produce a reserve of qualified officers who would be needed for a possible rapid expansion of the military in the case of an unforeseen emergency. A secondary objective was to acquaint college faculty and students with the Navy and its national importance. Sixty Naval Reserve Freshmen were accepted at each of the original units at the University of California, Northwestern University, University of Washington, Harvard University, Yale University, Georgia Institute of Technology. Captain Chester W. Nimitz commanded the University of California NROTC unit; the first NROTC students received one uniform and a subsistence allowance totaling $210.

They had the option of attending a fifteen-day training cruise each summer for which they would be paid seventy cents per day and a transportation allowance between their college and the ports of embarkation and debarkation. The St. John's College pilot unit disbanded by 1929, but the original six regular units are still active in 2014. Under the modern U. S. Naval ROTC system, graduates become active duty officers, rather than reserve officers, are required to serve a term of 5 years for the Navy Option and 4 years for the Marine and Nurse Options; the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps commissions individuals into either the United States Navy as an Ensign or the United States Marine Corps as a Second Lieutenant. While attending college, these prospective officer candidates are known as Midshipmen. Whereas Naval Academy Midshipmen are on active duty, NROTC Midshipmen are in the Navy Reserve but are on active duty for periods of training during the summer; the primary difference is that NROTC Midshipmen attend an ordinary civilian college or university, whereas Naval Academy Midshipmen attend the U.

S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD, a much more regimented, military environment. Starting in 2009, the scholarship program was changed to narrowly favor STEM degrees at the expense of the humanities; the majority of NROTC Midshipmen join the program after completing high school. Those Midshipmen are either College Program Midshipmen. Scholarship Midshipmen are those; some NROTC students have served as enlisted women in the Navy or Marine Corps. The selective application process involves an extensive written application and an interview with a Navy representative. Applicants must pass an entrance medical examination process; the Navy pays tuition for educational fees, as well as a stipend for books. All Midshipmen fall under one of three types: Navy Option, Navy Nurse Option, or Marine Option; the Navy does not pay for board. In addition to tuition, the Navy pays a monthly stipend during the school year; as of 2011, the stipend was $250 per month for first-year Midshipmen, with a $50 increase each year after that.

College Program Midshipmen are those. They complete all activities and requirements of scholarship midshipmen and if they continue in the program for four years will be commissioned as Ensigns or Second Lieutenants, they will be offered a scholarship by the Navy if they perform well academically and within the ROTC program. Because of the technical nature of the Navy, students entering college without a 4-year scholarship who are planning to major in a technical field, such as engineering, science, or math, are more competitive for the scholarships; those enlisted in the Navy who are pursuing a commission through the Seaman to Admiral 21 participate in the ROTC program and are referred to as "Officer Candidates." They retain their enlisted pay. Enlisted Marines participate in ROTC through the Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Program and are referred to by their rank or by the name of the program, "MECEP." MECEP Marines do not have their school paid for by the Marine Corps and use the Montgomery GI Bill or the Post-9/11 GI Bill to pay for school.

They continue to receive pay in accordance with their rank, however any promotions while they are attending school are considered non-competitive and will be revoked if they fail out of the commissioning program. Most college NROTC units are only a part-time commitment during a student's course of study at a university or college. There are three basic parts to a student's ROTC commitment in a typical week: One or in some cases two days a week are set aside as uniform days, where the midshipmen spend several hours attending military training such as inspections, close-order drill practices, training lectures; the training is in the late afternoon after most classes have ended for the day, or in early mornings before classes. It is common for Marine Option midshipmen and MECEPs to have an additional training period for Marine-specific training. One to three physical training sessions are required in a week early in the morning, it is co

Kewanna, Indiana

Kewanna is a town in Union Township, Fulton County, United States. The population was 613 at the 2010 census. A post office was established at Kewanna in 1847; the community was named for a Potawatomi chief. Kewanna is located at 41°1′5″N 86°24′46″W. According to the 2010 census, Kewanna has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 613 people, 251 households, 149 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,156.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 283 housing units at an average density of 534.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.2% White, 1.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 251 households of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.6% were non-families.

35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.15. The median age in the town was 35.2 years. 28.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 614 people, 269 households, 157 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,171.5 people per square mile. There were 297 housing units at an average density of 566.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.37% White, 0.33% African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population. There were 269 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.6% were non-families.

37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.99. In the town the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,292, the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $31,607 versus $20,139 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,718. About 6.0% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.9% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. The town has the Kewanna-Union Township Public Library. Kewanna High School used to serve the town but is no longer in operation

Navicelli channel

The Navicelli Channel is a channel built between 1563 and 1575 to connect Pisa with the port of Livorno. The name originates from the so-called navicelli, small sized Tuscan boats that transported goods on the channel across the Pisan plain from Lake Bientina to the area of Empoli. In the 16th century, the mouth of the Arno river was a wetland affected by strong sea currents. For this reason, because of a need to connect the new port of Livorno to the Tuscan capital of Florence, a channel was designed and built between the seaport and Pisa during the reign of Cosimo I de'Medici; the excavation cost only 5,000 shields. The channel was opened to river traffic in 1603 and had a length of 22 km, 18 m and a depth of 1.50 m. Main changes were made in Livorno, where the building of the Scolmatore dell'Arno channel imposed a new mouth for the Arno river before it entered the port itself, in Pisa, where corresponding to the mercantile harbor of Pisa a new Incile was built further south than the dock of Pisa and buried at the end of the 20th century, while a long stretch of the canal in Livorno was buried in the district of Tower to make room for a wide straight road, resulting in the relocation of the channel port.

The channel is supervised by the Office of the Rivers and Streams and managed by the public company Navicelli SpA, which takes care of the logistics for the various industrial sites and the present development of the channel. The old Channel Navicelli, now ranked as a waterway, is 35 meters wide and has a draft of 3.50 meters, so boats can navigate "tidal" with tonnage up to 1,200 tons, maximum length of 90 meters, draft up to 2.60 meters and at speeds up to 6 knots. It has a straight course for 11 km from Pisa to the curve of the Arno Scolmatore