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Naval Submarine Base New London

Naval Submarine Base New London is the United States Navy's primary East Coast submarine base known as the "Home of the Submarine Force". It is located in Groton, Connecticut directly across the Thames River from its namesake city of New London. In 1868, the State of Connecticut gave the Navy 112 acres of land along the Thames River in Groton to build a Naval Station. Due to a lack of federal funding, it was not until 1872 that two brick buildings and a T-shaped pier were constructed and declared a Navy Yard. In 1898, Congress approved a coaling station to be built at the Yard for refueling small naval ships traveling through the waters of New England; the Navy Yard was first used for laying up inactive ships. The Congressional appropriations were small and the Navy had little need for the yard, closed from 1898 to 1900 and its personnel reassigned. By 1912, oil replaced coal in warships and again the Yard was scheduled for closure and the land relinquished by the Navy; the Navy Yard was spared permanent closure in 1912 by an impassioned plea from Congressman Edwin W. Higgins of Norwich, worried about the loss of Federal spending in the region.

On 13 October 1915, the monitor Ozark, a submarine tender, four submarines arrived in Groton. Additional submarines and support craft arrived the following year, the facility was named as the Navy's first submarine base; the first commander of the Yard was retired Commodore Timothy A. Hunt, recalled to service, he was living in New Haven, he used the Central Hotel on State Street, New London when in town to attend to Yard duties on an "as needed" basis. The submarine base is physically located in the Town of Groton, but New London became associated with it because the base had its main offices and housing in New London. Following World War I, the Navy established schools and training facilities at the base; the Base property expanded during the latter part of World War I. Congress approved over a million dollars for Base facilities expansion. By the end of the war, 81 buildings had been built to support 1,400 men and 20 submarines, although the land expansion was slowed through much of the 1920s.

However, the Great Depression of the 1930s saw an expansion and enhancement of the physical plant of the Base. President Franklin D. Roosevelt created a series of Federal Government employment programs that contributed to the Submarine Base. Over 26 high quality warehouses and workshops were built at the base under these Federal job-spending programs; the second largest expansion of the Base occurred during World War II, when it grew from 112 acres to 497 acres. The Submarine Force leaped in size, the Base accommodated thousands of men to serve the growing combat fleet. After World War II, the Submarine Force was reduced and many submarines were sent into storage. Most of the World War II fleet was sold for scrap metal during the early 1960s. From 1930 to 1994, the most recognizable structure on the base was the 100-foot-tall Escape Training Tank. Generations of submariners learned to escape in up to 80 feet of water using buoyant ascent, were trained in the use of the Momsen lung or Steinke hood.

In 2007, the Escape Training Tank was replaced by the Submarine Escape Trainer, which has two types of escape trunks in up to 40 feet of water. The Steinke hood was replaced by the Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment in the 2000s; the New London Base is homeport to 16 attack submarines and full Navy base situated in Groton, Connecticut. The Base is neighbor to the major submarine construction yard of General Dynamics' Electric Boat Division. All officer and enlisted submariners are stationed at Groton during their training, with the exception of nuclear trained Electronics Technicians, Electrician's Mates, Machinist's Mates. Enlisted sailors attending sub school will first go through Basic Enlisted Sub School, an eight-week program that teaches the rigors of undersea life. BESS includes training in shoring, patching leaks and ruptured pipes and boat handling techniques. After BESS, sailors will either go to follow-on schools; the main base occupies more than 687 acres plus over 530 acres of family housing.

It supports more than 70 tenant commands, including Naval Submarine School, Naval Submarine Support Facility, three Submarine Squadron staffs, the housing and support facilities for more than 21,000 civilian workers, active-duty service members, their families. On 13 May 2005, the Pentagon recommended. After review, the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission voted on 24 August 2005 to strike New London from the list of possible closures, thus allowing the base to remain open. Los Angeles-class submarinesUSS Providence USS Pittsburgh USS San Juan USS Springfield USS Montpelier USS Hartford USS Toledo Virginia-class submarinesUSS Virginia USS California USS Minnesota USS North Dakota USS Colorado USS South Dakota USS Hyman G. Rickover Submarine Force Library and Museum Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory Official website NSB New London website Militarynewcomers Naval Vessel Register U. S. Navy Submarine Force Museum — Official home of USS Nautilus Navy Basic Enlisted Submarine School Historic American Engineering Record No.

CT-37-A, "U. S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, New London County, CT", 53 photos, 3 measured drawings, 32 data pages, 5 photo caption pages


Rusanda (Serbian Cyrillic: Русанда is a spa town established in 1867 and located in Melenci, Serbia. Lake Rusanda is a saline, shallow wetland. Due to the high salinity of both the water and the mud, up to 60%, it has been speculated that Rusanda is one of the remnants of the ancient Pannonian Sea, but the lake is a fossil bed of the Tisza river. Records show that healing mud from the lake's bottom, has been used for therapeutic treatments at least since the 1760s. Mud therapy proved to be quite beneficial with muscle inflammation, rheumatism and with the car crash injuries. In August 2017 a complete drying out of the lake gained media attention, it was reported of the ecological catastrophe which endangered the local population, agriculture and 200 bird species living in the lake area, due to the toxic saline dusts blown by the winds. The mud dries and can't be used, while the Sun damages both the peloid's quality and quantity; the hydrologists however said that drying of the lake is not unusual, it happens without disrupting the ecosystem, but it didn't gain as much media attention previously.

When the rainy season starts, the lake will fill up again. It happens due to the dry summers and because of the disturbance of the level of underground waters, caused with the construction of the Danube–Tisa–Danube Canal. In order to prevent this, hydrological research was conducted in the early 2010s, the plan was made to dig several water wells which would prevent the lake from drying up during the periods of drought; the wells were built but are not functioning yet. Still, the experts warned that the irrigation of the lake may disturb the natural balance and influence the medicinal properties of the mud so that best thing would be to let the nature regulate the lake, as it is. Peloid indeed can't be used when it dries and hardens, but the spa, organized as the Special hospital for rehabilitation "Rusanda", always has stored quantities of it, in cases the complete drying up happens. To change the properties of the mud, the drought would have to last much longer, at least a 1,000 years, one dry season is not nearly enough.

The layers of mud are sediments of sand clay. The chemical composition: dominant are silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide and iron oxide, with other oxides, microelements and a significant amount of total sulfur; the lake was declared a Nature park "Rusanda". List of spa towns in Serbia


Baturu was an official title of the Qing dynasty, awarded to commanders and soldiers who fought bravely on the battlefield. In Manchu, baturu means "warrior" or "brave." It is from the Mongolian word baγatur, which has the same meaning. At the beginning of the Qing dynasty, only Manchu and Mongol soldiers were permitted to receive the title. In the Jiaqing period, over 100 years after the dynasty was founded, the emperor started awarding the title to Han Chinese soldiers as well. Beginning in the Xianfeng period and foreigners were permitted to receive the title as well. Bao Chao Cheng Xueqi William Mesny Oboi Song Qing Frederick Townsend Ward Xiang Rong Zeng Guofan Zhang Guoliang

Sekunjalo Investments

Sekunjalo Investment Holdings is a South Africa-based private equity firm specializing in acquisitions, PIPEs, buyouts. It has principal operations in publishing, fishing, pharmaceuticals, telecommunication, financial services, biotechnology, enterprise development, events management, travel; the company was founded by Iqbal Survé in 1996 with the aim of investing and assisting Black-owned businesses. In April 2015 all of Sekunjalo's investment's except it's 55% ownership in Independent Media SA was spun-off into a new company, still owned by Sekunjalo Investments, known as African Equity Empowerment Investments. Sekunjalo's Investment model is to seek above average returns in their portfolio and to have scalable social impact on the African continent; the Group is committed to the "upliftment of marginalised groups by creating employment, emphasising development and transferring of skills." In April 2015, Sekunjalo Investments Limited was renamed, African Equity Empowerment Investments to avoid confusion with its mother company, Sekunjalo Holdings.

Holdings became a held company whilst AEEI took Sekunjalo's publicly traded status on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange trading under the ticker AEE. Sekunjalo Investments kept its 55% stake in Independent News and Media SA but all other investments were spun-off into AEEI so as to "better reflect the underlying businesses and investments of the Group going forward and to differentiate from the private holding company." Founder Iqbal Survé stepped down from managing all investments held by AEEI so as to focus on the company's media holdings. Sekunjalo Independent Media Consortium is a owned and separately controlled segment company, not directly related to the publicly listed African Equity Empowerment Investments segment of the Sekunjalo Investments parent company. Sekunjalo holds 55% ownership of Cape Town-based Independent News and Media South Africa with the remaining ownership made up of Chinese and Public Investment Corporation of South Africa. Two Chinese State Owned Enterprises invested R400 million in the deal to acquire 20% of the Newspaper.

The Public Investment Corporation of South Africa invested R500 million to acquire a 25% share. The purchase of the South African-based media group from Independent News and Media was concluded in August 2013 for €150-million. According to the Mail and Guardian Sekunjalo Independent Media's 55% purchase of INMSA was funded with a loan from the government owned Public Investment Corporation and Government Employees Pension Fund. By 2018 a large proportion of the PIC's investment in Sekunjalo were written off. In December 2011 a Sekunjalo subsidiary, Sekunjalo Marine Services Consortium, was awarded an R800 million tender for the crewing and maintenance of the research and fisheries patrol services. On 19 February 2012, Mr Pieter van Dalen, the Democratic Alliance member of parliament, lodged a complaint with the Public Protector. To investigate allegation of improper awards of this tender by the Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries; that "the company had submitted four separate bids under different company and consortium names, which were all accompanied by Sekunjalo’s 2010 annual report."

Additional concerns were raised over possible conflict of interests that neither the company nor the Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries adequately addressed over one of its holdings, Premier Fishing having a fishing licence at the time when the contract was awarded. On 5 December 2013, the South African Public Protector released its report on accusations that the contract to manage South Africa's fleet of fishing patrol vessels was improperly handled and awarded to Sekunjalo's Marine Service Consortium; the report found that the awarding of the R800 million a year contract was improper and did not comply with the department of Agriculture and Fisheries supply-chain management requirements. The Public Protector found that the head of the department's tender evaluation had been "irrational and improper" in its awarding of the bid to Sekunjalo.. In the final report, the Public Protector was unable to find any improper maladministration by the Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries on the allegation that submitting four tenders under the Sekunjalo Group constitute collusive tendering.

Therefore, Sekunjalo was cleared of charges of collusion and corruption, the Public Protector referred the matter to the Competition Commission. The Competition Commission found that there was no collusive bidding by four entities of the Sekunjalo Group when they each put in a bid for an R800 million tender; the contract was held by rival marine services firm Smit Amandla Marine until it expired in 2011 and a new bidding process started. Smit Amand Marine complained; the contract was awarded to Sekunjalo only to withdraw it and instead gave Smit Amandla one month to hand over their operation to the South African Navy. The department found that the Navy could not properly maintain the fleet of six patrol vessels and issued an emergency tender to Nautic SA and Damen Shipyards. On 5 December 2013 former struggle hero of South Africa Nelson Mandela passed away. Most newspapers in South Africa, major international newspaper titles dedicated their front pages to coverage of Mandela's death. Except for Die Burger and the Sekunjalo owned Cape Times which instead led with a special edition that wrapp

Grease fitting

A grease fitting, grease nipple, Zerk fitting, or Alemite fitting is a metal fitting used in mechanical systems to feed lubricants lubricating grease, into a bearing under moderate to high pressure using a grease gun. Grease fittings are permanently installed by either a thread or straight push-fit arrangement, leaving a nipple connection that a grease gun attaches to; the pressure supplied by the grease gun forces a small captive bearing ball in the fitting to move back against the force of its retaining spring. The arrangement is thus a valve that opens under pressure to allow lubricant to pass through a channel and be forced into the voids of the bearing; when the pressure ceases, the ball returns to its closed position. The ball excludes dirt and functions as a check valve to prevent grease escaping back out of the fitting; the ball is flush with the surface of the fitting so that it can be wiped clean to reduce the amount of debris carried with the grease into the bearing. The common convex shape of the fitting allows the concave tip of the grease gun to seal against the fitting from many angles, yet with a sufficiently tight seal to force the pressured grease to move the ball and enter the fitting, rather than oozing past this temporary annular seal.

A less common design has a few names including'button head','threepenny bit','flat' and'tat head'. These are a larger nipple head with a flat sealing surface which overhangs the body of the nipple allowing the grease gun end to be hooked onto the nipple with a sliding action which wipes the nipple surface as it's attached; the grease gun hose is at a sharp angle to the axis of the nipple but can be approached from any azimuthal angle. It is not possible for grease pressure to force this type of connector away from the nipple. Grease fittings are made from zinc-plated steel, stainless steel, or brass; the patent for the Zerk fitting was granted to Oscar U. Zerk in January 1929, the assignee was the Alemite Manufacturing Corporation. Alemite had been marketing, since 1919, ball check valves to accept grease supplied under pressure from a grease gun, such as for car and truck chassis lubrication points, both for OEM installations and for aftermarket upgrade kits which would screw in as replacements for stock grease cups, but Zerk's fitting was an improved style, less vulnerable to dirt and more forgiving of angled approach.

Today, many companies make these grease fittings. Before Zerk fittings existed, bearings were lubricated in various other ways that tended to be more maintenance-intensive and provided less effective lubrication. For example, a typical machinery bearing of the 19th and early 20th centuries was a plain bearing with a cross-drilled hole to receive oil or grease, with no clever fitting at its mouth, or at best a cap or cup. Lubricant was delivered under no more pressure than gravity or a finger push might provide. For example, oil was gravity-fed into the hole. Grease guns to feed the grease with higher pressure existed, but their pre-Zerk fittings were not as good for making clean, sealed contact and they were less used than today; the oil hole or grease hole was covered with a cap of some kind to keep dirt out, from a simple plug or screw to a spring-loaded hinged cap. Sometimes a cup was mounted, acting as a small reservoir, which could be turned at regular intervals to inject grease into the fitting.

The standard mode of maintenance was to have each machine's operator, or a dedicated oiler, go around adding a small squirt of oil or blob of grease to each and every hole on a frequent basis. Typical frequencies for oiling were one oil squirt in some cases each week. Grease is oil held in a viscous gel or cream whose viscosity is used to hold the oil over time in places where oil alone cannot be supplied enough, would drip away without the viscous suspension; this trait makes it better for bearings that cannot receive new oil on a near-constant basis. Thus a typical frequency for greasing might be yearly, or every several years. If the lubrication schedule was faithfully and conscientiously adhered to, the lubrication quality could be good. Large marine engines and stationary engines to power whole factories were likeliest to get such top-quality care, but locomotives, rail cars, agricultural implements, automobiles were less certain of good care, lubrication quality without constant lubing tended to be intermittent, from mediocre to bad.

Attempts to improve on the simple oil hole concept included putting a small reservoir of oil above the hole, which dripped oil into it. An example is the Lunkenheimer oiler in the nearby image; such oilers incorporated one or more of the following features: A wick (to hold the oil and allow it to be drawn down by capillary action, just as an oil-lamp wick or candle wick fed oil or melted wax to its flame A fine mesh screen to act as a filter to keep dirt from getting down the hole A glass cup rather than a metal one, which allowed an operator or oiler to see at a glance how low the oil level was For greased bearings, the low pressures of lubrication before the grease fitting could result in a failure of the grease to travel all the way down into all the voids of the bearing. The grease fitting improved this penetration. Since the 1920s, the ever-growing proliferation of sealed bearings throughout the manufacturing industries has made the use of grease fittings less common. Sealed bearings are lubricated for life at the factory, are sealed such that the lubricant is not lost or

Mikhail Kozell

Mikhail Georgievich Kozell was a Soviet Russian painter and Art teacher, who lived and worked in Leningrad, who belonged to the Leningrad School of Painting, most famous for his landscape painting. Kozell was born October 1911 in Astrakhan. In 1939 Mikhail Kozell graduated from Ilya Repin Institute in Isaak Brodsky workshop. Pupil of Mikhail Bernshtein, Arcady Rylov, Alexander Lubimov, Vladimir Serov. Since 1949 Mikhail Kozell participated in Art Exhibitions. Painted landscapes, genre pictures, sketchs from the life. Mikhail Kozell was a member of the Saint Petersburg Union of Artists since 1962. In 1948-1991 Mikhail Kozell worked as an Art teacher of Secondary Art School of Ilya Repin Institute in Leningrad. Mikhail Georgievich Kozell died on July 1993, in Saint Petersburg at 82 years of age. Paintings by Mikhail Kozell reside in Art museums and private collections in Russia, U. S. England and throughout the world. Leningrad School of Painting List of Russian artists List of 20th-century Russian painters List of the Russian Landscape painters Saint Petersburg Union of Artists Across the Motherland Exhibition of Leningrad artists.

Catalogue. - Leningrad: Khudozhnik RSFSR, 1974. -p. 14. Exhibition of modern Soviet Painting. 1976. Gekkoso Gallery. Catalogue. — Tokyo, 1976. - р.97,154. Exhibition of modern Soviet Painting. 1978. Gekkoso Gallery. Catalogue. — Tokyo, 1978. - р.58. Mikhail Kozell. Painting. Drawings. Exhibition of works. Catalogue. - Leningrad: Khudozhnik RSFSR, 1989. Matthew C. Bown. Dictionary of 20th Century Russian and Soviet Painters 1900-1980s. - London: Izomar, 1998. ISBN 0-9532061-0-6, ISBN 978-0-9532061-0-0. Sergei V. Ivanov. Unknown Socialist Realism; the Leningrad School.- Saint Petersburg: NP-Print Edition, 2007. – pp. 15, 20, 361, 390, 392, 394-398, 400-405, 445. ISBN 5-901724-21-6, ISBN 978-5-901724-21-7