Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, acquired by Lenovo in 2014. Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola's home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, high-definition television, its business and government customers consisted of wireless voice and broadband systems, public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses are now part of Motorola Solutions.
Google sold Motorola Home to the Arris Group in December 2012 for US$2.35 billion. Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones. Known as the Personal Communication Sector prior to 2004, it pioneered the "mobile phone" with DynaTAC, "flip phone" with the MicroTAC, as well as the "clam phone" with the StarTAC in the mid-1990s, it had staged a resurgence by the mid-2000s with the Razr, but lost market share in the second half of that decade. It focused on smartphones using Google's open-source Android mobile operating system; the first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 2, 2009 as the Motorola Droid. The handset division was spun off into the independent Motorola Mobility. On May 22, 2012, Google CEO Larry Page announced that Google had closed on its deal to acquire Motorola Mobility. On January 29, 2014, Page announced that, pending closure of the deal, Motorola Mobility would be acquired by Chinese technology company Lenovo for US$2.91 billion.
On October 30, 2014, Lenovo finalized its purchase of Motorola Mobility from Google. Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois, as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928 when brothers Paul V. and Joseph E. Galvin purchased the bankrupt Stewart Battery Company's battery-eliminator plans and manufacturing equipment at auction for $750. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation set up shop in a small section of a rented building; the company had $565 in five employees. The first week's payroll was $63; the company's first products were the battery eliminators, devices that enabled battery-powered radios to operate on household electricity. Due to advances in radio technology, battery-eliminators soon became obsolete. Paul Galvin learned that some radio technicians were installing sets in cars, challenged his engineers to design an inexpensive car radio that could be installed in most vehicles, his team was successful, Galvin was able to demonstrate a working model of the radio at the June 1930 Radio Manufacturers Association convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
He brought home enough orders to keep the company in business. Paul Galvin wanted a brand name for Galvin Manufacturing Corporation's new car radio, created the name “Motorola” by linking "motor" with "ola", a popular ending for many companies at the time, e.g. Moviola, Crayola; the company sold its first Motorola branded radio on June 23, 1930, to Herbert C. Wall of Fort Wayne, for $30. Wall went on to become one of the first Motorola distributors in the country; the Motorola brand name became so well known that Galvin Manufacturing Corporation changed its name to Motorola, Inc. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation began selling Motorola car-radio receivers to police departments and municipalities in November 1930; the company's first public safety customers included the Village of River Forest, Village of Bellwood Police Department, City of Evanston Police, Illinois State Highway Police, Cook County Police with a one-way radio communication. In the same year, the company built its research and development program with Dan Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies, who joined the company as director of research.
The company produced the hand-held AM SCR-536 radio during World War II, vital to Allied communication. Motorola ranked 94th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Motorola went public in 1943, became Motorola, Inc. in 1947. At that time Motorola's main business was selling televisions and radios. In October 1946 Motorola communications equipment carried the first calls on Illinois Bell telephone company's new car radiotelephone service in Chicago; the company began making televisions in 1947, with the model VT-71 with 7-inch cathode ray tube. In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, the company established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor.
Varnish is a clear transparent hard protective finish or film. Varnish has little or no color and has no added pigment as opposed to paint or wood stain which contains pigment. However, some varnish products are marketed as a combined stain and varnish. Varnish is used in wood finishing applications where the natural tones and grains in the wood are intended to be visible, it is applied over wood stains as a final step to achieve a film for protection. Varnish finishes are glossy but may be designed to produce satin or semi-gloss sheens by the addition of "flatting" agents; the term "varnish" refers to the finished appearance of the product. It is not a term for any single or specific chemical formula. There are many different compositions. A distinction between spirit-drying "lacquers" and chemical-cure "varnishes" is common, but varnish is a broad term and the distinction is not strict; the word "varnish" comes from Mediaeval Latin vernix, meaning odorous resin, itself derived from Middle Greek berōnikón or beroníkē, meaning amber or amber-colored glass.
A false etymology traces the word to the Greek Berenice, the ancient name of modern Benghazi in Libya, where the first varnishes in the Mediterranean area were used and where resins from the trees of now-vanished forests were sold. Early varnishes were developed by mixing resin—pine sap, for example—with a solvent and applying them with a brush to get the golden and hardened effect one sees in today's varnishes. Varnishing was a technique well known in ancient Egypt. Varnishing is recorded in the history of East and South Asia; the Tang Chinese used medieval chemistry experiments to produce a varnish for clothes and weapons, employing complex chemical formulas applied to silk clothes of underwater divers, a cream designated for polishing bronze mirrors, many other useful formulas. Because of flammability concerns, many product containers list safety precautions for storage and disposal for varnishes and drying oils as they are flammable, materials used to apply the varnishes may spontaneously combust.
Many varnishes contain plant-derived oils, synthetic oils or resins as their binder in combination with organic solvents. These are flammable in their liquid state. A important note, over looked, all drying oils, certain alkyds, many polyurethanes produce heat during the curing process. Thus, oil-soaked rags and paper can smolder and ignite into flames several hours after use if proper precautions are not taken. Therefore, many manufacturers list proper disposal practices for rags and other items used to apply the finish, such as disposal in a water filled container. Varnish is traditionally a combination of a drying oil, a resin, a thinner or solvent. However, different types of varnish have different components. After being applied, the film-forming substances in varnishes either harden directly, as soon as the solvent has evaporated, or harden after evaporation of the solvent through curing processes chemical reaction between oils and oxygen from the air and chemical reactions between components of the varnish.
Resin varnishes "dry" by evaporation of the solvent and harden immediately upon drying. Acrylic and waterborne varnishes "dry" upon evaporation of the water but will experience an extended curing period. Oil and epoxy varnishes remain liquid after evaporation of the solvent but begin to cure, undergoing successive stages from liquid or syrupy, to tacky or sticky, to dry gummy, to "dry to the touch", to hard. Environmental factors such as heat and humidity play a large role in the drying and curing times of varnishes. In classic varnish the cure rate depends on the type of oil used and, to some extent, on the ratio of oil to resin; the drying and curing time of all varnishes may be sped up by exposure to an energy source such as sunlight, ultraviolet light, or heat. There are many different types of drying oils, including linseed oil, tung oil, walnut oil; these contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Drying oils cure through an exothermic reaction between the polyunsaturated portion of the oil and oxygen from the air.
The term "varnish" referred to finishes that were made of resin dissolved in suitable solvents, either ethanol or turpentine. The advantage to finishes in previous centuries was that resin varnishes had a rapid cure rate compared to oils. By contrast, untreated or "raw" oils may take weeks or months to cure, depending on ambient temperature and other environmental factors. In modern terms, "boiled" or polymerized drying oils with added siccatives or dryers have cure times of less than 24 hours. However, certain non-toxic by-products of the curing process are emitted from the oil film after it is dry to the touch and over a considerable period of time, it has long been a tradition to combine drying oils with resins to obtain favourable features of both substances. Many different kinds of resins may be used to create a varnish. Natural resins used for varnish include amber, kauri gum, copal, sandarac, elemi and shellac. Varnish may be created from synthetic resins such as acrylic, alkyd, or polyurethane.
A varnish formula might not contain any added resins at all since drying oils
A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over the last few centuries. In the 17th century, a frigate was any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description used being "frigate-built"; these could be warships carrying their principal batteries of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks. The term was used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships were referred to as frigates when they were built for speed. In the 18th century, frigates were as long as a ship of the line and were square-rigged on all three masts, but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their principal armaments upon a single continuous deck – the upper deck – while ships of the line possessed two or more continuous decks bearing batteries of guns. In the late 19th century, the armoured frigate was a type of ironclad warship that for a time was the most powerful type of vessel afloat.
The term "frigate" was used because such ships still mounted their principal armaments on a single continuous upper deck. In modern navies, frigates are used to protect other warships and merchant-marine ships as anti-submarine warfare combatants for amphibious expeditionary forces, underway replenishment groups, merchant convoys. Ship classes dubbed "frigates" have more resembled corvettes, destroyers and battleships; some European navies such as the French, German or Spanish ones use the term "frigate" for both their destroyers and frigates. The rank "frigate captain" derives from the name of this type of ship; the term "frigate" originated in the Mediterranean in the late 15th century, referring to a lighter galley-type warship with oars, sails and a light armament, built for speed and maneuverability. The etymology of the word remains uncertain, although it may have originated as a corruption of aphractus, a Latin word for an open vessel with no lower deck. Aphractus, in turn, derived from the Ancient Greek phrase ἄφρακτος ναῦς - "undefended ship".
In 1583, during the Eighty Years' War of 1568-1648, Habsburg Spain recovered the southern Netherlands from the Protestant rebels. This soon resulted in the use of the occupied ports as bases for privateers, the "Dunkirkers", to attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies. To achieve this the Dunkirkers developed small, sailing vessels that came to be referred to as frigates; the success of these Dunkirker vessels influenced the ship design of other navies contending with them, but because most regular navies required ships of greater endurance than the Dunkirker frigates could provide, the term soon came to apply less to any fast and elegant sail-only warship. In French, the term "frigate" gave rise to a verb - frégater, meaning'to build long and low', to an adjective, adding more confusion; the huge English Sovereign of the Seas could be described as "a delicate frigate" by a contemporary after her upper decks were reduced in 1651. The navy of the Dutch Republic became the first navy to build the larger ocean-going frigates.
The Dutch navy had three principal tasks in the struggle against Spain: to protect Dutch merchant ships at sea, to blockade the ports of Spanish-held Flanders to damage trade and halt enemy privateering, to fight the Spanish fleet and prevent troop landings. The first two tasks required speed, shallowness of draft for the shallow waters around the Netherlands, the ability to carry sufficient supplies to maintain a blockade; the third task required heavy armament, sufficient to stand up to the Spanish fleet. The first of the larger battle-capable frigates were built around 1600 at Hoorn in Holland. By the stages of the Eighty Years' War the Dutch had switched from the heavier ships still used by the English and Spanish to the lighter frigates, carrying around 40 guns and weighing around 300 tons; the effectiveness of the Dutch frigates became most evident in the Battle of the Downs in 1639, encouraging most other navies the English, to adopt similar designs. The fleets built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s consisted of ships described as "frigates", the largest of which were two-decker "great frigates" of the third rate.
Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as capable as "great ships" of the time. The term "frigate" implied a long hull-design, which relates directly to speed and which in turn, helped the development of the broadside tactic in naval warfare. At this time, a further design evolved, reintroducing oars and resulting in galley frigates such as HMS Charles Galley of 1676, rated as a 32-gun fifth-rate but had a bank of 40 oars set below the upper deck which could propel the ship in the absence of a favourable wind. In Danish, the word "fregat" applies to warships carrying as few as 16 guns, such as HMS Falcon, which the British classified as a sloop. Under the rating system of the Royal Navy, by the middle of the 18th century, the term "frigate" was technically restricted to single-decked ships of the fifth rate, though small 28-gun frigates classed as sixth rate; the classic sailing frigate, well-known today for its role in the Napoleonic wars, can be traced back to French deve
UNIVAC is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation. The name was applied to a division of the Remington Rand company and successor organizations; the BINAC, built by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation, was the first general-purpose computer for commercial use. The descendants of the UNIVAC 1107 continue today as products of the Unisys company. J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering between 1943 and 1946. A 1946 patent rights dispute with the university led Eckert and Mauchly to depart the Moore School to form the Electronic Control Company renamed Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; that company first built. Afterwards began the development of UNIVAC. UNIVAC was first intended for the Bureau of the Census, which paid for much of the development, was put in production. With the death of EMCC's chairman and chief financial backer Harry L. Straus in a plane crash on October 25, 1949, EMCC was sold to typewriter maker Remington Rand on February 15, 1950.
Eckert and Mauchly now reported to Leslie Groves, the retired army general who had managed the Manhattan Project. The most famous UNIVAC product was the UNIVAC I mainframe computer of 1951, which became known for predicting the outcome of the U. S. presidential election the following year. This incident is noteworthy because the computer predicted an Eisenhower landslide when traditional pollsters all called it for Adlai Stevenson; the numbers were so skewed that CBS's news boss in New York, decided the computer was in error and refused to allow the prediction to be read. Instead they showed some staged theatrics that suggested the computer was not responsive, announced it was predicting 8-7 odds for an Eisenhower win; when the predictions proved true and Eisenhower won a landslide within 1% of the initial prediction, Charles Collingwood, the on-air announcer, embarrassingly announced that they had covered up the earlier prediction. The United States Army requested a UNIVAC computer from Congress in 1951.
Colonel Wade Heavey explained to the Senate subcommittee that the national mobilization planning involved multiple industries and agencies: "This is a tremendous calculating process...there are equations that can not be solved by hand or by electrically operated computing machines because they involve millions of relationships that would take a lifetime to figure out." Heavey told the subcommittee it was needed to help with mobilization and other issues similar to the invasion of Normandy that were based on the relationships of various groups. Remington Rand had its own calculating machine lab in Norwalk and bought Engineering Research Associates in St. Paul, Minnesota. In 1953 or 1954 Remington Rand merged their Norwalk tabulating machine division, the ERA "scientific" computer division, the UNIVAC "business" computer division into a single division under the UNIVAC name; this annoyed those, with ERA and with the Norwalk laboratory. In 1955 Remington Rand merged with Sperry Corporation to become Sperry Rand.
The UNIVAC division of Remington Rand was renamed the Univac division of Sperry Rand. General Douglas MacArthur was chosen to head the company. In the 1960s, UNIVAC was one of the eight major American computer companies in an industry referred to as "IBM and the seven dwarfs" — a play on Snow White and the seven dwarfs, with IBM, by far the largest, being cast as Snow White and the other seven as being dwarfs: Burroughs, Univac, NCR, CDC, GE, RCA and Honeywell. In the 1970s, after GE sold its computer business to Honeywell and RCA sold its to Univac, the analogy to the seven dwarfs became less apt and the remaining small firms became known as the "BUNCH". To assist "corporate identity" the name was changed to Sperry Univac, along with Sperry Remington, Sperry New Holland, etc. In 1978, Sperry Rand, a conglomerate of various divisions, decided to concentrate on its computing interests and all of the unrelated divisions were sold; the company reverted to Sperry Corporation. In 1986, Sperry Corporation merged with Burroughs Corporation to become Unisys.
Since the 1986 merger of Burroughs and Sperry, Unisys has evolved from a computer manufacturer to a computer services and outsourcing firm, competing in the same marketplace as IBM, Electronic Data Systems, Computer Sciences Corporation. Unisys continues to design and manufacture enterprise class computers with the ClearPath and ES7000 server lines. In the course of its history, UNIVAC produced a number of separate model ranges. Early UNIVAC 1100 series models were vacuum tube computers; the original model range was the second commercial computer made in the United States. The main memory consisted of tanks of liquid mercury implementing delay line memory, arranged in 1000 words of 12 alphanumeric characters each; the first machine was delivered on 31 March 1951. The UNIVAC II was an improvement to the UNIVAC I that UNIVAC first delivered in 1958; the improvements included magnetic core memory of 2000 to 10000 words, UNISERVO II tape drives which could use either the old UNIVAC I metal tapes or the new PET film tapes, some circuits that were transistorized (
Memory is the faculty of the brain by which information is encoded and retrieved when needed. Memory is vital to experiences, it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, relationships, or personal identity. Memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning, made up of a sensory processor, short-term memory, long-term memory; this can be related to the neuron. The sensory processor allows information from the outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended to various levels of focus and intent. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor. Information in the form of stimuli is encoded in accordance with explicit or implicit functions by the working memory processor; the working memory retrieves information from stored material. The function of long-term memory is to store data through various categorical models or systems.
Explicit and implicit functions of memory are known as declarative and non-declarative systems. These systems lack thereof. Declarative, or explicit, memory is the conscious recollection of data. Under declarative memory resides episodic memory. Semantic memory refers to memory, encoded with specific meaning, while episodic memory refers to information, encoded along a spatial and temporal plane. Declarative memory is the primary process thought of when referencing memory. Non-declarative, or implicit, memory is the unconscious recollection of information. An example of a non-declarative process would be the unconscious learning or retrieval of information by way of procedural memory, or a priming phenomenon. Priming is the process of subliminally arousing specific responses from memory and shows that not all memory is consciously activated, whereas procedural memory is the slow and gradual learning of skills that occurs without conscious attention to learning. Memory is not a perfect processor, is affected by many factors.
The ways by which information is encoded and retrieved can all be corrupted. The amount of attention given new stimuli can diminish the amount of information that becomes encoded for storage; the storage process can become corrupted by physical damage to areas of the brain that are associated with memory storage, such as the hippocampus. The retrieval of information from long-term memory can be disrupted because of decay within long-term memory. Normal functioning, decay over time, brain damage all affect the accuracy and capacity of the memory. Memory loss is described as forgetfulness or amnesia. Sensory memory holds sensory information less than one second; the ability to look at an item and remember what it looked like with just a split second of observation, or memorization, is the example of sensory memory. It is an automatic response. With short presentations, participants report that they seem to "see" more than they can report; the first experiments exploring this form of sensory memory were conducted by George Sperling using the "partial report paradigm".
Subjects were presented with a grid of 12 letters, arranged into three rows of four. After a brief presentation, subjects were played either a high, medium or low tone, cuing them which of the rows to report. Based on these partial report experiments, Sperling was able to show that the capacity of sensory memory was 12 items, but that it degraded quickly; because this form of memory degrades so participants would see the display but be unable to report all of the items before they decayed. This type of memory cannot be prolonged via rehearsal. Three types of sensory memories exist. Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual information. Echoic memory is a fast decaying store of auditory information, another type of sensory memory that stores sounds that have been perceived for short durations. Haptic memory is a type of sensory memory. Short-term memory is known as working memory. Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal, its capacity is very limited: George A. Miller, when working at Bell Laboratories, conducted experiments showing that the store of short-term memory was 7±2 items.
Modern estimates of the capacity of short-term memory are lower of the order of 4–5 items. For example, in recalling a ten-digit telephone number, a person could chunk the digits into three groups: first, the area code a three-digit chunk and lastly a four-digit chunk; this method of remembering telephone numbers is far more effective than attempting to remember a string of 10 digits. This may be reflected in some countries in the tendency to display telephone numbers as several chunks of two to four numbers. Short-term memory is believed to rely on an acoustic code for storing information, to a lesser extent a visual code. Conrad found that test subjects had more difficulty recalling collections of letters that were acoustically similar (e.g. E
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
HMS Hermes (R12)
HMS Hermes was a conventional British aircraft carrier and the last of the Centaur class. Hermes was in service with the Royal Navy from 1959 until 1984, she served as the flagship of the British forces during the 1982 Falklands War. After being sold to India in 1986, the vessel was recommissioned and remained in service with the Indian Navy as INS Viraat until 2017. A crowdfunding campaign failed to preserve the ship as a museum piece; the ship was laid down by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness during World War II as HMS Elephant. Construction was suspended in 1945 but work was resumed in 1952 to clear the slipway and the hull was launched on 16 February 1953; the vessel remained unfinished until 1957, when she entered service on 18 November 1959 as HMS Hermes after extensive modifications which included installation of a massive Type 984'searchlight' 3D radar, a angled deck with a deck-edge elevator, steam catapults. With these changes she more resembled the reconstructed aircraft carrier Victorious than the other three ships in the class.
Hermes operated Supermarine Scimitar, de Havilland Sea Vixen, Fairey Gannet fixed-wing aircraft, together with Westland Whirlwind helicopters. Hermes cost £18 million, with another £1 million for electronic equipment and £10 million for aircraft in 1959. On 16 November 1961, Hermes was off Pembrokeshire in Wales when one of Hermes's helicopters carrying two Members of Parliament, Lord Windlesham and the MP for Loughborough, John Cronin, back from Hermes, which they had been visiting, to RNAS Brawdy, crashed off St David's Head. While Cronin and the helicopter's two man crew were saved by another helicopter from Hermes, Lord Windlesham and an RAF officer being carried as a passenger were killed. Civil Lord of the Admiralty John Hay said in Parliament on 2 March 1964 that "Phantoms will be operated from "Hermes", "Eagle" and the new carrier when it is built.... Our present information and advice is that the aircraft should be able to operate from "Hermes" after she has undergone her refit." This seemed optimistic, as most sources believed Victorious was the smallest carrier in commission that the modified RN F-4K versions of the Phantom could realistically have operated from.
The British spey engines replacing the USJ79 were a political necessity given they replacing the British local industry equipped P1154 while, the RR Spey, F-4 superior fuel efficiency was overshadowed by the larger engine size and inflexibility. From the smaller Hermes takeoff would be at 25k rather than 28k from Eagle And a F-4 would have to be catapulted from Hermes at much lower weight than from Eagle and combat air patrols possible would be 25 to 50 percent less duration than from Eagle, reduced from 2.00 to 2.30 hours to 1.00 to 1.30 hrs, only compensated by refueling when airborne. It was optimistically believed Hermes could replace its Vixens with F-4 speys on a one to one basis, ie 11-12 + 7-8 Buccaneers. While the Phantoms built for the RN were modified in ways similar to F-8 Crusaders for the French Navy - improving deceleration on landing - the modifications were not successful. Hermes's flight deck was too short, her arresting gear as well as her catapults were not powerful enough to recover or launch the F-4Ks though they were lighter, more economical and higher performing than their US Navy counterparts.
The Phantom trials held on Hermes in 1969–1970 proved this, though in the views of Minister of Defence, Denis Healey, the carrier could operate the most modern aircraft, but in too small numbers to be effective. While it is clear that McNamara claims that the F-4 was not safe off the USN Essex class, or 31,000-ton carriers, was rightly rejected by the civil lord of admiralty lord Hay, HCDefence Estimates debate, 64-5, it is clear that Hermes was not a viable substitute for CVA02. Lord Twiss, Lord Hill & D. K Brown History of RN constructors. Norman Friedman nbs the programme was politically and financially impossible, a case of the best being the enemy of the good. A 1966 review indicated that Hermes was surplus to operational requirements and she was offered to the Royal Australian Navy as a replacement for HMAS Melbourne. In 1968, Hermes took part in a combined exercise with the RAN, during which the carrier was visited by senior RAN officers and Australian government officials, while RAN A-4G Skyhawks and Grumman S-2 Trackers practised landings on the larger carrier.
The offer was turned down due to operating and manpower costs. Hermes served as one of four Royal Navy strike carriers in the Indian Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea until decommissioned in 1970, she could have seen action against the Egyptians when Egypt closed off the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping in May 1967 when the UK and US contemplated forming an international fleet to open the straits with force if necessary, but the idea never materialised. When the decision was made in the mid-1960s to phase out fixed wing carrier operations Hermes was slated to become a "Commando Carrier" for Royal Marine operations. Therefore, Hermes was docked down in number 10 Dock in Devonport Dockyard between 1971 and 1973, undergoing a conversion in which her arresting cables, steam catapults, 3-D radar were removed. Landing craft and berthing for 800 troops were added and her airwing became 20 Sea King helicopters. By 1976, with the Soviet submarine threat becoming apparent and through NATO pressure, a further mild conversion was performed for Hermes to become an anti-submarine warfare carrier to patrol the North Atlantic.
Hermes underwent one more conversion and new capabilities were added when she was refitted at Portsmouth from 1980 to June 1981, during which a 12° ski-jump and facilities for operating Sea Harriers were incorporated. Afte