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Naval architecture

Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electronic and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a marine vehicle. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, trials and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are required for ships being modified. Naval architecture involves formulation of safety regulations and damage-control rules and the approval and certification of ship designs to meet statutory and non-statutory requirements; the word "vessel" includes every description of watercraft, including non-displacement craft, WIG craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.

The principal elements of naval architecture are: Hydrostatics concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected while at rest in water and to its ability to remain afloat. This involves computing buoyancy and other hydrostatic properties such as trim and stability. Hydrodynamics concerns the flow of water around the ship's hull and stern, over bodies such as propeller blades or rudder, or through thruster tunnels. Resistance – resistance towards motion in water caused due to flow of water around the hull. Powering calculation is done based on this. Propulsion – to move the vessel through water using propellers, water jets, sails etc. Engine types are internal combustion; some vessels are electrically powered using solar energy. Ship motions – involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves and wind. Controllability -- involves maintaining position and direction of the vessel. While atop a liquid surface a floating body has 6 degrees of freedom in its movements, these are categorized in either rotation or translation.

Fore and aft translation is termed surge. Transverse translation is termed sway. Vertical translation is termed heave. Rotation about a transverse axis is termed pitch. Rotation about a fore and aft axis is termed roll. Rotation about a vertical axis is termed yaw. Longitudinal stability for longitudinal inclinations, the stability depends upon the distance between the center of gravity and the longitudinal meta-center. In other words, the basis in which the ship maintains its center of gravity is its distance set apart from both the aft and forward section of the ship. While a body floats on a liquid surface it still encounters the force of gravity pushing down on it. In order to stay afloat and avoid sinking there is an opposed force acting against the body known as the hydrostatic pressures; the forces acting on the body must be of the same magnitude and same line of motion in order to maintain the body at equilibrium. This description of equilibrium is only present when a floating body is in still water, when other conditions are present the magnitude of which these forces shifts drastically creating the swaying motion of the body.

The buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the body, in other words, the mass of the body is equal to the mass of the water displaced by the body. This adds an upward force to the body by the amount of surface area times the area displaced in order to create an equilibrium between the surface of the body and the surface of the water; the stability of a ship under most conditions is able to overcome any form or restriction or resistance encountered in rough seas. Structures involves selection of material of construction, structural analysis of global and local strength of the vessel, vibration of the structural components and structural responses of the vessel during motions in seaway. Depending on the type of ship, the structure and design will vary in what material to use as well as how much of it; some ships are made from glass reinforced plastics but the vast majority are steel with some aluminium in the superstructure. The complete structure of the ship is designed with panels shaped in a rectangular form consisting of steel plating supported on four edges.

Combined in a large surface area the Grillages create the hull of the ship and bulkheads while still providing mutual support of the frames. Though the structure of the ship is sturdy enough to hold itself together the main force it has to overcome is longitudinal bending creating a strain against its hull, its structure must be designed so that the material is disposed as much forward and aft as possible; the principal longitudinal elements are the deck, shell plating, inner bottom all of which are in the form of grillages, additional longitudinal stretching to these. The dimensions of the ship are in order to create enough spacing between the stiffeners in prevention of buckling. Warships have used a longitudinal system of stiffening that many modern commercial vessels have adopted; this system was used in early merchant ships such as the SS Great Eastern, but shifted to transversely framed structure another concept in ship hull design that p

Richard Lee II

Col. Richard Lee II was a Colonel, planter and Member of the Upper House and of the King's Council of Virginia. Richard II was termed "Richard the Scholar". Richard was the son of Col. Richard Lee I, "the Immigrant" and Anne Constable Richard was born at "Paradise", in Northumberland County, the estate he inherited from his father when his father died in 1664; this estate consisted of 1,350 acres, was part of Gloucester County. He may have studied law at the London Inns of Court, he seemed destined for a career in the church, but he elected rather to return to the life of a Virginia gentleman, residing at "Paradise". In 1673, when his older brother John died unmarried, Richard inherited the estate, "Machodoc". Richard removed to his new estate. Richard married Laetitia Corbin, daughter of Richard's neighbor and, Hon. Henry Corbin, Sr. and Alice Burnham. Laetitia's sister was Anne Corbin Tayloe. Soon after his marriage, Richard was elected to the House of Burgesses. In 1676 Richard became a member of the King's Council and he served in this capacity off and on until 1698.

On one such absence in 1690 he had lost his seat because of his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to William III, King of England. However, he was reinstated within a year. Richard was forced to retire from this position because of ill health; the Council was a body that served as the Governor's privy council, the Upper House of the Colonial Legislature, the Colonial Supreme Court. As early as 1680 he was Colonel of Horse in the counties of Westmoreland and Stafford, he was appointed by Sir Gov. Edmund Andros to be "Naval Officer and Receiver of Virginia Dutys for the River Potomac". Richard II, had one of the largest libraries in the Colony, he spent his whole life in study, wrote his notes in Greek, Hebrew, or Latin. It was because of this that he was termed "the scholar". Richard was a supporter of the Established Church. Richard died March 1714 at "Machodoc", Westmoreland County, his will was probated on April 27, 1715. He was buried at the old "Burnt House Fields", located near "Mount Pleasant".

Laetitia died on October 6, 1706 at "Machodoc", her tombstone can still be seen at "Mount Pleasant". Richard established his residence at the "Machodoc" plantation, located on the Potomac River, near the town of Hague, in Westmoreland County; this was a large brick house inclosed by a brick wall. The estate was inherited by his son Hon. Richard Lee III, at the time residing in London as a tobacco merchant with his family. Richard III leased his estate in Virginia to his brothers, Hon. and Henry, for "an annual rent of one peppercorn only, payable on Christmas Day". After Richard's death in 1718, the estate was sold by his wife Martha Silk, who sold it to her brother-in-law, Colonel Thomas Lee, Hon.. Thomas resided here until it burned down January 29, 1729, removed to his newly built "Stratford Hall"; the fire was so serious that the field near the old mansion at "Machodoc" where the Lee burial ground became was forever named the old "Burnt House Fields". The land was sold to Richard Lee III's only son Col. George Lee.

A new plantation was built by George who called his new estate "Mount Pleasant". The new house was built further back upon higher ground; this house burned down. John Lee, who died in infancy. Judge Richard Lee III, who married Martha Silk. Capt. Esq.& Judge,* Justice of the Peace Philip Lee, Sr. of "Blenheim", who 1) married Sarah Brooke, the daughter of Col. & Judge Thomas Brooke, Jr. and 2) Barbara Dent, widow of her uncle, Col. & Gent William Dent Sr.. Ann Lee, who married 1) Hon. William Fitzhugh, Jr. of "Eagle's Nest", King George Co. Virginia.. Francis Lee, who married Mary Barnell. Thomas Lee of "Stratford Hall", Westmoreland County, Virginia. Thomas married Hannah Harrison Ludwell, daughter of Col. Philip Ludwell II of "Greenspring", Hannah Harrison. Henry Lee I of "Lee Hall", Westmoreland County, Virginia. Henry married Mary Bland, daughter of Hon. Richard Bland, Sr. and his second wife, Elizabeth Randolph. Arthur Lee, who married an unknown Sherrad. "The Lees of Virginia: An American Legacy," Lee Family Digital Archive and Lee University, Virginia.

"The Lees of Virginia," The Society of the Lees of Virginia, The Society of the Lees of Virginia, Virginia. Paul C. Nagel, The Lees of Virginia: Seven Generations of an American Family, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Louis B. Wright, "Richard Lee II, A Belated Elizabethan in Virginia," The Huntington Library Quarterly 2:1-35.

Marie Louise Andrews

Marie Louise Andrews was an American author and editor from Indiana. She was one of the founders of the Western Association of Writers, served as its secretary from its organization until June 1888, when she retired, she wrote much in both verse and prose, but she never published her works in book form, little of her work has been preserved. Mary Louise Newland was born in Bedford, Indiana, on October 31, 1849, she was the second daughter of Dr. Benjamin Franklin Newland and Louisa Ann Newland, who were educated and considered to be intellectuals, her early life was spent in Bedford, where she was educated in private schools. She was a student at Saint Mary-of-the-Woods, in St. Agnes' Hall, Terre Haute, at Hungerford Collegiate Institute, New York, destroyed by fire shortly before commencement, so that Andrews was not formally graduated. Andrews spoke French and German, was familiar with Latin and modern language literature. In the winter of 1885–86, while working as an editor at the Indianapolis Herald and other contributors to the paper, including John C.

Ochiltree, Dr. James Newton Matthews, Richard Lew Dawson, Dr. Henry William Taylor, became the founders of the Western Association of Writers movement, discussing the idea of a writers’ association publicly through the Herald's columns. Andrews, a co-founder of the association, served as its secretary from its organization until June, 1888, when she retired from the office. Among her acquaintances were many of the prominent writers of the Western United States, at the annual conventions of the association, she was always a conspicuous member, she was remembered as a brilliant conversationalist and an effective impromptu speaker. The Western Association of Writers owed its organization and establishment to Andrews' indefatigable efforts. Andrews was not an author in the technical sense of having written a book, yet she gained a well-merited reputation as a ready and versatile writer of poems and sketches, contributing to various periodical publications, her interest in literary work was much broader than a purely personal matter.

The development of western literature, its recognition by the country and the world at large, had been on her mind for some time before she was given the opportunity to demonstrate the practicability of her ideas in the association with which her name was identified. She foresaw the growth of literature in the west, her ideas regarding that growth and of the best means of fostering it were embodied in the association, it served as a means of introducing scores of talented writers to the public. She was one of the most active promoters of the organization in its inception, was one of its most steadfast friends through the years when its continuance seemed questionable. On May 15, 1875, she married Albert M. Andrews of North Vernon, Indiana. Soon afterwards, they moved to Indiana where he worked in the pharmaceutical business, she was in Indianapolis for several winters, supervising the education of her son, Albert Charlton Andrews, her only child. Andrews died at Connersville on February 7, 1891.

CompensationThere are smiles in the morning and tears at night, The wide world over, There are hopes in the morning and prayers at night For many a rover. There are tears unwept and songs unsung, And human anguish keen, And hopes and fears and smiles and tears, But the blessings fall between! This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Johnson; the Midland Monthly Magazine. J. Brigham; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Parker, Benjamin Strattan. Poets and Poetry of Indiana: A Representative Collection of the Poetry of Indiana During the First Hundred Years of Its History as Territory and State, 1800 to 1900. Silver, Burdett; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Western Association of Writers. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Convention at Eagle Lake, Indiana, 1890. New Castle, Indiana; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wheeler, L. May. W. A. W.: souvenir of the Fourth Annual Convention at Warsaw, Indiana: July 9, 10, 11, 12, 1889.

4. Western Association of Writers; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Willard, Frances Elizabeth. American Women: Fifteen Hundred Biographies with Over 1,400 Portraits: a Comprehensive Encyclopedia of the Lives and Achievements of American Women During the Nineteenth Century. Mast, Crowell & Kirkpatrick. Browning, William. Medical heredity: distinguished children of physicians; the Norman, Remington Company. Eident, J. D.. On Prairie Winds. ISBN 978-1-329-60315-8. Works by or about Marie Louise Andrews at Internet Archive

Lauren Jackson

Lauren Elizabeth Jackson is an Australian former professional basketball player. The daughter of two national basketball team players, Jackson was awarded a scholarship to the Australian Institute of Sport in 1997, when she was 16. In 1998, she led the AIS team. Jackson joined the Canberra Capitals for the 1999 season when she turned 18 and played with the team off and on until 2006, winning four more WNBL championships. From 2010 to 2016, Jackson played with the Canberra Capitals, which she did during the Women's National Basketball Association offseason during the time she continued WNBA play. Jackson made the Australian under-20 team when she was only 14 years old and was first called up to the Australian Women's National Basketball Team when she was 16 years old, she was a member the 2000 Summer Olympics and 2004 Summer Olympics teams and captain of the 2008 Summer Olympics team, winning three silver medals. She was part of the Australian team that won the bronze at the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Jackson was a member of the Australian Senior Women's Team that won a silver medal at the 2002 FIBA World Championship for Women in China, co-captain of the team that won a gold medal at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, captain of the team that won a gold medal at the 2006 FIBA World Championship for Women in Brazil. In 2001, Jackson entered the Women's National Basketball Association draft and was selected by the Seattle Storm, which viewed Jackson as a franchise player, she won two WNBA titles with the Storm, in 2004 and 2010, the latter earning Jackson the WNBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award. Jackson ranks among the top WNBA players in played games, minutes played, field goals, three-point shots, turnover percentage. Jackson played club basketball in Europe with WBC Spartak Moscow in Russia and Ros Casares Valencia in Spain, she played in the Women's Korean Basketball League, where she was named the league's Most Valuable Player and set a league record scoring 56 points, in the Women's Chinese Basketball Association.

Jackson announced her retirement from basketball on 31 March 2016, citing a persistent knee injury as the reason for her decision. Besides her basketball career, Jackson is in the process of attaining her university degree at the Macquarie University, majoring in gender studies. Jackson will be inducted into the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame in 2020. Lauren Elizabeth Jackson, whose nicknames include "Loz", "Jacko" and "LJ", was born in Albury, New South Wales, on 11 May 1981, the oldest of two children of Gary Jackson and his wife Maree Bennie. Both her parents played for Australia's national basketball teams. Jackson inherited her height from her father, who played for the Boomers in 1975, while her mother, played for the Opals from 1974 to 1982, she played in two World Championships, for the women's basketball team at Louisiana State in the late 1980s, wearing the number 15, the number Jackson wears in her mother's honour. She was one of the first Australians to play in the American collegiate system, where she was known for her aggressive style of play and was nicknamed "the assassin".

Her parents continued to play basketball locally on the social level when Lauren and her brother were young, her family had a basketball court in their backyard when Jackson was growing up. Her grandfather played for the Western Suburbs Magpies. Jackson grew up in Albury, she earned her Higher School Certificate in Canberra while she was training with the Australian Institute of Sport. Jackson studied for a psychology degree at Lomonosov Moscow State University and continued via correspondence from America. In 2007, she was working on a university course in business management. In 2010, she was taking classes at Macquarie University in Sydney, her course work included topics like women's rights and racism. Injuries have prevented her from studying around 2010, but in 2012, she was back working on her degree, her aspirations have included becoming a United Nations diplomat, she has considered becoming an advocate for women. Her interests regarding gender studies were inspired by a book regarding the rape during the Rwandan Genocide, Jackson is an ambassador of a foundation that seeks to empower the abused women of that war.

By 2015, Jackson was trying to get a Bachelor of Gender and Diversity at the University of Canberra through distance education. As a youngster, Jackson was active in other sports, she was involved in athletics at school and played tennis, which she gave up because competitions conflicted with her ability to play basketball. She played on her school netball team, until the age of 14, giving it up because of basketball commitments. In the off season, Jackson trains by pumping weights. Jackson is 195 centimetres tall, she was this tall by the time she turned 16, after she gained 15 centimetres in height when she was 15 years old. Jackson is believed to have married basketballer Paul Byrne in 2014. Jackson's first child was born in 2017. Lauren is the most famous basketball player in Australia, a position she reached by 2003. Prior to this, Australia's most famous player was Michelle Timms, Australia's first player of either gender to play internationally, she was recognised as one of the world's best basketball players by the time she was 21.

She has been described as Australia's best female player to step on a basketball court, the best female basketball player in the world. She has said regarding being the best female basketball player in the world: "I don't think about it. Nobody talks to me like that. It's not something I'm conscious

Westward Ho Hotel and Casino

Westward Ho Hotel and Casino was a casino and hotel located on the Las Vegas Strip in Winchester, an unincorporated area of Clark County in the U. S. state of Nevada. The Westward Ho was the last large motel style property on the Strip, it was a two-story building with parking surrounding the buildings. The casino had many slot machines, a gaming pit with live dealers; the games included blackjack, roulette and Let It Ride. The Westward Ho was built based in Las Vegas; the Westward Ho opened on the Las Vegas Strip in 1963, was located between the Stardust resort and the future site of the Slots-A-Fun Casino. The rectangular 15-acre property stretched west from the Las Vegas Strip to South Industrial Road; the Westward Ho's rooms were located in low-rise motel-style buildings surrounding several pools, all located behind the eventual main casino building, which faced the Las Vegas Strip. The Westward Ho was owned and operated by Dean Petersen, along with his siblings and Murray Petersen; the Westward Ho's name was a reference to 19th century wagon trains heading west.

In 1969, the Westward Ho was advertised as having over 1,000 rooms, including those in the Satellite wing, 120 rooms in the Executive Suites. The property included a 24-hour Denny's restaurant, a slot arcade known as Nikel Nik's; the Westward Ho casino was added in 1971. The Westward Ho advertised itself as "The World's Largest Motel", was a financial success for decades after its opening; the casino's interior was featured in the 1996 film. In 1996, the Westward Ho paid a disputed $25,000 fine after an undercover Nevada Gaming Control Board agent provided $6,000 to the casino's cashier for safekeeping and received the money in smaller denominations as requested. Dean Petersen died in November 1997, at the age of 63; the Westward Ho was put on sale that month. Dean Petersen's sister, Faye Johnson, continued to operate the Westward Ho. In February 1998, it was announced that the Westward Ho and its 15-acre property would be purchased by Manhattan-based American Pastime West LLC. Johnson said, "This was an important and emotional decision after our family's longtime involvement with the growth of the gaming community in Las Vegas."

The Westward Ho was one of the few Las Vegas hotel-casinos to be owned and operated by a local family. At the time of the sale, the Westward Ho had 650 employees, 777 rooms, a 35,000 sq ft casino and a 900-seat showroom. Frank Zarro, the president of American Pastime, had no immediate plans for the Westward Ho, although he planned to acquire or build a Las Vegas golf course that could be integrated into the Westward Ho property. Up to that point, the Westward Ho had gained a repeat clientele of customers from the midwestern United States, the casino was known for its low-limit table games in comparison to other casinos on the Las Vegas Strip. In 2003, Texas-based developer Tracy Suttles made a failed attempt to purchase the Westward Ho for $78 million. According to the Westward Ho, Suttles could not provide funding to close the deal, escrow was terminated in September 2003. According to the Westward Ho, Suttles tried again to purchase the property in 2004, depositing $1 million but failing to make an additional payment of $2 million, after which escrow was terminated again following multiple extensions.

Suttles said that he did have the $2 million, that the Westward Ho agreed to loan him the shortfall, a claim to which the Westward Ho owners said there was no evidence. In June 2005, Suttles filed a lawsuit against Westward Ho Properties LLC, alleging that the owners of the hotel-casino chose not to proceed with his 2003 deal as part of an attempt to get more money for the property, which had increased in value since the time of the initial deal; the Westward Ho responded, "Since the prior deal in 2003... Suttles had represented that he had available equity and financing to consummate the purchase of the property, yet it became clear that each of these representations was untrue as he failed to meet all deadlines for depositing funds, other than the initial deposits. Sellers were led to believe that Suttles lacked any credibility whatsoever." On September 14, 2005, it was announced that the Westward Ho would close on November 17, 2005, as it was in the process of being sold to Centex Destination Properties, a division of Centex Corporation.

Centex, along with North Dakota hotel developer Tharaldson Companies, purchased the Westward Ho for $145.5 million, or $9.5 million per acre. Under the companies' agreement, Centex would act as the managing partner in a new project that would replace the Westward Ho; that month, Voyager Entertainment International announced an agreement with Centex to build a giant Ferris wheel as part of a master-planned resort to be built on the Westward Ho property. Voyager had unsuccessfully attempted to build its giant Ferris wheel on several different properties in Las Vegas; the Westward Ho closed at 5:00 p.m. on November 17, 2005. Centex's plans for the property included the possibility of multiple hotels, as well as a casino and a residential aspect. Centex considered incorporating the shell of the Westward Ho's front building – facing the Las Vegas Strip – into the design of the new project. Plans for the new project were expected to be announced by mid-2006; the Westward Ho and its 27 buildings were approved for demolition in January 2006.

The demolition debris, known as riprap, was used by the Southern Nevada Water Authority and the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee to stabilize the Las Vegas Wash. In June 2006, Centex ceded a majority of its share in the property to Thraldson Companies

USS State of Georgia (1851)

USS State of Georgia was a large steamer with powerful guns acquired by the Union Navy during the American Civil War. State of Georgia, with her crew of 113 sailors and officers, was used by the Union Navy as a gunboat in support of the Union Navy blockade of Confederate waterways; the ship—a side wheel steamer built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1851 by Vaughn & Lynn—was purchased by the Union Navy at Philadelphia on 25 September 1861 from the Philadelphia and Savannah Steamship Co.. James F. Armstrong in command; the side wheel steamer joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Hampton Roads, Virginia, on 26 November. On 22 May off Wilmington, North Carolina, she helped USS Mount Vernon and USS Victoria capture the steamer Constitution of Albany, New York, sent her to port for adjudication for trading with the enemy. Six days she and Victoria captured steamer Nassau—the former notorious blockade runner Gordon—near Fort Casswell, North Carolina; the prize—which had been carrying Enfield rifles and military stores for the Southern Army—was sent to New York City for action by the prize court.

On 26 September, State of Georgia and USS Mystic chased an unidentified schooner ashore at New Inlet, North Carolina. And destroyed her. Two days the two blockaders again cooperated in seizing English steamer Sunbeam as it attempted to run the blockade off Wilmington; the two Union ships were becoming so accustomed to working close together that they collided in the dark. She towed the monitor USS Passaic from Hampton Roads to Beaufort, North Carolina, returned to Norfolk, Virginia, on 3 January 1863 before resuming blockade duty off Wilmington. In February, she towed Union ironclad USS Nahant to Port Royal, South Carolina, but soon returned to New Inlet, North Carolina. There, she took possession of abandoned English schooner Annie of Nassau, laden with salt and medicine. On 24 March, State of Georgia and Mount Vernon chased schooner Mary Jane ashore where she was abandoned by her crew. Boat parties from the blockaders boarded the steamer towed her to deep water; the next day, the two blockaders seized blockade-running schooner Rising Daunt with a large cargo of salt.

Late in July, State of Georgia returned to Philadelphia for extensive repairs and was decommissioned there on 10 August. Recommissioned on 27 November 1863; the steamer returned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and served on blockade duty off Wilmington until forced to sail north again late in the summer of 1864 for yard work. She was decommissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 10 September 1864. Recommissioned on 5 January 1865, State of Georgia was assigned to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron for the closing months of the Civil War, she proceeded to the coast of South Carolina to join in naval operations clearing the way and supporting General William Tecumseh Sherman's path as he started marching north from Savannah, Georgia. On 24 January, she was at South Carolina, to prevent the erection of Southern batteries. In February, she participated in the operations. In March, the ship moved to Port Royal, South Carolina, remained in that vicinity through the last days of the Confederacy.

On 11 April, State of Georgia got underway from Port Royal and proceeded to Aspinwall, New Granada, to carry dispatches to the American minister at Bogota and to learn of conditions on the isthmus and to protect the interests of the United States. On 9 June, State of Georgia and USS Huntsville departed Aspinwall and proceeded to a position near Roncador Reef to rescue the survivors of the wrecked Golden Rule. After returning home late in the summer, State of Georgia was decommissioned at New York City on 9 September 1865, she was sold at public auction there on 25 October 1865 to a Capt. G. Wright and was redocumented as Andrew Johnson on 9 May 1866. On 5 October 1866, she was driven ashore at Currituck Inlet, North Carolina, during a hurricane, was a total loss. United States Navy List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here