Cultural views on the navel
The navel has been subject to many customs and taboos. Various cultures view the sexual and cultural significance of the navel differently, these views have changed over time, which has shaped social mores relating to the navel in design of clothing and social traditions and practices; the public exposure of the male and female midriff and bare navel has been taboo at times in Western cultures, being considered immodest or indecent. It was banned in some jurisdictions, with some arguing that it simulated an "erogenic orifice". Only female navel exposure was banned and not male because, it was argued, the simulation or upward displacement from vagina to navel was commonplace and obvious in women. Community perceptions have changed and exposure of female midriff and navel is more accepted today and in some societies or contexts it is both fashionable and common, though not without its critics; the exposure of the male navel has not been as controversial nor as common, is in the context of barechestedness.
Exposure of the navel by females is associated with the popularization of the bikini, of the crop top and low-rise clothing. In the United States, the Motion Picture Production Code, or Hays Code, enforced after 1934, banned the exposure of female navel in Hollywood films; the National Legion of Decency, a Roman Catholic body guarding over American media content pressured Hollywood to keep clothing that exposed certain parts of the female body, such as bikinis and low-cut dresses, from being featured in Hollywood movies. During the 1950s, Joan Collins was prohibited by the censors from exposing her navel in Land of the Pharaohs. To get around the censors' guidelines, she wore a ruby, in her navel; this technique of baring the midriff but gluing a jewel on the navel was used in many other Hollywood films featuring belly dance sequences. Kim Novak wore a ruby in her navel for the film Jeanne Eagels. I got a terrible infection from it." Marilyn Monroe, for a scene from Some Like It Hot, wore a dress that revealed skin everywhere but had a tiny piece of fabric to hide her navel.
By the 1960s, community standards had changed. Marilyn Monroe was allowed to expose her navel in Something's Got to Give and commented, "I guess the censors are willing to recognize that everybody has a navel." Ursula Andress, appearing as Honey Rider in the 1962 James Bond film, Dr. No, wore her iconic white bikini, which exposed her midriff and navel. However, when Annette Funicello was cast in her first beach movie Beach Party, Walt Disney, who held her contract, insisted that she only wear modest bathing suits and keep her navel covered, to preserve her wholesome persona, though she was the only one of the ample number of young women in the film not bikini-clad. In the 1967 film Follow That Camel, actress Anita Harris wore a jewel on her navel for a belly dance sequence; the Hays Code was abandoned soon after, with it the prohibition of female navel exposure, as well as other restrictions. The influence of the National Legion of Decency had waned by the 1960s. With the withdrawal of the Code and the change to a classification regime, the ban on the exposure of parts of the human body, regarded as immodest or indecent was withdrawn.
The exposure of the navel ceased to be controversial in the context of a general increase in nudity. During the late 1980s, Disney's heroines began exposing more skin as well. In the 1989 animated film The Little Mermaid, the animated lead protagonist, flashed her navel while wearing only fins and seashells, a first in Disney's history. In 1951, the United States Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters came into force, besides other things, prohibited female navel exposure on US television. During the 1960s, Barbara Eden was not allowed to show her navel on the US TV show I Dream of Jeannie, her pants had to be worn above the navel. After a few frames of her navel exposure went unnoticed, they decided to use fabric and skin-colored make-up to cover her navel, her costume became low rise in 1985 and In 2013, Barbara Eden attended the Life Ball event in Vienna dressed in the same costume of I Dream of Jeannie but flaunting her navel. In February 1964, Scandinavian Airlines placed an advertisement in newspapers and magazines throughout America.
It featured a bikini-clad blonde model exposing her bellybutton posing on a rock above the caption "What to show your wife in Scandinavia". The image that appeared in most publications had the belly button removed; the first exposure of a navel in a TV series occurred in 1961 on the Dr. Kildare series. Dawn Wells and Tina Louise were not allowed to expose their navels in Gilligan's Island. Wells was required to wear high-waisted shorts. Wells stated in an interview, "Oh my goodness, I designed the shorts; because it was the first short shorts on television and it had to cover my navel. Gilligan's Island gave censors headaches back in the'60s. Ginger's cleavage, Mary Ann's navel were only allowed 3 seconds an episode." The censors missed Nichelle Nichols showing her navel in the second-season Star Trek episode "Mirror, Mirror". It is believed. Another episode of Star Trek, called "A Private Little War" managed to get past the censors when Nancy Kovack's belly button was visible in some shots and not covered by jewelry as seen when the fringe from her top was not covering it.
In 1969, Mariet
The abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the frontal part of the abdominal segment of the trunk, the dorsal part of this segment being the back of the abdomen; the region occupied by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral joint to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet; the space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity. The boundary of the abdominal cavity is the abdominal wall in the front and the peritoneal surface at the rear; the abdomen contains most of the tubelike organs of the digestive tract, as well as several solid organs. Hollow abdominal organs include the stomach, the small intestine, the colon with its attached appendix. Organs such as the liver, its attached gallbladder, the pancreas function in close association with the digestive tract and communicate with it via ducts.
The spleen and adrenal glands lie within the abdomen, along with many blood vessels including the aorta and inferior vena cava. Anatomists may consider the urinary bladder, fallopian tubes, ovaries as either abdominal organs or as pelvic organs; the abdomen contains an extensive membrane called the peritoneum. A fold of peritoneum may cover certain organs, whereas it may cover only one side of organs that lie closer to the abdominal wall. Anatomists call the latter type of organs retroperitoneal. Digestive tract: Stomach, small intestine, large intestine with cecum and appendix Accessory organs of the digestive tract: Liver and pancreas Urinary system: Kidneys and ureters – but technically located in retroperitoneum – outside peritoneal membrane Other organs: SpleenAbdominal organs can be specialized in some animals. For example, the stomach of ruminants is divided into four chambers – rumen, reticulum and abomasum. In vertebrates, the abdomen is a large cavity enclosed by the abdominal muscles and laterally, by the vertebral column dorsally.
Lower ribs can enclose ventral and lateral walls. The abdominal cavity is upper part of the pelvic cavity, it is attached to the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm. Structures such as the aorta, inferior vena cava and esophagus pass through the diaphragm. Both the abdominal and pelvic cavities are lined by a serous membrane known as the parietal peritoneum; this membrane is continuous with the visceral peritoneum lining the organs. The abdomen in vertebrates contains a number of organs belonging, for instance, to the digestive tract and urinary system. There are three layers of the abdominal wall, they are, from the outside to the inside: external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominal. The first three layers extend between the vertebral column, the lower ribs, the iliac crest and pubis of the hip. All of their fibers merge towards the midline and surround the rectus abdominis in a sheath before joining up on the opposite side at the linea alba. Strength is gained by the criss-crossing of fibers, such that the external oblique are downward and forward, the internal oblique upward and forward, the transverse abdominal horizontally forward.
The transverse abdominal muscle is triangular, with its fibers running horizontally. It lies between the underlying transverse fascia, it originates from Poupart's ligament, the inner lip of the ilium, the lumbar fascia and the inner surface of the cartilages of the six lower ribs. It inserts into the linea alba behind the rectus abdominis; the rectus abdominis muscles are flat. The muscle is crossed by three fibrous bands called the tendinous intersections; the rectus abdominis is enclosed in a thick sheath formed, as described above, by fibers from each of the three muscles of the lateral abdominal wall. They originate at the pubis bone, run up the abdomen on either side of the linea alba, insert into the cartilages of the fifth and seventh ribs. In the region of the groin, the inguinal canal, a passage through the layers; this gap is where the testes can drop through the wall and where the fibrous cord from the uterus in the female runs. This is where weakness can form, cause inguinal hernias.
The pyramidalis muscle is triangular. It is located in the lower abdomen in front of the rectus abdominis, it is inserted into the linea alba halfway up to the navel. Functionally, the human abdomen is where most of the alimentary tract is placed and so most of the absorption and digestion of food occurs here; the alimentary tract in the abdomen consists of the lower esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, the cecum and the appendix, the ascending and descending colons, the sigmoid colon and the rectum. Other vital organs inside the abdomen include the kidneys, the pancreas and the spleen; the abdominal wall is split into the posterior and anterior walls. The abdominal muscles have different important functions, they assist in the breathing process as accessory muscles of respiration. Moreover, these muscles serve as protection for the inner organs. Furthermore, together with the back muscles they provide postural support and are important in defining the form; when the glottis is closed and the thorax and pelvis are fixed, they are integral in the cough, defecation, childbirth and singing functions.
The rectus abdominis muscle is crossed by three fibrous bands called the tendinous intersections or tendinous inscriptions. One is situated at the level of the umbilicus, one at the extremity of the xiphoid process, the third about midway between the two; these intersections pass obliquely across the muscle. Sometimes one or two additional intersections incomplete, are present below the umbilicus. If well-defined, the rectus abdominis is colloquially called a "six-pack"; this is due to tendinous intersections within the muscle at the level of the umbilicus, the xiphisternum, about halfway between. An well defined abdominal section can appear to be an "eight pack", as all eight sections of the abdominal muscle become defined; this definition is prominent among athletes with low body fat percentages, such as bodybuilders, mixed martial artists and track and field athletes. The tendinous intersections, in conjunction with the rectus abdominis, function to provide varying degrees of forward flexion to the lumbar region of the vertebral column, producing forward bending at the waist.
Forward flexion results in a decreased angle between the trunk and lower body. The anatomical segmentation of the rectus abdominis into three pairs of muscles and the positioning of these three pairs of muscles at different levels along the lumbar region are responsible for the forward flexion of the vertebral column: As the superior pair of rectus abdominis muscles contract, the vertebral column is able to flex forward. If more forward flexion is needed, the middle pair of rectus abdominis muscles can contract along with the distal pair to allow the vertebral column to flex forward farther. Lastly, as the inferior pair of muscles contract in conjunction with the other two muscle groups, the vertebral column is able to produce the most forward flexion and the smallest angle between the trunk and lower body; the tendinous intersections define the anatomy of the rectus abdominis and assist with physiological movement. If the rectus abdominis did not have tendinous intersections, there would be one large muscle group on each side of the linea alba.
This large muscle group would allow the vertebral column to flex forward, but would not permit a large extent of forward flexion. The forward flexion provided by tendinous intersections makes daily activities like stretching or bending over to pick up an object possible; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 415 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:35:10-0104 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior Abdominal Wall: The Rectus Abdominis Muscle" Anatomy image:7554 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Atlas image: abdo_wall60 at the University of Michigan Health System - "The Rectus Sheath, Anterior View & Transverse Section"
Embryology is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes and development of embryos and fetuses. Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology. Embryology has a long history. Aristotle proposed the accepted theory of epigenesis, that organisms develop from seed or egg in a sequence of steps; the alternative theory, that organisms develop from pre-existing miniature versions of themselves, held sway until the 18th century. Modern embryology developed from the work of von Baer, though accurate observations had been made in Italy by anatomists such as Aldrovandi and Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end. In bilateral animals, the blastula develops in one of two ways that divide the whole animal kingdom into two halves. If in the blastula the first pore becomes the mouth of the animal, it is a protostome.
The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the vertebrates. In due course, the blastula changes into a more differentiated structure called the gastrula; the gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells from which all the bodily organs and tissues develop: The innermost layer, or endoderm, give rise to the digestive organs, the gills, lungs or swim bladder if present, kidneys or nephrites. The middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton if any, blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system, including the brain, skin or carapace and hair, bristles, or scales. Embryos in many species appear similar to one another in early developmental stages; the reason for this similarity is. These similarities among species are called homologous structures, which are structures that have the same or similar function and mechanism, having evolved from a common ancestor.
Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much research into embryology has been done. Before fertilization, the female gamete produces an abundance of mRNA - transcribed from the genes that encode bicoid protein and nanos protein; these mRNA molecules are stored to be used in what will become the developing embryo. The male and female Drosophila gametes exhibit anisogamy; the female gamete is larger than the male gamete because it harbors more cytoplasm and, within the cytoplasm, the female gamete contains an abundance of the mRNA mentioned. At fertilization, the male and female gametes fuse and the nucleus of the male gamete fuses with the nucleus of the female gamete. Note that before the gametes' nuclei fuse, they are known as pronuclei. A series of nuclear divisions will occur without cytokinesis in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell known as a syncytium. All the nuclei in the syncytium are identical, just as all the nuclei in every somatic cell of any multicellular organism are identical in terms of the DNA sequence of the genome.
Before the nuclei can differentiate in transcriptional activity, the embryo must be divided into segments. In each segment, a unique set of regulatory proteins will cause specific genes in the nuclei to be transcribed; the resulting combination of proteins will transform clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into multiple fetal and adult tissues in development. Outlined below is the process that leads to tissue differentiation. Maternal-effect genes - subject to Maternal inheritance Egg-polarity genes establish the Anteroposterior axis. Zygotic-effect genes - subject to Mendelian inheritance Segmentation genes establish 14 segments of the embryo using the anteroposterior axis as a guide. Gap genes establish 3 broad segments of the embryo. Pair-rule genes define 7 segments of the embryo within the confines of the second broad segment, defined by the gap genes. Segment-polarity genes define another 7 segments by dividing each of the pre-existing 7 segments into anterior and posterior halves.
Homeotic genes use the 14 segments as pinpoints for specific types of cell differentiation and the histological developments that correspond to each cell type. Humans are deuterostomes. In humans, the term embryo refers to the ball of dividing cells from the moment the zygote implants itself in the uterus wall until the end of the eighth week after conception. Beyond the eighth week after conception, the developing human is called a fetus; as as the 18th century, the prevailing notion in western human embryology was preformation: the idea that semen contains an embryo – a preformed, miniature infant, or homunculus – that becomes larger during development. Until the birth of modern embryology through observation of the mammalian ovum by von Baer in 1827, there was no clear scientific understanding of embryology. Only in the late 1950s when ultrasound was first used for uterine scanning, was the true developmental chronology of human fetus available; the competing explanation of embryonic development was epigenesis proposed 2,000 years earlier by
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization, is a term used broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. The term applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. For example, Western culture includes countries in the Americas and Australasia, whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are European; the development of western culture has been influenced by Christianity. Western culture is characterized by a host of artistic, philosophic and legal themes and traditions; these include Judeo-Christian traditions. Christianity, including the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century as did Judaism.
Before the Cold War era, the traditional English viewpoint identified Western civilization with the Western Christian countries and culture. A cornerstone of Western thought, beginning in ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, is the idea of rationalism in various spheres of life religion, developed by Hellenistic philosophy and humanism; the Catholic Church was for centuries at the center of the development of the values, science and institutions which constitute Western civilization. Empiricism gave rise to the scientific method, the scientific revolution, the Age of Enlightenment. Influenced by earlier Ancient Near Eastern civilizations, Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of many elements of Western culture, including the development of a democratic system of government and major advances in philosophy and mathematics; the expansion of Greek culture into the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean led to a synthesis between Greek and Near-Eastern cultures, major advances in literature and science, provided the culture for the expansion of early Christianity and the Greek New Testament.
This period overlapped with and was followed by Rome, which made key contributions in law, government and political organization. After the fall of the Roman Empire, many of the classical Greek texts were translated into Arabic and preserved in the medieval Islamic world, from where the Greek classics along with Arabic advances were transmitted to Western Europe and translated into Latin during the Renaissance of the 12th century and 13th century. Western culture continued to develop with the Christianisation of Europe during the Middle Ages and the reform and modernization triggered by the Renaissance, as Greek scholars fleeing the fall of the Byzantine Empire brought classical traditions and philosophy to Western Europe. Medieval Christianity is credited with creating the modern university, the modern hospital system, scientific economics, natural law and numerous other innovations across all intellectual fields. Christianity played a role in ending practices common among pagan societies, such as human sacrifice, slavery and polygamy.
The globalization by successive European colonial empires spread European ways of life and European educational methods around the world between the 16th and 20th centuries. European culture developed with a complex range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism and mysticism and Christian and secular humanism. Rational thinking developed through a long age of change and formation, with the experiments of the Enlightenment and breakthroughs in the sciences. Tendencies that have come to define modern Western societies include the concept of political pluralism, prominent subcultures or countercultures and increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration; the West as a geographical area is undefined. More a country's ideology is what will be used to categorize it as a Western society. There is some disagreement about what nations should or should not be included in the category and at what times. Many parts of the Eastern Roman Empire are considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past.
However, in the past it was the Eastern Roman Empire that had many features now seen as "Western," preserving Roman law, first codified by Justinian in the east, as well as the traditions of scholarship around Plato and Euclid that were introduced to Italy during the Renaissance by Greek scholars fleeing the fall of Constantinople. Thus, the culture identified with West itself interchanges with time and place. Geographically, the "West" of today would include Europe together with extra-European territories belonging to the English-speaking world, the Hispanidad, the Lusosphere. Since the context is biased and context-dependent, there is no agreed definition what the "West" is, it is difficult to determine which individuals fit into which category and the East–West contrast is sometimes criticized as relativistic and arbitrary. Globalism has spread Western ideas so that all modern cultures are, to some extent, influenced by aspects of Western culture. Stereotyped views of "the West" have been labeled Occidentalism, paralleling Orienta
In fashion, the midriff is the human abdomen. The midriff is exposed when wearing some forms of swimwear; the cholis worn by Indian women exposes a thin section of midriff 4 to 5 inches. "Midriff" is an old term in the English language, coming into use before 1000 AD. In Old English it was written as "midhrif", with the old word "hrif" meaning stomach; the word fell into obsolescence after the 18th century. The word was revived in 1941 by the fashion industry to avoid use of the word "belly" which genteel women considered undesirable in reference to their bodies, as it has connotations of obesity. In some cultures, exposure of the midriff is discouraged or banned, the Western culture has been hesitant in the use of midriff-baring styles. Bill Blass commented, "It is too difficult. Women will much more wear bare-back or plunging-neckline styles." It was introduced to fashion in 1932 by Madeleine Vionnet when she offered an evening gown with strategically cut openings at the waist. Women's swimwear of the 1930s and 1940s incorporated increasing degrees of midriff exposure.
Teen magazines of late 1940s and 1950s featured similar designs of midriff-baring tops. However, midriff fashion was stated as only for beaches and informal events and considered indecent to be worn in public. However, exposure of the female midriff and navel was brought into everyday Western women's fashion in the 1960s' sexual revolution and with the popularity of halters, tube tops and crop tops in the 1970s; the cheerleading style fashions developing from the styles originating with the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders in the early 1970s played a crucial role for the popularity of midriff fashion at middle and high schools. During the 1980s, pop star Madonna appeared in bare midriff looks in her performances and music videos, which helped in spreading this fashion widely; the popularity of the bare midriff continued well due to low-rise fashion which started in the early 1990s when the British magazine The Face in its March 1993 issue cover featured Kate Moss in low-rise jeans. At the same time, the wide acceptance of navel display in Western societies, navel piercing and navel tattoos have become more common among young women.
This raised the popularity of crop tops that expose the navel. During the 1990s, many designers adapted to the trend. One way of showing the midriff that has proved popular with designers is fastening a jacket or vest at the neckline and letting it fall freely; when the wearer moves there is a flash of skin, but nothing startling. Fashion designer Carolina Herrera told, "the midriff doesn't have to be bare; the bare midriff, with flat, toned abs, became the trend in Hollywood in the 2010s. In the Spring-Summer 2015 Haute Couture show by Chanel in Paris, midriff-baring tops were a main focus. Beginning in the late 1940s, school dress codes in the United States started to ban bare midriffs. Today, many American secondary schools have dress codes dating back to the 1970s against attire that leaves the midriff exposed. An example of a test that some schools apply is to have the student raise her arms if her shirt just covers her midriff while her arms are down. If during this test the girl's navel is exposed as she raises her arms she will be prohibited from wearing that shirt to school any more.
Shirts that expose part or all of a girl's navel when her arms are down are completely prohibited. Although more tolerated with younger girls, older female students those over 18 years of age, can be disciplined for exposing their navels on school campuses; as an example, the dress code of the Sherman Independent School District in Texas requires that "there must be no exposure of the midriff area or undergarments. The midriff area must not be seen while bending over, while standing, raising arms, stretching." Most secondary schools ban the wearing of navel jewelry, punishments for female students seen with bare midriffs are enhanced if her navel was bearing jewelry at the time of the exposure. In 2002, East Valley High School in Spokane Valley, Washington specified guidelines about inappropriate clothing in the school's student planner and handbook which includes "clothing that reveals the midriff". In 2004, the Board of Education of Meriden, brought a dress code that banned shirts, blouses that expose the top of the shoulders, spaghetti tops, any clothing that exposed the waist, midriff or hips.
Indian women have traditionally worn saris that bare the midriff South Indian women. The gap on the midriff between sari and the choli presented the elegance of a woman's graceful sway of her gait. A possible cultural justification is that in ancient Indian tradition, the navel of the God Vishnu the Protector is considered to be the center of the universe and the source of life. From his navel a new world of the future emerges; this has been depicted in many ancient Indian sculptures as a lotus emerging from the navel on which God Brahma the Creator is seated. Due to this the midriff is set to be left bare in a sari. Another reason could be the hot tropical climate of India. Rathi Vinay Jha, director general of the Fashion Design Council of India told, "The bare midriff keeps you cool"; the sari adapts to a woman's body, rather than defining it, allowing for pregnancy and otherwise