The Navy Cross is the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat. The Navy Cross is awarded to a member of the United States Navy, Marine Corps, the Coast Guard for extraordinary heroism; the medal is equivalent to the Army Distinguished Service Cross, the Air Force Cross, the Coast Guard Cross. The Navy Cross is bestowed by the Secretary of the Navy and may be awarded to members of the other armed services, to foreign military personnel while serving with the U. S. naval services. The Navy Cross was established by Act of Congress and approved on February 4, 1919; the Navy Cross was instituted in part due to the entrance of the United States into World War I. Many European nations had the custom of decorating heroes from other nations, but the Medal of Honor was the sole U. S. award for valor at the time. The Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and Distinguished Service Medal in 1918, while the Navy followed suit in 1919, retroactive to 6 April 1917.
The Navy Cross was lower in precedence than the Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, because it was awarded for both combat heroism and for "other distinguished service". Congress revised this on 7 August 1942, making the Navy Cross a combat-only decoration that follows the Medal of Honor in order of precedence. Since the medal was established, it has been awarded more than 6,300 times, it was designed by James Earle Fraser. Since the 11 September attacks the Navy Cross has been awarded 47 times, with two of them having the name of the recipient held in secret. One of those secret awardings was due to actions during the 2012 Benghazi attack; the first actual recipient of the Navy Cross is unknown because initial awards were made from a lengthy list published after World War I. The Navy Cross may be awarded to any member of the U. S. Armed Forces while serving with the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard who distinguishes himself or herself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor.
The action must take place under one of three circumstances: In combat action while engaged against an enemy of the United States. The act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger, or at great personal risk, must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual's action conspicuous among others of equal grade, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross; as authorized, the Navy Cross could be awarded for distinguished non-combat acts, but legislation of 7 August 1942 limited the award to acts of combat heroism. The Navy Cross was the Navy's third-highest decoration, after the Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal. On 7 August 1942, Congress revised the order of precedence, placing the Navy Cross above the Distinguished Service Medal in precedence. Since that time, the Navy Cross has been worn before all other awards. Additional awards of the Navy Cross are denoted by gold or silver 5⁄16 inch stars affixed to the suspension and service ribbon of the medal.
A gold star would be issued for each of the second through fifth awards, to be replaced by a silver star which would indicate a sixth award. To date no one has received more than five awards. MedalThe earliest version of the Navy Cross featured a more narrow strip of white, while the so-called "Black Widow" medals awarded from 1941 to 1942 were notable for the dark color due to over-anodized finish; the medal is similar in appearance to the British Distinguished Service Cross. Obverse: The medal is a modified cross pattée one and a half inches wide; the ends of its arms are rounded whereas a conventional cross patée has arms that are straight on the end. There are four laurel leaves with berries in each of the re-entrant arms of the cross. In the center of the cross a sailing vessel is depicted on waves; the vessel is a symbolic caravel of the type used between 1480 and 1500. Fraser selected the caravel because it was a symbol used by the Naval Academy and because it represented both naval service and the tradition of the sea.
The laurel leaves. Reverse: In the center of the medal, a bronze cross pattée, one and a half inches wide, are crossed anchors from the pre-1850 period, with cables attached; the letters USN are evident amid the anchors. Service RibbonThe service ribbon is navy blue with a center stripe of white identical to the suspension ribbon of the medal; the blue alludes to naval service.
Ute people are Native Americans of the Ute tribe and culture and are among the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People. They have lived in the regions of present-day Utah and Colorado for centuries, hunting and gathering food. In addition to their home regions within Colorado and Utah, their hunting grounds extended into Wyoming, Oklahoma and New Mexico, they had sacred grounds outside of their home domain that were visited seasonally. Spiritual and ceremonial practices were observed by the Utes. There were twelve historic bands of Utes whose culture was influenced by neighboring Native Americans. Although they operated in family groups for hunting and gathering, they came together for ceremonies and trading; the Utes traded with other Native American tribes and Puebloans. When they made contact with early Euro-Americans, such as the Spanish, they traded with them. After they acquired horses from the Spanish, their lifestyle changed affecting their mobility, hunting practices, tribal organization.
Once defensive warriors, they became adept horsemen and warriors, raiding other Native Americans and Puebloans. Their prestige was based upon the number of horses they owned and their horsemanship, tested during horse races. Once the American West began to be inhabited by gold prospectors and settlers in the mid-1800s, the Utes were pressured off their ancestral lands, they entered into treaties to hold on to some of their land and were relocated to reservations. A few of the key conflicts during this period include the Walker War, Black Hawk War, the Meeker Massacre, they are now living in Utah and Colorado, within three Ute tribal reservations: Uintah-Ouray in northeastern Utah. The majority of Ute are believed to live on one of these reservations. Utah is named after these people; the origin of the word Ute is unknown. The Utes' self-designation is based upon núuchi-u, meaning'the people.' Ute people are from the Southern subdivision of the Numic-speaking branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, which are found entirely in the Western United States and Mexico.
The name of the language family was created to show that it includes both the Colorado River Numic language dialect chain that stretches from southeastern California, along the Colorado River to Colorado and the Nahuan languages of Mexico. It is believed that this Numic group originated near the present-day border of Nevada and California spread North and East. By about 1000, there were hunters and gatherers in the Great Basin of Uto-Aztecan ethnicity that are believed to have been the ancestors of the Indigenous tribes of the Great Basin, including the Ute, Shoshone, Hopi and Chemehuevi peoples; some ethnologists postulate that the Southern Numic speakers, the Ute and Southern Paiute, left the Numic homeland first, based on language changes, that the Central and the Western subgroups spread out toward the east and north, sometime later. Shoshone and Comanche are Central Numic, Northern Paiute and Bannock are Western Numic; the Southern Numic-speaking tribes—the Utes, Southern Paiute, Chemehuevi— share many cultural and linguistic characteristics.
There were ancestral Utes in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah by 1300, living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. The Ute occupied much of the present state of Colorado by the 1600s, they were followed by the Comanches from the south in the 1700s, the Arapaho and Cheyenne from the plains who dominated the plains of Colorado. The Utes came to inhabit a large area including most of Utah and central Colorado, south into the San Juan River watershed of New Mexico; some Ute bands stayed near their home domains. Hunting grounds extended further into Utah and Colorado, as well as into Wyoming, Oklahoma and New Mexico. Winter camps were established along rivers near the present-day cities of Provo and Fort Duchesne in Utah and Pueblo, Fort Collins, Colorado Springs of Colorado. Aside from their home domain, there were sacred places in present-day Colorado; the Tabeguache Ute's name for Pikes Peak is Tavakiev. Living a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle, summers were spent in the Pikes Peak area mountains, considered by other tribes to be the domain of the Utes.
Pikes Peak was a sacred ceremonial area for the band. The mineral springs at Manitou Springs were sacred and Ute and other tribes came to the area, spent winters there, "share in the gifts of the waters without worry of conflict." Artifacts found from the nearby Garden of the Gods, such as grinding stones, "suggest the groups would gather together after their hunt to complete the tanning of hides and processing of meat."The old Ute Pass Trail went eastward from Monument Creek to Garden of the Gods and Manitou Springs to the Rocky Mountains. From Ute Pass, Utes journeyed eastward to hunt buffalo, they spent winters in mountain valleys. The North and Middle Parks of present-day Colorado were among favored hunting grounds, due to the abundance of game. Cañon Pintado, or painted canyon, is a prehistoric site with rock art from Fremont Utes; the Fremont art reflect an interest in agriculture, including corn stalks and use of light at different times of the year to show a planting calendar. There are images of figures holding shields, what appear to be battle victims, spears.
James E. Brau is an American physicist at the University of Oregon who conducts research on elementary particles and fields, he founded the Oregon experimental high energy physics group in 1988 and served as director of the UO Center for High Energy Physics from 1997–2016. Prior to joining the Oregon faculty, he served in the Air Force and held positions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and the University of Tennessee, he is a fellow of both the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2006 he was appointed the Philip H. Knight Professor of Natural Science, an endowed professorship. James Edward Brau, son of Rose and James Ernest Brau, was born in 1946 in Tacoma, Washington, in the U. S, he was graduated in 1965 from Lincoln High School in Tacoma. Brau received an appointment from Rep. Thor Tollefson to the United States Air Force Academy, where he double-majored in physics and mathematics, earning a Bachelor of Science in 1969, he earned a Scientiæ Magister degree in physics in 1970 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology working with advisor Irwin A. Pless.
While in the Air Force he took graduate classes at the University of New Mexico in 1972–1973. Based on data collected at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory with research advisor Richard K. Yamamoto, in January 1978 he earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree in physics at MIT, he was supported by a Fannie and John Hertz Foundation Fellowship from 1969–70 and 1974–77. Brau has two adult sons and four grandchildren. Brau served in the Guidance Test Directorate at Holloman Air Force Base in 1970–1971, in the Theoretical Branch of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland Air Force Base during 1971–1974, working with Gregory Canavan. At Kirtland Brau carried out theoretical studies of laser-target interactions, electromagnetic pulse, charged particle beams, he served as chief of the General Physics Group in 1973–1974, resigned his Air Force commission in 1974 as a captain. He was a research associate at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the bubble chamber experimental research group from 1978–1982.
There he was responsible for the hybrid bubble chamber facility's lead glass detector, in collaboration with colleagues from Duke University, Florida State University and the University of Tennessee. On the physics faculty at the University of Tennessee from 1982–1988, he continued investigations of photoproduction of charmed particles and vector mesons at SLAC, he joined the SLD Collaboration, beginning preparations for an experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider. He studied the design of a uranium calorimeter for SLD and in 1985 published an analysis in collaboration with Tony A. Gabriel — the first to show that despite earlier experimental work, compensation cannot be achieved with liquid argon readout. Using Monte Carlo calculations and Gabriel showed the importance of low energy neutron interactions with the readout medium hydrogen to achieve compensation. Brau joined the physics faculty at the University of Oregon in 1988, establishing the first Oregon experimental particle physics group to collaborate with Oregon's existing particle theory group.
During early years at Oregon, Brau’s research continued to be based on the SLAC Linear Collider where he collaborated on the SLD experiment. He led the design and operation of an innovative silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter luminosity monitor. During the active period of the Superconducting Supercollider Brau joined the GEM detector project; when the SSC was terminated in 1993, he was appointed project manager for the SLD vertex detector upgrade at SLAC, led the project which produced a 307,000,000 pixel CCD vertex detector for SLD. The University of Oregon established the Center for High Energy Physics in 1997, with Brau as founding director; the Center sponsors seminars, visiting scientists, interactions between theoretical and experimental physicists, supports graduate students. Brau led the Oregon group into the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Scientific Collaboration in 1997, he has been a leader in the worldwide collaboration to design and build the International Linear Collider.
Brau’s research group participated in the NuTeV experiment at Fermilab and BaBar at PEP-II at SLAC before applying to join the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in 2005. Brau leads the UO group of faculty, postdoctoral researchers and graduate students at the LHC; the UO experimental group has grown to include 30 researchers, including five faculty, as well as post-doctoral students, graduate students and undergraduates. The group has been supported since 1988 by a total of more than US$30 million in grants from the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. Brau has served on numerous advisory panels and review committees, including the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Advisory Panel from 2005–2008, he co-chaired the organizing committee of the World-wide Study of the Physics and Detectors for Future Linear electron-positron Colliders from 2002–2014. In December 2016 Brau was named "Associate Director for Physics and Detector